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Oct-Dec, 2021

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Effect of Some Ornamental Plants for Phytoremediation of Contaminated Soil with Some Heavy Metals
I. Vinca rosea L.


Thanaa M. Ezz, Wafaa H. Mohamed, Bothaina M. Labib and Eman A. Mohamed

ABSTRACT: Phytoremediation considered as a process which uses green plants for the relief, transfer, stabilization, degradation of pollutants from soil. This research aimed to evaluate the effect of Vinca rosea L. from herbs, for phytoremediation of contaminated soil with heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, and copper. The used treatments were control, cadmium (1, 2, and 3 mg/L) in the form of cadmium acetate, lead (200, 400, and 600 mg/L) in the form of lead nitrate and copper (100, 200, and 300 mg/L) at form copper sulfate, on fresh biomass (g), the content of cadmium, lead and copper (mg/Kg) in different plant parts of Vinca rosea L. Results, showed that all treatments of cadmium, lead and copper significantly decreased fresh biomass compared to control in the two seasons respectively for leaves, stems and roots. On the other hand, all treatments of cadmium, lead and copper significantly increased the content of cadmium, copper for leaves, stems and roots compared to control in both seasons respectively. Data also cleared that, a significant increase in content of cadmium, lead, and copper in soil was obtained by all treatments of cadmium, lead, and copper compared to control in the two seasons.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1045-1054 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.4.70

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Irrigation Intervals and Grazing Intensity Induced Variations in Growth and Chemical Components of Periploca Angustifolia (Labill) Grown In North Sinai

El-Houssini A.A. , El-Henawy A.A., El Shesheny M. A.and Abd El-Maboud M. M.

ABSTRACT: Two field trials were conducted in the experimental farm of Baloza Research Station, located at North Sinai. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of irrigation intervals (2, 3 and 4 weeks) and cutting heights (30 and 60 cm above the ground surface) on growth parameters and chemical contents of Periploca angustifolia (Labill) plants. Obtained results indicated that most of growth parameters were decreased in response to various irrigation intervals. Carbohydrates, lipids and K contents (in leaves) were decreased due to irrigation intervals, while the reverse was observed in protein. On the other hand, carbohydrate and K contents in stems were increased as irrigation intervals increased while the reverse was true in protein, lipids and ash contents. No changes were found in various growth parameters with increasing cutting height from 30 to 60 cm except in plant dry weight in the first and second cut, fresh weight and leaf area in the second cut which were decreased with increasing cutting height. With increasing cutting height, carbohydrate was higher; nevertheless, protein and K were lower in leaves. In the opposite side, carbohydrate was lower while protein and lipids were higher at 60 cm cutting in stem.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1055-1062 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.4.71

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Peroxidase Isozyme Activity in Parsley and Celery Using Efficient Microbes, Kitchen Wastes and Other Combinations of Bio and Organic Fertilizers

Mona M. Yousry

ABSTRACT: Pot experiments were carried out in the greenhouse at the faculty of Agriculture (Saba Basha), Alexandria University, Egypt, in 2017/2018 season to estimate the response of parsley (Petroselinum crispum Mill) and celery [(Apium graveolens L.) Balady sp.] to different combinations of bio and organic fertilizers i.e. [1-Chicken manure, 2- (Kitchen wastes + LAB (lactobacillus spp.), 3- (Peat moss+ Yeast + Molasses), 4-Seaweed algae, 5- plant compost, and 6- Control NPK ] on seed germination period, percentage and vegetative growth characters. A completely randomized block design with four replicates for each of them were carried out. According to the results, vegetative growth parameters, shoot length (cm), shoot and root fresh and dry weight, and concentrations of N, P, K, Zn, Mn and Fe in parsley and celery leaves significantly increased by the application of Chicken manure, (Kitchen wastes + LAB), (peat moss +Yeast+ Molasses), Seaweed algae and plant compost treatments, gave the highest mean values of the given characters, meanwhile the control treatment gave the lowest mean values. Also, these combinations of bio and organic fertilizers reduced the long time of seed germination period and increased seed germination percentages of parsley and celery. Isozyme analysis discussed the performance of peroxidase activities on two types of leafy vegetables mentioned above. The results showed that the banding pattern activity of the treatment (A-1, 2 and 3), displayed a unique marker bands at four loci (Px.C1and Px.C2) and (Px.A1and Px.A2 loci) are polymorphic specifically to parsley plant. In the same trend the treatment (B-1, 2 and 3) can be conducted that the peroxidase patterns in celery plant leaves showed in total of four loci (Px.C1, Px. C2, Px. A1 and Px.A2).Therefore, the best treatments were detected in parsley and celery when treated with Chicken manure, (Kitchen wastes + LAB), (Peat moss+ Yeast + Molasses) and seaweed algae to obtain healthy and safety food.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1063-1079 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.4.72

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Antioxidant Glutathione Impacts on Faba Bean Plants Grown Under Drought Stress Conditions

Salwa A. Orabi, Amany A. Ramadan and Manal F. Mohamed

ABSTRACT: Drought as abiotic stress create the reactive oxygen species (ROS) responsible for drastically hinder of plants growth and productivity via alternations in their physiological and biochemical processes. So, the objective of this study was to examine the possibility of using the antioxidants like glutathione as foliar spray on Vicia faba plants to eliminate the adverse effect of drought stress. A pot experiment was conducted at the wire house of the National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt; to study the effect of foliar treatment with glutathione (100 and 200 ppm) under water stress (different irrigation intervals 4, 8 and 12 days; skipping irrigation) to elucidate drought influence on growth, some physiological and biochemical attributes of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) plants. Data showed that increasing water stress duration induced reduction in all growth parameters (Plant height, number of leaves and shoot dry weights/plant) compared with those of the untreated plants irrigated every 4 days. Drought stress led to increases in the enzymatic (APX, GR and PPO), non-enzymatic components (Total phenols, proline, GSH and DPPH) and lipid peroxidation levels. Foliar treatments of 100 and 200 ppm of glutathione led to an increment in growth parameters and yield components on stressed and unstressed plants. Also, increase the enhancement of leaves organic solutes (Phenols, proline, glutathione and total antioxidants). In the same time, the antioxidant enzymes increased and lipid peroxidation decreased due to glutathione treatments compared to corresponding control. Moreover, there are a strong positive correlation coefficient between No. of seed/plant, seed yield/plant and the morphological parameters (Shoot length, No. of leaves and shoot dry weight). Meanwhile, strong negative correlation coefficient with MDA was detected. It could be concluded that glutathione increased Vicia faba plants tolerance to water deficiency stress.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1080-1092 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.4.73

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Enhancing Yield and Quality of Sugar Beet through Combining of N and P Fertilizers with Application of Biofertilizer

Basma R. A. Rashwan, Hassouna B. A. and Shaimaa H. F. Abo Zaed

ABSTRACT: A field experiment was carried out at Mallawi Agriculture Research Station, Minia Governorate, Egypt, during the two successive seasons (2018/2019 and 2019/2020). The experiments were allocated in a spilt plot design with three replicates. The main plots assigned to four biofertilization treatments i.e. control, Azospirllium ssp, Pseudomonas ssp and mixture of Azospirllium ssp and Pseudomonas ssp). The sub plots were devoted for three levels of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers (50, 75, and 100% of RD "(90 kg N) and 31 kg P2O5 (15.5%)". Sugar beet plant growth, microbial densities in the rhizosphere, root yield, Physical and chemical properties of sugar beet roots and recoverable sugar yield (tonfed) were studied. Generally application of the above mentioned fertilizers individually or interaction resulted in a significant effect on all the studied traits in both seasons as compared with the control. On one hand the biofertilizer consisted of a mixture of Azospirllium ssp and Pseudomonas ssp recorded the highest values of microbial densities in the rhizosphere, plant growth parameters root yield, recoverable sugar yield (ton/fed), physical and chemical properties of roots and obtained sugar compare with other treatments?. On the other hand, treatment of 100% of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers gave the highest values of all the studied characters. The interactions between biofertilizers, nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers significantly affected the studied traits in both seasons. Under the conditions of present work, the results suggest that sugar beet inoculated with a mixture of Azospirllium ssp, Pseudomonas ssp combined with 75 % RD of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers (204.5 &150 kg/fed) is highly recommended to obtain the highest yield of sugar beet.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1093-1104 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.4.74

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Hot Water Treatment Enhanced Rapid Germination of Cane Setts and Reduced the Incidence of Pineapple Disease [Ceratocystis paradoxa (Dade) Moreau.] Significantly

Ayodele M. Ajayi, Olabisi T. Hamzat and Oluwole O. Oladele

ABSTRACT: Hot water, at 42 oC and 52 oC, as separate therapeutic and prophylactic treatments, were evaluated for the management of pineapple disease of sugarcane. Ceratocystis paradoxa, the causal organism of pineapple disease was isolated from infected sugarcane, while the test crop was DTS 44-33 sugarcane variety. Therapeutic hot water treatment of setts was achieved by infecting cane setts with 107 spore suspension of C. paradoxa for 72 hrs before immersion in hot water for 30 minutes. Prophylactic treatment, cane setts were submerged in hot water before infection with C. paradoxa. Infected setts without hot water treatment forms the control, while the standard check was made up of setts treated with Mancozeb fungicide before infection with the pathogen. The results showed that significant (p ˂ 0.05) differences in percentage germination, the incidence of pineapple diseases, growth and yield parameters. Cane sett subjected to 52 oC prophylactic hot water treatment had the highest percentage germination (88.15%), the lowest incidence of pineapple diseases (8.30%) and the highest fresh weight (140.67 tons/ha). The therapeutic treatment at the same temperature gave significantly lower values for these parameters. Prophylactic hot water treatment may be recommended for the management of pineapple disease of sugar cane.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1105-1115 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.4.75

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Adaptation of Coriander Plants by Different Types of Fertilizers with Foliar Spraying of Boron to Improve Growth and Productivity

Rania M.R. Khater and Salama Y.A.M

ABSTRACT: This investigation was carried out at North of Sinai, Egypt D.R.C. during two successive seasons i.e. 2017/ 2018 and 2018/2019, to study the effect of different types of fertilizers, boron and their interactions on the growth, yield and essential oil of Coriandor sativum plants. The design of the experiment was split plot included 12 treatments and 3 replicates, main plot included adding organic matter , sub-plot using Boric acid H3BO3 (17 % B) as foliar spray Results regarding the effect of adding organic matter treated plants with the organic matter humic acid plus Bio-fertilizer, together the best results were given for all growth characteristics. On the other hand, the results indicated that the effect of spraying with different concentrations of boron led to a significant increase when foliar spraying of boron 10 mg/l it gave increase in values all characteristics under studied during the first and second season on the other hand, the interaction between organic matter and foliar application of boron resulted in a significant increase in the characteristics of growth (plant height, number of branches and weight of fruits / plant) and in the yield parameters (fruit weight / feddan, oil percentage, oil content / plant and feddan) Where recorded treatment (humic acid + bio-fertilizers) plus foliar application of boron 10 mg / l the best values in both seasons. Otherwise, sabinene, β-terpenine and geranyle acetate were absent when the plant was treated with humic acid with 20 mg/l of boron, while linaly acetate and geranyle acetate did not appear when the plant was treated with biofertilization alone, as well as in both sabinene and borneol compounds were not present in Biofertilizer with10 mg/l. β-cymene was not present in both treatments (humic acid with Biofertilizer) + 10 mg/l of boron and (humic acid, Biofertilizer with 20 mg/l of boron. In addition, the highest amounts of essential oil components such as linalool, geraniol and limonene that recorded the values of 55.56 %, 26.65 % and 5.31 %, respectively.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1116-1129 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.4.76

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Fields Preparation Techniques for Rice Production: Impacts on Selected Soil Heavy Metals Concentration and Rice Yield in Lowlands of Southeastern Nigeria

Nwite, John C. and Okorie, H.C.

ABSTRACT: Field study was conducted in lowland research farm of Federal College of Agriculture, Ishiagu, in 2018 and 2019 to evaluate field preparation techniques effect on selected heavy metals concentration and rice yield in lowlands of Ebonyi State. A randomized complete block design was employed for the study. Field preparation employed include; Cleared, tilled, seedlings-transplanted and hand weeding (C/T/ST//HW) technique; Non-selective herbicide applied, cleared, tilled, seedlings-transplanted and herbicide for weeding (N-H/C/T/ST); Applied non-selective herbicide, cleared, broadcasted seeds and herbicide for weeding (N-H/C/B); Applied Non-selective herbicide, broadcasted and herbicide for weeding (N-H/B); Cleared, tilled, seedlings-transplanted and herbicides for weeding (C/T/ST/S); Applied Non-selective herbicide, cleared, tilled, seedlings-transplanted and hand weeding (NHw/
C/T/ST/Hw). Results indicated field preparation with N-H/C/B produced the highest significant (p< 0.05) (1.94 mg Kg-1) concentration of cadmium in first year, while plots with N-H/C/T/ST/Hw recorded the least (0.97 mg Kg-1) concentration of cadmium. In second year, N-H/B plots gave highest concentration of cadmium level (2.71 mg Kg-1), as plots with N-H/C/T/ST/Hw produced least (0.78 mg Kg-1) concentration. Lead accumulation was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in N-H/C/T/ST and C/T/ST/S (0.05 mg Kg-1 and 0.053433 mgKg-1), respectively, in first year over other plots. In the second year, lead concentration was significant (0.08 mg Kg-1) in N-H/B plots. Yield results also showed that N-H/C/T/ST/Hw plots significantly improved the grain yield (8.40 t ha-1) higher than the others in the second year. It is concluded that N-H/C/T/ST/Hw field preparation technique which recorded the least cadmium and lead concentration on top soil gave as well the best rice grain yield.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1130-1137 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.4.77

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Hydraulic Performance of Drip Irrigation System in a Sloped Greenhouse and Effects on Cucumber (Cucumis sativus, L.) Yield and Water Productivity

Hisham M. Mohammed, Alwaleed M. Hassan, Mohammed E. Hassan and Zulfa N. Hassan

ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to study the effects of land slope on hydraulic performance and water productivity of cucumber under drip irrigation system in greenhouse. The greenhouse under study was divided into two sections and were identified simply as Sec A and Sec B. Sec A has its flow uphill while Sec B flow downhill. The hydraulic performance parameters like average emitter discharge (q), discharge variation (Qvar), coefficient of variation (Cv%), water application uniformity (AU%), uniformity coefficient (CU%), uniformity coefficient (DU%) and statistical uniformity (Us%)Plant parameters such as plant height (cm), stem diameter (mm), yield (ton/ha) and water productivity (kg/m3) were determined. There were a significant differences (P≤0.05) on all the hydraulic performance parameters. The recorded discharge rate along the lateral was 0.38 and 0.64 l/h for section (A) and section (B), respectively. Qvar % for section (A) classified as unacceptable while section (B) was acceptable. Cv% for section (B) was found to be less than 20 % (Good) while in section (A) were more than 20 % (unacceptable). Section (A) recorded the lowest values 50, 60, 30 and 50% while section (B) recorded the highest values 80, 82, 69 and 78% for AU%, CU%, DU% and Us%, respectively. Section (A) values classified as unacceptable, unacceptable, poor and unacceptable while section (B) was fair, good, acceptable and acceptable for AU%, CU%, DU% and Us%, respectively. The analysis showed that there were no significant differences between section (A) and section (B) on plant height but there were a significant differences (P≤0.05) on stem diameter (mm), yield and water productivity. The highest yield value of 3.78 ton/ha was observed at section (B) and the lowest 1.89 ton/ha was observed in section (A), these low yield is due to Due to the difficulty of water distribution or the irregularity of water distribution. The highest water productivity value of 38 kg/m3 was observed at section (B) and the lowest 29.3 kg/m3 in section (A).This study recommended that good leveling is the best practices in greenhouse because it leads to good hydraulic performance and high yield.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1138-1148 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.4.78

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Characteristic Similarities between Agri-Food Marketing in Bottom of the Pyramid- Subsistence Markets and Digital Marketing

Martin Hilmi

ABSTRACT: The main aim of the research was to attempt to ascertain, assess and diagnose the characteristic similarities between agri-food marketing specifically in the bottom of the pyramid-subsistence markets (BOP-SM) and digital marketing. The research found a total of 33 characteristics that were identical or similar between agri-food marketing in BOP-SM and digital marketing. These characteristic findings provide that both typologies of marketing have more in common, then they have in divergence. For example, both typologies of marketing are relational in nature and in essence; commonly they foster personalization and customization and are prone to be dialogical as per the interactivity implied; both are visual and can be oral, even though in terms of digital marketing this may mean not only voice to voice marketing messages over mobile phones, but recorded oral marketing messages that are also visual and interactive in nature; such orality can be language sensitive and provide for target marketing messaging in local languages and dialects. However as per the relative and comparative lack of literature on agri-food digital marketing specifically in BOP-SM contexts far more research is required on this subject matter area, and possibly the 33 characteristics found by this research may provide some guidance for such research. Further within the realm of agri-food digital marketing further research is also needed in terms of the mesomarketing and macromarketing aspects of such a subject matter area.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1149-1172 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.4.79

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Effect of Cold Stratification and GA3 on Deshelled Seeds Germination and Seedlings Growth of Bitter Almond

Abou Rayya M. S., Nabila E. K., Malaka A. S. and Thanaa Sh. M. Mahmoud


ABSTRACT: Bitter almond rootstock can resist drought and soil pests. Therefore, it is used as a rootstock for almond trees. Seeds have two types of dormancy; endocarp and embryo dormancy, so before germination, some chemical and physiological treatments must occur in the seeds to contribute to the speed and regularity of germination, which is desirable, especially for commercial production. A nursery experiment was conducted during 2017/2018 & 2018/2019 at Kalubia governorate, Egypt to evaluate the effects of cold stratification (CS) periods (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 weeks) and gibberellic acid (GA3) concentrations (0, 100, 200, 300 ppm) on de-shelled bitter almond seed germination rate, mean germination time, and growth of produced seedlings. The highest germination percentage (80.4%) and lowest mean germination time (13.8 days) were obtained by combining CS periods for 6 weeks with GA3 at 300 ppm. The better seedlings growth parameters; stem and root length, diameter, fresh and dry seedlings weight, number of lateral shoots, number of roots and number of leaves/seedling were obtained from an application of the GA3 at 300 ppm plus CS for 6 and 8 weeks without any significant differences between them at the same concentration. As a result, it was concluded that treating bitter almond seeds with a high concentration of gibberellin has shortened the stratification period required for seeds germination. Thus, CS for 6 weeks and applications GA3 at 300 ppm can be recommended to break dormancy de-shelled seeds to increase seed germination rate and enhance the growth of produced bitter almond seedlings.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1173-1181 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.4.80

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Impact of Nano-Fertilizer on Nutrient Uptake and Translocation under Climatic Changes Condition

Abou Seeda M.A., Abou El-Nour E.A.A, Yassen A.A. and Sahar, M. Zaghloul

ABSTRACT: Nanotechnology has become a very advanced and popular form of technology with huge potentials. It has been well explored in the fields of electronics, automobiles, construction, medicine, and cosmetics, but the exploration of nanotechnology’s use in agriculture is still limited. Due to climate changes, 40% of crops face abiotic and biotic stress; with the global demand for food increasing. Nanotechnology is the best technique to mitigate challenges in disease management in crops by reducing the use of chemical inputs such as herbicides, pesticides, and fungicides. Recently, nanotechnology research has suggested the development of NPs as a powerful manner to reduce the existing problems resulting from conventional fertilizers in traditional agricultural systems. Nutrient deficiency in food crops is seriously affecting human health, fundamentally those in the rural areas, and nanotechnology may become the most sustainable approach to attenuating this challenge. Nanotechnology in agriculture can bring many benefits, such as better use of nutrients by plants, reducing waste. Since plants can absorb nutrients from fertilizers, but most conventional fertilizers have low nutrient use and uptake efficiency. Nanofertilizers are therefore, engineered to be target oriented and not easily lost, furthermore are essential resources in agriculture in order to increase crop production, quality, productivity, and boost nutrient uptake. Nano-fertilizer is efficient for specific use of nutrients at appropriate time of plant growth and can provide nutrients as a whole with the crop. Growing crops with intensive fertilization may be limiting to crop growth due to nutrient toxicity. The applicability of nanotechnology benefits to date, has not yet reached up to field conditions. Functions of nanoparticles depends on their physicochemical properties, the method of application, and concentration. It is important to understand plants underlying mechanism and response towards nanoparticles, and the gene expression changes

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1182-1249 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.4.81

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Some Traits of Parks Visitors in Sudan

Suad K. Ahmed and Mahmood E. Yagi

ABSTRACT: Recently, more attention has been dire:cted towards the important roles of urban parks as an essential constituent for development of the overall quality of the urban life. Besides many environmental and economical roles, urban parks provide important social, health, aesethetic, recreational and psychological benefits to human societies. In Sudan, the population explosion in Khartoum and the capitals of the different states necessitate the provision of urban parks to meet the popular need for such services. Public perception surveys can enable green infrastructure managers to use this information in the urban planning framework. The main concern of this paper is to address studying of some traits of parks visitors in El Hurea Yard Park in Khartoum city, the capital of the Sudan. Results confirmed that: Two third of park visitors are males, more than (90%) of them are less than 35 years and (97%) come in group to visit the park .It is also shown that, more than 4 in 5 respondents were: Born in urban areas, reside in Khartoum city, bachelor and university educated. The results declared that, the two main goals for visiting the park are: Enjoying the outdoors or nature and meeting relatives, friends and neighbors.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1250-1258 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.4.82

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The Economics of Egyptian Fish Production and its Foreign Trade

Yehia M. Khalil, Nagwa M. El-agroudy, Fatima A. Shafiq and Soheir Mokhtar

ABSTRACT: The Egyptian fish production is estimated at 1402, thousand tons , while the disposable consumption in Egypt is about 5.9% of the average of about 1642, thousand tons and an average per capita in Egypt is approximately 18.3 kg annually and increases Egyptian imports annually at a rate of 7.7% of the average amount of imports of about 259.5 thousand tons for export Egyptian annually by about 12.8% of the average Egyptian exports of 19.6 thousand tons of fish The deficit in the value of the commercial balance is about 410.3 million dollars for the average study period (2005-2019). This research aims to identify the main features of fish production in Egypt during the study period and to highlight the most important ways and axes necessary for the development of fish production in Egypt, as well as clarifying some obstacles to fish development in Egypt and achieving the highest return from Egyptian fish exports or lowering the value of Egyptian fish imports during the study period using Linear programming. The study showed that the model of the least quantity of Egyptian fish importing countries is the best model in the case of maximizing the value of Egyptian fish exports. By performing the linear programming process after adding these parameters, the obtained results indicated that This model included the distribution of Egyptian exports of fish to lesser countries Quantity so that the highest net return from Egyptian fish exports can be achieved, and is estimated The target function of this model is about 38.548 million dollar, more than the value of the target function The actual model is about 0.197 million dollar. The increase of this model over the actual model was achieved by 0.514%, which confirms the priority of the first model. The model also shows that it is possible to increase Egyptian exports of fish to Lebanon, Morocco, Bahrain, UAE and Qatar. While it turns out that the value of Egyptian imports of fish can be reduced by using the higher-priced imports model. By performing the programming process after adding these parameters, the results indicated It should be that this model included an estimate of the target function of this model at about 502.7 million A dollar decrease from the value of the target function of the actual model by about 128.8 million dollars, and this decrease represents about 25.6%, which means that the second model is better than the first model to achieve a decrease in the return from Egyptian imports of fish. The model shows that it is possible to increase Egyptian imports of fish from the United States of America, India, South Korea, Yemen, Taiwan, the United Kingdom and the United Arab Emirates.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1259-1265 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.4.83

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Effect of Nitrogen and Organic Fertilizer on Growth of Some Wheat Cultivars

Nabila M. Zaki, Amal G. Ahmed and Hassanein M. S.

ABSTRACT: Two field experiments were conducted at Wadi El- Rayan Fayoum Governorate, Egypt in 2017/2018 and 2018/2019 seasons, to study the effect of nitrogen fertilizer (ammonia gas 82%) and organic fertilizer on growth characters of two wheat cultivars. The main results could be summarized as follows: Misr-1 cultivar surpassed Sids-1 cultivar in all growth characters under study significantly. Addition of 75kg N/feddan (ammonia gas 82%) resulted in a significant increment in growth characters. Increasing nitrogen fertilizer from control to 75kg N/feddan increased growth characters significantly. The application of organic fertilizer at the rate of 15 ton/ feddan significantly increased growth characters under study comparison with other treatments (5 ton/ feddan and 10 ton/ feddan). With respect to the interaction between wheat cultivars x nitrogen fertilizer x organic fertilizer affected significantly growth characters. The best treatments for growth characters were Misr-1 cultivar +75 kg N / fed., + 15 ton / fed., organic fertilizer, while was Sids-1 cultivar +75 kg N / fed., + 15 ton / fed., organic fertilizer for number of tillers/ m2 at 110 days from sowing.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1266-1272 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.4.84

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Impact of Weather Extremes on Wheat Production in Egypt

Elsayed M., A.A. Khalil, M.K. Hassanein, M.A Fahim and M.M. Abdel-Wahab

ABSTRACT: A sudden rise in air temperature can lead to a great loss in productivity of the wheat crop.to study the interaction between such factors, many crop models were designed, tested, and evaluated in order to simulate possible losses caused by extreme weather variability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impacts of extreme temperature variabilities on four bread-wheat cultivars in three different locations of Egyptian regions. Results showed a yield reduction in the growing season 2009/2010, due to sudden rise in temperature which affected both growth and productivity of wheat plants in the three locations. CERES-Wheat model is responsive to different weather date at each growing season to high temperature and its ability to mimic growth and yield of wheat under the weather conditions of the selected sites. When the climate is at normal levels, the wheat yield is high. During heat waves, the damage of wheat yield in the north of Egypt could be less than the damage in the south because the rainfall and relative humidity in the north were high which reduced the effect of heat wave on wheat production. Annual and seasonal analysis has been done in order to compare impact of the heat wave on production season of 2009/2010 and the last 10 years.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1273-1283 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.4.85

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Effect of compound fertilizers as Foliar Spray with Application Bio-Fertilizers on Growth, Yield and quality of spinach Plants

Shafeek M.R., Asmaa R. Mahmoud, Y. I. Helmy, Nadia M. Omar, Fatma, A. Rizk and Haba M.A. Khater

ABSTRACT: Two field experiments were completed at particular plantation in Qalyobia Governorate, Egypt through the two sequential winter seasons of 2016/2017 and 2017/2018. The research aimed to research the influence of inoculation soil by bio-fertilizer (Biogein) rates (0, 1 and 2 kg/fad.) with foliar sprinkle with nutrient complex (Aquacool) on growth, yield and leaves specialty of spinach plants cv Balady grown in clay soil conditions. The acquired results specified that, the interaction amidst inoculation soil by high level of N-fixing bacteria (2 kg/fed.) with spray with higher concentration (2 cm/L) of nutrient complex (Aquacool) gave the biggest value of plant height, number of leaves/ plant, leaves fresh and dry weight, total chlorophyll as well as total yield and big contents of the percentage of N, P, K, and protein on leaves tissue.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1284-1290 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.4.86

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Effect of Different Designs of Drip Irrigation system on Maize Productivity in Reclaimed Lands

Imam H.M., Sabreen K. Pibars, and Nermin S. Hussein

ABSTRACT: Drip irrigation systems consider as the most efficient of water distribution and application and an ideal way for supplying the plants with nutrients. It demonstrated a superior performance under desert conditions for sandy soils. Two field experiments were conducted in two seasons, at the experimental farm of National Research Centre (NRC), El-Nubaria, Beheira Governorate to investigate the effect of drip irrigation designs on Maize (Zea mays L., single cross 10 hybrid) production under reclaimed lands. Four different lateral designs as (double inlet, loop tube, flushing pipe, and single inlet) were tested under surface and subsurface drip irrigation systems. Results indicated that the lowest percentage of pressure drop was 6.4 and 6.6 % that recorded for the double inlet design under both sub-surface and surface drip irrigation systems SSDI, SDI respectively. The highest percentage of pressure drop was 12.3 and 9.8 % that recorded for the single inlet design of surface and sub-surface systems respectively. The higher emission uniformity, crop yield, and water use efficiency were recorded for the double inlet design under sub-surface drip irrigation system 96.34%, 11.86 t / ha, and 1.699 kg m-3 comparing with single inlet design which were 90.76 %, 9.07 t / ha, and 1.344 kg m-3 under surface drip irrigation system, respectively. The statistical analysis shown a significant differences at the 5% level in both maize yield and water use efficiency between treatments. Generally, (Hydraulic performance, Emission uniformity, Crop yield, and Water use efficiency) were higher in closed designs SSDI, SDI and subsurface system comparing with single inlet design and the surface drip irrigation system.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1291-1301 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.4.87

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New Insights of Potassium Source Impacts as Foliar Application on the Yield and Fruit Quality of Barhee Date Palms

Rasha S. Abdel-Hak, A.Y.I. Thabet, H.S.A. Hassan and N.E. Ashour

ABSTRACT: This experiment was carried out during two successive seasons of 2018 and 2019 in a private orchard located at Regwa district, Cairo, Alexandria Road, Beheira Governorate, Egypt, in order to assess the effect of different potassium forms and concentrations on yield, and fruit quality of Barhee date palm grown in sandy soil under drip irrigation system. So, foliar spray of potassium forms such as mono potassium phosphate (KH2PO4) and di- potassium phosphate (K2HPO4) at different concentrations i.e. 1% and 2 % were applied three times a year (one day before pollination, at the beginning of Kimri stage and at the beginning of fruit color break) on yield and fruit physiochemical characteristics. The results showed that all different potassium forms at different concentrations increased fruit yield and improved fruit physical and chemical characteristics as compared with the control during both seasons of the study. Finally, it could be concluded that foliar spray with both di-potassium phosphate and monopotassium phosphate each at 2 % were the best treatments for improving the most studied parameters of Barhee date palm during the two seasons of the study.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1302-1309 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.4.88

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Phenolic Content of Dill Seed Extracts as Antifungal Agent against Aspergillus spp.

Sara E. Gomaa and Emad El Din G. Gomaa

ABSTRACT: This study was performed to examine the effect of phenolic compounds and antioxidant content of four dill seed extracts. These extracts were prepared by hydro-distillation, ethanol, methanol and acetone. They were examined as antifungal agent against eight Aspergillus spp. Results revealed that hydrodistillation extract (HE) and ethanol extract (EE), derived from dill seed, had higher total phenolic content (45.67 and 39.71 GAE/g, respectively), as well as higher contents of butylated hydroxyanisole
(BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and octyl methylcinnamate (OMC) (4.98, 1.50, 39.65 and 4.37, 1.10, 33.26 mg/ml, respectively) as compared to the methanol and acetone extracts. HE recorded a high diameter of inhibition zone (DIZ) with A. flavus IFO 6343, A. niger DSM 371 and A. parasciticus NRRL 2999, with MIC = 15 mg/l. While EE was more effective on A. niger CAIM 147, A. niger NRRL 337 and A. oryzae NRRL 9362, with MIC = 15 mg/l as compared with methanol and acetone extracts under the same conditions. Antifungal potential of HE and EE were found to be highly effective on enumeration of fungal strains used in this study. Obtained results confirmed strong relationship between the total phenolic content of dill seed extracts and its amounts of BHA as an antifungal agent. It is recommended to use dill HE (light yellow color) with foods highly expected to be infected with A. flavus IFO 6343, A. niger DSM 371 and A. parasciticus NRRL 2999, at 15 and 20 mg/l, while EE (pale yellow color) is recommended to prevent foods to be susceptible to A. niger CAIM 147, A. niger NRRL 337 and A. oryzae NRRL 9362at 15 and 20 mg/l.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1310-1318 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.4.89

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Influence of Climatic Conditions and Phenological Stages on Chemical Composition, Essential Oils and Anatomical Characteristics of Ajuga Iva (L.) Schreb.

Taghried M. El-Lamey

ABSTRACT: Many species of Ajuga have medicinal values and widely used to treat many diseases. The medicinal values of Ajuga iva are associated with the containment of many pharmaceutical compounds as essential oils, diterpenoids, triterpenes and phenolic compounds. No information is currently available concerning the effect of different climatic conditions and phenological stages on chemical composition, essential oils or anatomical features of Ajuga iva. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of different climatic conditions and phenological stages on the contents of free sugars, phytohormone and essential oils, as well as anatomical characteristics of Ajuga iva (L.) Schreb. The leaves of Ajuga iva, showed the presence of high frequency of trichomes in upper and lower leaf surfaces which may limit light absorption, thereby reducing the risk of photoinhibition. The results indicated that the contents of chlorophyll a, total carbohydrates and most of the detected sugars were significantly increased during the flowering stage in dry season. HPLC analysis of Ajuga extracts identified 14 phenolic compounds most of which tended to increase in the flowering stage. Where the concentrations of pyrogallol increased 3.7-fold and gallic acids increased 4.6-fold, also the concentrations of catechol and vanillic acid increased intensely 8 and 7-fold, respectively. The results indicated that the yield of essential oils of the aerial parts of Ajuga iva have depended on the phenological stages and significantly increased in winter. The data of headspace GC-MS analysis of volatile oils indicated that the essential oils of Ajuga iva were dominated by volatile monoterpenes (C10H16) which have been shown to play important ecological roles in plant defence mechanisms. Sabinene was the main constituent in the essential oil of Ajuga, followed by α -thujene and α-pinene. The results indicated that the full flowering stage was considered as an ideal period for harvesting the high yield of plant hormones, sugars and phenolic compounds, as well as α-Thujene from Ajuga iva.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1319-1334 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.4.90

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Effect of Packaging Materials and Modified Atmosphere of Shelf Life of Burger Products Fortificated of Pearl Millet

Sanaa S. H. Aly, Sanaa R. A. Rohaim and Mona A. Abd El latif

ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to use dried ground pearl millet (PM) as meat extender in manufacture of beef burgers and also, as a new untraditional source dietary fiber to produce healthy beef burgers at lower cost. In this study, PM powder was added to beef burger dough formulations at different levels (10, 20, 30, 40, 50%) and the physiochemicals quality criteria (moisture, pH value, water holding capacity, (WHC), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and free fatty acid (FFA) contents), cooking measurements, (cooking loss, cooking yield, shrinkage and moisture retention) were studied during 3 weeks of storage at 4oC. Also, to prolong the shelf life of the product, this research investigated effect of packaging material poly ethylene/ Poly Ester (PEE) and Poly ethylene/ Polyamide (PEA) and modifying the atmosphere of these packages with CO2 and N2 flushing, on the microbiological quality and sensory properties of all samples during storage. The obtained results revealed that the incorporation of PM powder as a meat extender into beef burger by replacing of 10% and 20% of meat resulted in enhancing the physiochemical properties and cooking measurement of beef burger dough having good sensory properties which did not significantly different from the control sample. The current results revealed that PEE packages would be more effective in long term storage of samples to maintain microbial stability than PEA packages. Also, results showed significantly (p<0.05) lower values of microbial growth and exhibited a good sensory properties even after cold storage for 3 weeks at 4oC especially, with packages flushed with nitrogen gas. In addition, the increasing of FFA in the samples during storage was more lesser. The present work recommended that it should be incorporated of these promising healthy nutrients into production of beef at the above mentioned replacing levels and packed in polyethylene ester containers flushed with nitrogen as modified atmosphere gas to prolong shelf life of the product up to 3 weeks at refrigerator, and to give, at the same time, economic cost price to the product, without detrimental effect on its sensory properties.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1335-1344 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.4.91

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A Comparative Study of Some Land Evaluation Systems for Irrigated Agriculture in El Moghra Area, Egypt

Taher M.H. Yossif, Mohamed A. A. Abd Al Kareem, Mahmoud A. Kamh and Ashraf M. Mostafa

ABSTRACT: This study was carried out in El Moghra area, North of the Western Desert, Egypt where the a:rea falls in arid climate. The study aims to classify the soils, mapping the land capability and suitability according to different local and international systems and compare those systems for agriculture to set the optimum land utilization planning. Visual interpretations of Landsat-8 OLI image with information obtained from ground truth data and soil survey have been used to map the soils under investigation in terms of American taxonomy system. Five land evaluation systems were applied; USDA Land Capability Classification (USDA-NRCS, 2005), Land capability classification for irrigated agriculture (Sys and Verhey, 1978), Micro LEIS (De la Rosa et al., 2004), Applied System for Land Evaluation (Ismail et al., 2001) and Land suitability classification for certain crops (Sys et al., 1991a, b and 1993). Results reveal that El Moghra soils could be distinguished into four sub great soil groups, namely; Typic Torripsamments (63.1%), Typic Torriorthents (9.8%), Typic Haplosalids (22.7%) and Calcic Haplosalids (4.4%). With regard to the land capability, the study indicated that El Moghra soils are mostly belonging to class III (86.6%) and the rest of the area follows class II (13.4%) according to the USDA LCC, whilst the soils are shared by the marginal (S3) and currently not suitable lands (N1) according to Sys and Verhey (1978). By applying the Micro LEIS, it was found that about 68.7% of the total area belongs to moderate class, while 31.3% of the area is a part of marginal class. Also, the study indicated that the area is almost not suitable (C6) for agriculture according to ASLE system. With respect to the soil suitability for certain crops, 30 crops were tested and the results showed that there are three levels according to priority of utilization: first priority for crops (Panicum, Jojobe, Jatropha Olive, Fig, Date Palm, Cotton, Sun Flower, Barley, Wheat and Sugar Beet), second priority for crops (Sorghum, Grape, Water Melon, Sugar Cane, Cabbage, Alfalfa, and Potato, Tomato and Maize) and a third priority for crops (Pepper, Rice, Pea, Peanut, Soya Bean, Faba Bean, Onion, Apple, Banana and Citrus). According to ASLE and Micro LEIS, the coarse texture, high calcium carbonate content and alkalinity are the main constrains affecting soil suitability for agriculture. Panicum, Jojobe and Jatropha are introduced to be grown in the studied area as these plants can grow in marginal soils and proved to sustain in desert land.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1345-1367 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.4.92

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Influence of Using Some Antioxidant Oils and Natural Plant Extracts on Yield and Quality of Crimson Seedless Grapevines

Yasmin A. Elsayed and El Shaima M. El Botaty

ABSTRACT: This research is a helpful step in viticulture aimed to highlight a category of some natural agents effects particularly; grape seed oil (GSO), roselle seed oil (RSO), roselle extract (RE), red chili pepper extract (CPE) and ascorbic acid (As). Thrice sprays during 2019- 2020 seasons of each had applied on Crimson Seedless grapevines grown at Aga, Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt. Findings showed that, As + GSO followed by As + RSO and As + CPE sprays promoted shoot length, leaf area and wood ripening coefficient, total yield, cluster and berry weight, berry size, berries firmness and SSC %. Furthermore, As + CPE spray maintained the lowest acidity, but As + RSO spray had the highest SSC/ acid ratio. In addition, As + GSO spray raised total sugars, phenols, anthocyanin and chlorophyll contents. Also, all treatments raised N %, P % and K% values significantly more than the control. Finally, it could be summarized that 0.2 % sprays of plant- derived agents like GSO, CPE or RSO combined with 200 ppm of As; have a synergistic effect on grapes vegetative growth, yield, cluster physical and chemical quality parameters compared to the control.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1368-1377 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.4.93

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Effect of some Soil Amendments on Productivity of Olive Trees in Calcareous Soil

Misa E. Yaseen and Fahmy I. Fahmy

ABSTRACT: A field experiment was carried out during 2018 and 2019 seasons on Olive trees (Olea europaea L) on orchard located at El Alamein Road, Matruh Governorate, Egypt. In this study, Sulfur and zeolite which was private applied at two equal, the first was done before the season and the second was applied after fruit set at three levels (0, 1000 and 2000 g) for individually or mixing on yield characteristics of manzanelo olive growing under calcareous soil condition. The experiment was carried out a complete randomize block design. The result showed that soil application of (sulphur 1000g/tree + zeolite at 1000g/tree) gave the highest values of number of shoots, average leaf area and chlorophyll content in leaves. Moreover, foliar application sulphur especially at a level of 2000 g / tree zeolite at a level of 2000 g / tree each alone or with each significantly increased the highest values of flowering density, Perfect flower %, fruit set %, fruit length, fruit weight, yield/tree, fruit volume, fruit flesh (%) and fruit oil content (%), In addition, results indicated that sulphur application especially at a level of 2000 g sulphur / tree and zeolite at a concentration of 2000 g / tree each alone or with each other significantly decreased of fruit acidity.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1378-1394 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.4.94

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The Integrative Effect of Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR), Organic and Mineral Fertilization on Growth and Productivity of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Sandy Soils

F. Sh. F. Badawi, Salwa A.A. Hassanen and A.M. Mostafa

ABSTRACT: Intensive efforts are focused on minimizing the amount of applied chemical fertilizers along with reducing the environmental hazards of pollutants. In this regard, some rhizobacteria (Azospirillum brasilense, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus circulans) were examined in vitro for their ability to exhibit some plant growth promotion (PGP)-related properties. Additionally, two field experiments were carried out on a sandy soil at Ismailia Agricultural Research Station, Ismailia Governorate, Egypt, during two winter seasons of 2019/20 and 2020/21. The study concerned with the effect of integrated use of promoting rhizobacteria, organic and mineral fertilization on growth, chemical composition, yield and some yield components of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Misr 3) using sprinkler irrigation system. The experiments were laid out in randomized complete block design with four replicates. According to the laboratory experiment, all of the tested rhizobacteria were apparently able to exhibit PGP-properties. Phosphate solubilization was the common feature of all tested rhizobacteria; however, Ps. fluorescens and B. megaterium appeared to be superior to the other rhizobacteria and Azo. brasilense displayed the lowest capacity. The ability of all tested rhizobacteria to produce indole compounds, but Ps. fluorescens was more effective followed by B. megaterium and B. circulans, while Azo. brasilense produced lower amount of IAA. Moderate capacity (Ps. fluorescens) and low capacity (B. megaterium and B. circulans) to excrete ferric-specific ligands (siderophores) and biocide compound (cyanide) was detected, while Azospirillum brasilense failed to produce such compounds. Results of field trials revealed that the full recommended dose treatment was excelled the other tested levels of application (50% or 75% of the recommended NPK dose) in all tested wheat characters. While, wheat plants amended with compost or inoculated with mixture of PGPRs in combination with 50% or 75% NPK mineral fertilizers exerted a salient superiority in all tested wheat characters in comparison to using the same mineral fertilizers level alone. Among all fertilization treatments, the superiority of treatments comprising rhizobacterial inoculation and amended with compost in the presence of half dose or 75% of mineral fertilization, which caused significant augmentation and achieved the highest values of all wheat growth parameters (plant height, number of tillers/plant and dry weight of roots and shoots), nutrients accumulated in tissues, wheat yield and its components (number of spikes/m2, number of kernels/spike, 1000-kernel weight, harvest index, biological yield, grain yield, straw yield and crude protein percentage of grain and straw). Such fertilization treatments gave values comparable to full dose of mineral NPK (100% NPK) treatment and the difference between above three fertilization treatments could not reach the level of significance. Hence, application of compost manure (10 ton fed-1) in conjugation with a half dose of mineral NPK fertilizers may be acting as a good practice for sustaining wheat growth and productivity in sandy soil, particularly when this practice supported by inoculation with a mixture of effective rhizobacteria, which reduce the reliance on agrochemicals for safe and healthy food, long term sustainability and minimize environmental pollution.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1395-1409 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.4.95

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Germination Characters as Affected by Seed Priming of some Turnip and Radish Native Cultivars under Different Levels of Salinity

Hebatulla M. A. Rady

ABSTRACT: A laboratory experiment was conducted at vegetable seed production laboratory in Sabahiya Horticulture Research station during February until August 2021, to study induce salinity tolerance in some native cultivars of turnip and radish through seed priming with solution of (H2O2, KNO3, NaCl and tap water), then examine the possibility of seed priming on the germinate under different levels of NaCl. Finally study the genetic diversity of turnip and radish cultivars and genetic relationships among the genotypes based on molecular characterization using RAPD - PCR analysis. Results showed varietal differences on germination parameters among the five-turnip and radish genotypes. In general, germination parameters were decreased as salt level increased up to 4000 ppm NaCl, however, control treatment was significantly equal to that obtained by salt level at 2000 NaCl in some germination parameters, Effect of seed priming substances on germination parameters were differed, generally, seed priming with H2O2 (0.5%) or tap water gave the best results, meanwhile, seed priming with NaCl (3%) gave the worst results. Regarding the study of genetic diversity among the studied Brassicaceae family members, a cluster analysis divided the five turnip genotypes into two main groups and one sub-cluster. Concerning the five radish genotypes, cluster analysis divided the genotypes into two main groups with one sub- cluster. It can be concluded that the morphological and molecular markers could be a better tool for studying the genetic diversity.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1410-1430 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.4.96

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Co-Inoculation Effect of Rhizobia with Potassium and Zinc Solubilizing Bacteria for Enhancing Some Growth Parameters of Phaseolus vulgaris Plants

Amal A. Ali and Mona H. A. Hussein

ABSTRACT: Four strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. Phaseoli (301, 3612, 1799 and 3629), Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus polymyxa and Azotobacter chroococcum were evaluated for potassium, Zinc solubilization and exopolysaccarides production. The maximum potassium (K) liberated was recorded by Bacillus megaterium (33.2 μg/ml) followed by Bacillus polymyxa (32.4 μg/ml) and Azotobacter chroococcum (32.0 μg/ml). Azotobacter chroococcum showed the highest remarkable solubilization potential for zinc oxide (275) and was the highest in terms of EPS (7.44 g/L). Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. Phaseoli (301) showed K- liberated (10μg/ml), Zinc solubilization efficiency was (100) and EPS production was (6.36 g/L). Upon these tests Bacillus megaterium, Azotobacter chroococcum and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. Phaseoli (301) were selected and tested for efficient K solubilization using various potassium sources and during different periods of incubation (5, 10 and 15 days). The highest levels of K solubilization were observed in KCl and K2SO4 amended medium broth compared to mica powder-containing media. The maximum release of potassium were 40, 120 and 190 μg/ml (untabulated) in R. leguminosarm bv phaseoli (301), Azotobacter chroococcum and Bacillus megaterium respectively at 15 days of incubation. A pot experiment was carried out to study the effect of coinoculation of rhizobial strain with K and Zn solubilizing bacteria and the results showed that the application of T7 of Rhizobium sp. strain 301+Azotobacter chroococcum (that enhanced for Ksolubilization) exhibited the best results of vegetative growth parameters, chlorophyll contents and increased nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and zinc contents in phaseolus vulgaris plants comparing the controls.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1431-1441 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.4.97

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Effect of Some Nanocomposites on Infection Severity with Basil Root Rot

Agha M.K.M., F. M. Salem and Eslam M. Abdullah

Abstract: Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is an economically important herb crop in the world. Soil-borne diseases are still the major threat to basil cultivation in Egypt and all over the world. In this study, the most frequent fungi isolated from basil plants were Alternaria alternate, Fusarium semitectum, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Rhizoctonia solani. Nano-materials have a great potential in plant protection from fungal infection. The results of artificial pathogenicity test found that, Rhizoctonia was the highest infection followed by Macrophomina. Chitosan was the most effective nanomaterial in inhibiting radial growth of tested fungi in vitro, while CuNPs gave the highly effect in control of in vivo artificial infection by A. alternata, F. semitectum, and M. phaseolina on the basil plants - as pre and post emergence damping off.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1441-1453 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.4.98

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Effect of Foliar Application with some Organic Acids on Growth and Productivity of summer squash Plants (Cucurbita pepo L.)

Ahmed S. Mohamed, Saber A. Saleh, Sayd N. Darwish and Samar S. Halawa

ABSTRACT: Two field experiments were carried out during the summer seasons of 2020 and 2021, to study the effects of foliar application with various organic acids, i.e., ascorbic, salicylic, citric and fulvic acids as well as the binary combination between them on vegetative growth parameters, chemical constituents, total fruit yield, and fruit quality of squash plants cv. galaxy 555. This experiment included eleven treatments, ( T1- Ascorbic at 0.5 g/L, T2- Salicylic at 0.5g, T3- citric at 0.5g, T4-Fulvic at 0.5g, T5- Ascorbic at 0.5 g/L + Salicylic at 0.5g, T6- Ascorbic at 0.5 g/L + citric at 0.5g, T7- Ascorbic at 0.5 g/L + Fulvic at 0.5g, T8- Salicylic at 0.5g+ citric at 0.5g, T9- Salicylic at 0.5g+ Fulvic at 0.5g, T10- citric at 0.5g + Fulvic at 0.5g and T11- Control). Results show that all foliar applications with organic acids treatments when used either singly or combined on squash plants, significantly, increased all vegetative growth characters (plant height, number of leaves/plant, plant fresh weight, plant dry weight and leaf area), chemical constituents (Total chlorophyll, N, P, K), yield and its components ( Early yield per plant, number of fruits per plant and total yield per plant) and fruit quality's characters (Average fruit weight, fruit length and fruit diameter) comparing to non-treated plants during both seasons. Obtained results indicate that foliar spray of ascorbic at 0.5 g/L+ salicylic at 0.5g (T5) or ascorbic at 0.5 g/L + citric at 0.5g (T6) is the most effective on vegetative growth characters, the chemical composition of leaves, fruit yield and quality of squash plants.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1454-1463 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.4.99

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Analysis of Variability, Heritability, and Genetic Advance in Yield and Quality Traits of Alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L.) Genotypes

Mervat R. I. Sayed, Fadia M. Sultan, B. A. Bakry and A.M.A. Abd El- Monem

ABSTRACT: The genetic diversity of primary selection material is essential to successful breeding programs and the creation of new cultivars in alfalfa. The present study was carried out during the 2018/2019 and 2019/2020 seasons at the experimental farm of Nubaria National Research Center (NRC), Al-Behaira Governorate, Egypt. Seeds of fifteen alfalfa genotypes were sown in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications to define the magnitude of variability and the degree of association between the different traits that are important to provide the base for efficient selection for yield improvement. High genetic variations among genotypes were observed in the two successive seasons and across the two years for plant height (cm); number of tillers/ m2; leafiness %, dry forage yield, crude protein%; crude fiber %; ash% and carbohydrates%, as well as genotype × year interaction variances. G14, G3, and G7 genotypes exhibited the highest values of all traits under study. The values of the genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV %) and phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV %), heritability, and genetic advance revealed high variation for morphological and quality traits under study. There were positive correlation relationships between dry forage yield and each of plant height, number of tillers/ m2, crude protein%; crude fiber %; ash% and carbohydrates %, whereas significant negative correlation with leafiness% at both the genotypic and phenotypic levels and the correlation coefficients were all significant in both seasons. Highly positive direct and indirect effects were recorded for number of tillers/m2, plant height, and quality of dry forage yield. Hence, the selection for these traits has more chance for high-yielding alfalfa evolution among the tested genotypes. Besides that, the genotypes G14, G3, and G7 are the most promising genotypes under calcareous soils conditions and their use in the breeding program of alfalfa.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1464-1476 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.4.100

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