October-December, 2021

The allelopathic activity of the seed powder of two Lupinus albus species on growth and yield of Vicia faba plant and its associated Malva parviflora weed

Nadia K. Messiha, Ahmed S.A.A., Sanaa A. Mohamed, R.R. El-Masry and Kowther G. El-Rokiek

ABSTRACT: Two pot experiments were carried out in the greenhouse of the National Research Centre of Egypt during winter seasons of 2017/2018 and 2018/2019 to study the allelopathic influence of bitter lupine seed powder (BLSP) or sweet lupine seed powder (SLSP) on the growth and yield of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) as well as their effect on the associated cheese weed (Malva parviflora). BLSP or SLSP at rates of (5 to 25g/kg soil) were incorporated into the soil surface of the pots. The obtained results ndicated that all rates of both BLSP and SLSP significantly minimized fresh and dry weight of cheese weed at 40 DAS and at harvest. Cheese weed weight reduction increased by increasing the rate used of both lupine seed powder. The maximum reduction of cheese weed dry weight at both ages was recorded with BLSP at 25g followed by SLSP at 25g and BLSP at 20g/kg soil, which reached to 95.19, 91.72 and 90.38 %, respectively in dry weight of cheese weed at harvest comparing with mixed control. Reduced growth of cheese weed has been associated with increasing growth of faba bean plants. All rates of BLSP or SLSP cause significant increases on most faba bean growth parameters, yield and yield components. Generally, BLSP is more effective than SLSP in controlling cheese weed as well as increasing the growth, yield and yield components of faba bean plant. The allelopathic efficiency of BLSP and SLSP could be due to the presence of allelochemicals mainly alkaloids, phenolic and flavonoids compounds that could play an important role as a natural selective bioherbicide.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 823-831 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.4.62


Impact of Potassium Silicate Application and Pattern on Yield and Quality of Cowpea under Fertigation

Reda E. Essa, Alice T. Thalooth, Soad M. El-Ashry and Manal F. Mohamed

ABSTRACT: Background and Objective: Sustainable production of quality legumes forage in sufficient quantities constitutes one of the greatest challenges facing breeders and producers. Two field experiments were performed during the two summer seasons of 2019 and 2020 in Wadi El-Natroun, El-Behaira Governorate, Egypt to study the effect of potassium silicate application and pattern of use on yield and quality of cowpea grown under sandy soil condition. Methodology: Each experiment is laid out in splitplot design with three replications. Four potassium rates were distributed in the main plot while pattern of potassium use were performed in the sub plots. Results: The obtained results showed that potassium silicate application on combined with pattern of use increase yield components as well as macronutrient uptake of cowpea grains. Conclusion: From the obtained results, it was revealed that potassium silicate is of great important for cowpea fertilization and its effect highly reflected by 5 L/fed with month of pattern.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 832-838 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.4.63


Fortification of Healthful Bread Gluten Free with Quinoa Seeds, Date Pits and Psyllium for Celiac Child

Mona S. Halaby and Mena M. Hanna

ABSTRACT: In the present study, Quinoa Seeds Powder (QSP), Date Pits Powder (DPP) and Psyllium were studied as potential healthy ingredients for improving the nutritional quality of Gluten-Free Kaiser Bread (GFKB). Two samples of GFKB that were made from maize, rice and pysllium at two different ratios (3% and 6% as control samples) without any supplementation have been conducted and evaluated. Another ten samples were fortified with QSP or DPP at different levels (15% and 20%), or mixed of QSP at 10% with DPP at 10% using 3% and 6% pysllium as alternative for gluten to improve nutritive value, taste, odor, texture, color and general appearance. The results showed that fortification of the GFKB with QSP or DPP at 15% and 20% or mixed from QSP and DPP at 10% + 10% with 6% pysllium were the best treatment to improve its macro and micronutrients content and organoleptic evaluation which led to high nutritional value and an acceptable quality compared with those made without replacements.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 839-848 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.4.64


Economic Study of Foreign Agricultural Trade Flows between Egypt and the COMESA Bloc

Rania M. Barghash and Afaf Z. Othman

ABSTRACT: The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) is considered of the most important forms of economic cooperation in the African Continent. The research investigates the problem that the volume of trade exchange between Egypt and the COMESA countries in general, and agricultural trade in particular. It only accounts for 7.2% during (2014-2018) of the volume of trade exchange between Egypt and the world. The research aimed to analyze intra-trade flows between Egypt and countries of the COMESA Bloc over the period (2001-2018) revealed that the value of Egyptian agricultural imports from the COMESA recorded an average of US$235 million, while the value of Egyptian agricultural exports to the COMESA recorded an average of US$132 million. Results of estimating the Basic Gravity Model for Egypt's agricultural imports from the COMESA indicated a direct relationship between Egypt's GDP and the volume of Egypt's agricultural imports, where 1% increase in Egypt's GDP lead to increasing Egypt's agricultural imports by 1.6%, the existence of common borders between Egypt and the COMESA countries result indicated that it has a direct relationship with the volume of Egypt’s agricultural imports from those countries, which is consistent with the economic logic, where the existence of common borders between Egypt and the COMESA countries resulted in increasing Egyptian agricultural imports by 3.22% .Results of estimating the Basic Gravity Model for agricultural exports indicated that a direct relationship exists between Egypt's GDP and the volume of Egypt's agricultural exports to the six countries, where 1% increase in Egypt's GDP leads to increasing Egypt's agricultural exports from the six mentioned countries by 0.05%. As for the relationship between the geographical distances between Egypt and each of COMESA countries and Egypt’s agricultural exports to those countries, results indicated an inverse relationship, which is consistent with both the economic and statistical logic, where a 1% increase in the geographical distances resulted in reducing Egypt’s agricultural exports to those countries by 0.92%. In regards to the relationship between the dummy variable representing the existence of common borders between Egypt and the COMESA countries, results revealed that it has a direct relationship with the volume of Egypt’s agricultural exports to six countries, which is consistent with the economic logic. So the search recommended to: developing the currently existing means of transportation between Egypt and each of the, Studying quality standards requirements of exports demanded by the COMESA markets thus paying attention to improving the quality of Egyptian exports to those markets, Seeking to on open new market windows for Egyptian agricultural exports .

[ FULL TEXT PDF 849-858 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.4.65


Feeding Practice, Oral Hygiene Habits and Its Relation to Dental Caries among Sample of School Aged Egyptian Children

Yomna Darwish, Nancy A. Khattab, Mohammed Abou El-Yazeed, Nayera E. Hassan and Tamer G. Rashed

ABSTRACT: Background: Dental caries is a global public health problem and influence the overall health of children. The risk factors for caries include biological, socio-behavioral and environmental factors. This cross-sectional study assessed dental caries and their associations with oral hygiene practices and eating habits among Egyptian children. Methods: This cross sectional study conducted in Cairo Egypt, the sample consisted of 750 primary school children aged 6-12 years, oral examination was done according to WHO criteria, and eating and oral hygiene questionnaires was completed by their parents. Results: Distribution of dental caries was higher in children who ate snacks and sweets and don’t brush their teeth, higher in females than males, and in group I (6-9) than group II (9-12). Conclusion: there was weak positive significant difference between dental caries and dental office consultation and tooth brushing renewal frequency, but there was insignificant correlation between dental caries and other eating and oral hygiene habits.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 859-865 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.4.66


Evaluation of adaptation of dill plants by adding phosphorous sources and mycorrhiza to improve growth, fruit yield and essential oil

Rania M.R. Khater and Salama Y.A.M

ABSTRACT: This experiment was conducted at Baluza Station belong to Desert Research Center newly reclaimed region located at North of Sinai. Egypt during two successive seasons of (2017/2018 and2018/2019), to study the effect of phosphorous, mycorrhiza and their interaction to improving and adaptation on the productivity of dill (Anethum graveolens, L.) was investigated. Dill plants were treated with different sources of phosphorous (mono phosphate ammonium, dai phosphate ammonium, super phosphate calcium and rock phosphate) with or without mycorrhiza, the experimental design was split plot. Obtained results showed that, there was a significant increase in all growth, fruit yield and essential oil composition when using different source phosphorous fertilization where the best treatment was using rock phosphate, while when using the mycorrhiza application it led to a significant increase in all measurements. On the other hand, the interaction between different source phosphorous fertilization and mycorrhiza application led to a significant increase in all parameters such as growth, fruit yield, volatile oil composition and carvone; while β-phellandrene and d-limonene were reduced when using rock phosphate and mycorrhiza together.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 866-878 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.4.67


The Beneficial Effects of Pomegranate Juice on Immunity and Intestinal Integrity in Healthy Albino Rats

Hanan A. El-Bakry and Shaimaa A. Anter

ABSTRACT: Pomegranate has long been recognized as a "healing food," with significant health benefits in a variety of disorders. It has potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-obesity, and anticancer effects, thus there has been lately a virtual outbreak of interest in the pomegranate as a functional food. Pomegranate may have physiological effects on the intestines, and the gut microbiota plays an essential part in its therapeutic effects. Therefore, we believe that the beneficial effects of pomegranate are intimately tied to the intestine. Hence, we evaluated the immunomodulatory effect and the intestinal health benefits of the administration of pomegranate juice (PJ). Rats received 1 ml of PJ for consecutive 28 days. The present data revealed that PJ administration did not affect the production of TNF-α, INF-γ, and IL-8, but it enhanced the production of IL-4 exerting an anti-inflammatory effect. It increased villus heights and goblet cell numbers. Moreover, it improved mucosal immunity by enhancing the development of germinal center (GC) in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) that is related to the production of efficient IgA. Therefore, pomegranate juice can increase mucosal integrity, improve intestinal morphology, which beneficially alters digestion in the small intestine, and enhance mucosal immunity against pathogens.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 879-886 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.4.68


Effect of mineral and organic fertilizers on yield, yield components and chemical composition of some wheat cultivars

Hassanein M. S., Nabila M. Zaki and Amal G. Ahmed

ABSTRACT: Two field experiments were carried out during 2017/2018 and 2018/2019 seasons at Wadi El- Rayan Fayoum Governorate, Egypt to study the effect of nitrogen fertilizer (ammonia gas 82%) and organic fertilizer on yield and its components of two wheat cultivars. The main results could be summarized as follows: Misr-1 cultivar exceed Sids-1 cultivar in grain yield and its components significantly except grain yield (ton/fed.) and harvest index%. Addition of 75kg N/feddan (ammonia gas 82%) resulted in a significant increment in yield and its components except harvest index% comparison with other treatments (control and 50 kg N/ feddan). The application of organic fertilizer at the rate of 15 ton/ feddan significantly increased yield and its components, except harvest index%. The interaction between wheat cultivars and nitrogen fertilizer was significant yield and its components except grain index (g), straw yield ton/feddan, protein percentage and carbohydrate percentage, while the interaction between wheat cultivars and organic fertilizer was significant in all characters under study except number of tillers/m2, grain index and straw yield (ton/ feddan). The interaction between nitrogen fertilizer and organic fertilizer was significant in all characters under study except number of spikes/ m2 and straw yield (ton/ feddan). It is clear from results that the interaction between wheat cultivars x nitrogen fertilizer x organic fertilizer was significant in all characters under study except number of spikes/ m2, straw yield (ton/ feddan) and protein percentage%. The most effective treatment were obtain by using Misr-1 cultivar +75 kg N / fed., + 15 ton / fed., organic fertilizer.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 887-895 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.4.69


Evaluation of some locally available casing materials on production of two Agaricus (LANGE) strains

Saad M. Ghazy, Elsayed A. Omer, Ibrahim M. Gomaa and Mohsen A. El-Mohandes

ABSTRACT: Six different casing materials were investigated in this study (1) peat moss (100,control) , ( 2) peat moss + spent mushroom (3:1), (3) peat moss + vermi-compost (3:1), (4) peat moss + spent mushroom + palm fronds (2:1:1), (5) peat moss + palm fronds (1:1) and (6) peat moss + vermicompost + palm fronds (2:1:1), on production and harvest quality of two Agaricus bisporus strains (S-1 and S-2). These experiments were conducted at Tanta Mushroom Station, Gharbia Governorate in 2019. The results showed that the type of casing material had a significant effect on the yield potential and growth behavior of mushroom. Among the tested Casing materials, the best casing layer was the mixture of (peat moss + palm fronds + vermicompost) with both (S-1) and (S-2) strains which exhibited in pinhead initiation (28 and 29.5 days); growth period of the three harvests (42 and 43 days) and total weight (1806.5 and 2542.5 g), respectively, compared to control (29 and 30 days, 43 and 43.5 days and 1467.5 and 1507 g, respectively). Total phenolic contents of mushroom insignificantly differed between casing layers with strain (S-1), while it was very clear with strain (S-2) where the casing layer that composed of peat moss + vermin (3:1) recorded the highest content (252.93mg/100g). Flavonoid content was higher in case of peat moss + fronds (1:1) with both strains. The highest antioxidant activity in both strains was achieved when peat moss 100% was used as acasing layer.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 896-909 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.4.70


Investigation of the hydrogeochemical processes affecting the Nubian sandstone horizons: West El Mouhoub, Western Desert, Egypt

Yahia R. Gedamy, Reda G. M. Ibrahim and Sayed Mosaad

ABSTRACT: The Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS) is the world's largest known fossil water aquifer system. It is located underground in the Eastern end of the Sahara Desert and spans the political boundaries of four countries in north-eastern Africa. NSAS covers a land area spanning just over two million km2, including north-western Sudan, north-eastern Chad, south-eastern Libya, and most of Egypt. Containing billions of cubic meters of groundwater, the significance of the NSAS as a potential water resource for future development programs in these countries is extraordinary. Therefore, understanding of the hydrogeochemical processes and continuous monitoring of its groundwater regionally and locally is so vital. The present study has been conducted to investigate these processes in a pilot area of Western Desert of Egypt (West El Mouhoub). To accomplish this objective, surface water and groundwater samples were collected and analyzed to estimate the chemical properties of these water samples. The ion ratios, water type, facies, hypothetical salts, geochemical diagrams were integrated with geostatistical analyses [factor analysis (FA) and correlation analysis (CA)] to characterize the hydrogeochemical processes that are controlling the Nubia sandstone aquifer system (NSAS). The obtained results revealed that, the Sabaya and Six Hills Formations represent the main aquifer horizons where the groundwater exists under confined conditions. The groundwater within these aquifer units is mainly fresh and the salinity increases from southeast to northwest direction in the Sabaya Formation groundwater. Both the hypothetical salts assemblages and the groundwater genesis confirm that there is a connection between the Sabaya and Six Hills Formations in the investigated area. The results show a chemical development from the groundwater that dominated by bicarbonate salts to that dominated by chloride salts. The main process controlling the groundwater is the rock-water interactions.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 910-932 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.4.71


In vitro evaluation of the antiviral activity and detection of the enterocin coding genes of the probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium NM213

Nahla M. Mansour, Hayam Mansour, Ahmed I. Abd El Naem and Waled M Elsenousy

ABSTRACT: There is a growing concern globally due to the increasing spread of the resistance to current antiviral drugs which lead to innovative and discovery novel alternative antiviral means. Probiotics in particular Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been recognized recently as antiviral candidates via direct interaction with the virus, producing inhibitor substances or through modulation of the immune system. Here we represent, the antiviral activity of our probiotic Enterococcus faecium NM213 against four major human enteroviruses; Coxsackie B4, Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) Strain HM175, rotavirus Wa strain, and herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1). The assessment was done in vitro by means of four different kidney and liver cell lines. In addition, the NM213 strain was screened for the presence of the enterocin encoding genes by PCR and sequencing. The results showed the significant ability of the cell-free supernatant (CFS) of NM213 in reduction of (HSV-1), HAV HM 175, Coxsackie (B4), and rotavirus (Wa) by 70%, 60%, 53.3%, and 50% respectively while its cell extract (CE) showed a fewer reduction to the four viruses by 20%, 10 %, 10%, and 20% in turn while neither PBS buffer nor MRS broth showed any antiviral activity or cytotoxicity effect. Screen the presence of enterocin by PCR and sequencing the amplified fragments revealed the presence of enterocin A and B which encoded by ent A and ent B genes. Further molecular characterization for such valuable enterococci NM213 will be conducted in particular achieving a complete genome sequence to present it for commercial and applied purposes.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 933-941 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.4.72


Phytochemical Screening and Identification of Active Ingredients in Nerium (Nerium oleander) L. and Lantana (Lantana camara)

Omyma E.A. Abdelgabar, Ehab E.M. Alias and Yousif O.H. Assad

ABSTRACT: Powdered leaves of Nerium oleander L. and Lantana camara were screened for detection of saponins, glycosides, terpenes, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, and cyanogenic glycosides. The results of the qualitative analysis and phytochemical screening profiles indicated that, most of the natural tested products are presented in N. oleander L leave extracts, for L. camara, most of the natural products tested for are present except saponins and glycosides. The chemical compositions of the leaf ethanol extract of N. oleander and L. camara were investigated using gas chromatography –mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Analysis of N.oleander leaf ethanol extract revealed the existence of twenty two components identified, of them 4-0-methylmannose, Squalene, n-hexadecanoic acid, vitamin E; 3,5-dimethoxyacetophenone; 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid and benzofuran-2, 3-dihydro, represent 35.92%, 14.72%, 11.10%, 7,57%, 7.13%, 6.84 %, 3.19%, respectively, the other components were ranged from 1.3 to 1.97 %. While L. camara major chemical component were found to be forty two of them, caryophyllene bicycle (3, 1, 0) hexane, 4-methylene-1-(1-methyl-lhumulene, bicycle (3, 1, 0) hexane-6-methanol,2-hydro, eucalyptol, caryophyllene oxide, represent 21.47%,11.68 %,10.93 %,9.75% 8.97%, 8..03%, respectively, the other components were ranged from ,1.1 to 3.53 % .

[ FULL TEXT PDF 942-947 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.4.73


Enhancement of Faba Bean (Vicia faba) Growth and Yield Grown in New Reclaimed Sandy Soil by Treatment with Benzyladenine or Yeast Extract

Faten S.A. Zaki, Karima M.G. El-Din, Mervat S.h. Sadak, Magda A.F. Shalaby, Mohamed El-Sayed El-Awadi and Sohair K. Ibrahim

ABSTRACT: Two field experiments were carried out at the Research and Production Station of National Research Centre, Nubaria region, Behira Governorate, Egypt, during two winter seasons 2019-2020 and 2020- 2021. This work aimed to study the enhancement of foliar application of benzyladenine (BA) at 25, 50, 75 mg/L or the bio-stimulant (yeast extract at 1, 2, 3 g/L) on growth and quantity and quality of the yield of two cultivars of faba bean (Cvs Misr 3 and Nubaria 2) under sandy soil condition. Data showed
that the two used growth regulators compound increased vegetative characters (i.e. shoot length, number of branches and leaves as well as photosynthetic pigments. Treatment with BA or yeast extract concentrations increased number and weight of pods and seeds as well as the biochemical constituents of seeds. The most positive effects were attained by application of highest concentrations of BA (75 mg/L) and yeast extract (3g/L) for variant Nubaria 2 and surpassed variant Misr 3 by the same concentrations. Application of BA at concentration 75 mg/l to Misr 3 exhibits the least amount of antinutritional compound vicine as well as the highest percentage of reduction.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 948-958 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.4.74


Comparative study of the physiological performance of two species of Atriplex growing in the same ecological conditions

Taghried M. El-Lamey

ABSTRACT: The naturally adapted salt - tolerant plants which are exposed to extreme environmental conditions in the arid and semi-arid regions around the Mediterranean basin possess morphological, anatomical, physiological and biochemical adaptation mechanisms to thrive on salt-affected soils. The aim of this study was to investigate the difference between anatomical structural and physiological adaptation mechanisms of Atriplex nummularia and Atriplex halimus in response to stress conditions. The results revealed that Atriplex halmius performed better under stress conditions than Atriplex nummularia. The important anatomical features of Atriplex nummularia and Atriplex halimus and other Atriplex spp. in relation to environmental stresses are the presence of vesiculated hairs on the leaf surface. Atriplex halmius had specific structural characteristics and different physiological mechanisms for adaption to environmental stresses. It showed a range of morphological and anatomical adaptive traits such as smaller leaf size, more succulent in stem and leaves, more development of vesicular hairs, more development of sclerenchymatic tissues in the hypodermis and in the cortex of the stem as well as in the vascular bundles and in-between the vascular bundles. Also, Atriplex halimus tended to accumulate more minerals (Na+, Cl-, P and Mn2+), proline and soluble sugars such as stachyose, mannitol and xylose in high concentration in dry season, which may play role in osmotic adjustment, while Atriplex nummularia accumulated more carbohydrates, glucose, xylose, fructose, mannitol and ribose. This study showed the most important anatomical features and physiological mechanisms of plants that are more tolerant to environmental stresses and subjected to natural selection.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 959-974 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.4.75


Differentiation of Essential Oil Components after Grx2 Gene Transfer of Lemon Basil Ocimum citriodorum

Sherif S. Saleh and Hoda A.S. El-Garhy

ABSTRACT: Development of transgenic Lemon basil (Ocimum citriodorum), plants harboring glutaredoxin- 2 gene (GRX-2) was aimed. The first trial, including micropropagation of basil seeds, seeds disinfecting by sodium hypochloride at 5, 10 and 20 % for 4, 10 and 20 min or HgCl2 at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 % for 5, 10 and 15 min. following by shootlet proliferation by seedlings subculture on MS media supplemented with BAP at 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg/l and Kin at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mg/l with their interactions. Finally, rooting production and proliferation by transfer initiated shootlets on MS media containing BAP at 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 mg/l plus IBA at 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 mg/l. Essential oil was fractionated and determinated for un-transgenic and transgenic explants by GC-MS. The best results were toned in case of the successive disinfecting seeds by Na hypochloride at 10% for 10 min with decontamination percentage 81% and survival 66.66 % followed by the seedlings of best growth on MS media containing 3 mg/l BAP (shoot No. 8.12, shoot length 9.12 and leaves No. 17.45). The roots formed at 0.75 mg/l IBA plus 0.25 mg/l BAP (rooting % 100; root no. 12.12 and 1.34 cm root length). The second experiment was conducted to describe the possibility of producing transgenic basil plants harbouring the GRX-2 gene, conferring essential oil stability. To achieve this goal, micronodes of basil explants were transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring the binary plasmid pRI101 on DNA which contains GRX-2 gene, and the selectable marker gene neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) under the control of a CaMV35S promoter and nopaline synthase (nos) terminator. Molecular analysis using PCR analysis proved the presence and integration of the transgenes in the genome of the transgenic plants. The explants exposed to acetosyringone at 150 uM for 60 min and immersion in Agrobacterium tumefaciens for 60 min and re-culture on MS medium gave the highest transformation efficiency and best growth. The GC analysis showed decrease in linalool components and the presence of limonene.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 975-990 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.4.76


Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Different Extracts from Laurel Leaves and Frankincense Resin: A Comparative Study with In vitro Cytotoxicity Evaluation

Noha M. Mohamed, Fatma A.A. Mostafa and Adel S. Abdel Rahman

ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study is to compare the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of different extracts of two medicinal and aromatic plant species that are widely used in middle east and Egypt, laurel leaves (Laurus nobilis L.) and Frankincense resin. Three different extracts were prepared (aqueous, alcohol and essential oil) and individually tested for evaluation of their antimicrobial activity and determination of their antioxidant capacity using DPPH-free radical scavenging technique. Bioactive components in these extracts were identified by analysis based on GC-MS. Also, in vitro cytotoxicity of the aqueous extracts were tested against two cancer cell lines, liver HepG2 and colon HCT116, to evaluate their anticancer potential using MTT assay. The results revealed that both Laurel leaves and Frankincense extracts have an efficient and comparable antimicrobial activity against most tested organisms at 10 and 20 mg/mL. Laurel extracts showed higher inhibitory effect against tested Gram-negative bacteria while Frankincense extracts exerts highest inhibitory effect against Grampositive bacteria. Laurel leaves essential oil (EO) extract reached 100% antioxidant activity with IC50 value 3.9 mg/mL. For Frankincense, alcoholic extract showed the highest antioxidant activity 77% with IC50 value 12.6 mg/mL. The chemical composition showed that the major components for all tested extracts were terpenes (mono, sesqui and oxygenated derivatives), flavonoids, and polyphenols. The investigated Frankincense extract exhibits high cytotoxic activity against both cancer cell lines with IC50 value 3.47 μg/mL for HepG2 and 10.7 μg/mL for HCT116. The laurel extract showed activity against HepG2 cell line only with IC50 8.61 μg/mL.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 991-1004 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.4.77


Usage of Jatropha Curcas Plant for Phytoremediation of Cd and Pb Contaminated Soil

El-Mahrouk E.M., M.K. Gaber, M.A. Aly, A.A.M. EL-Naggar and Hayam M.A. Ebrahim

ABSTRACT: The heavy metals contaminated agricultural soil is a serious problem that causes negative impacts for various organisms. Jatropha plant may have considerable phytoremediation potential. Pot experiment was conducted at Antoniadis Garden, Horticulture Research Institute Alexandria branch Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt to study the effect of different combinations of Cd (14.4, 28.8 and 43.2 mg/kg soil) and Pb (247.7, 495.4 and 743.2 mg/kg soil) on growth and phytoextraction efficiency of jatropha plant. This plant can tolerate Cd and Pb up to high level of each, with survival 100 %. The analysed data indicated significant reduction in vegetative traits (plant height, stem diameter, branches number, area/leaf, fresh and dry weights of leaves, stems and roots and length of the longest root). From application of such levels of Cd and Pb in relative to the control. A considerable increase was noticed in the content and uptake of Cd and Pb in the different plant organs, as well as total plant uptake in comparison to the control treatment. Bioconcentration factor (BCF) of shoots and roots was to be found˂ 1 under used levels of Cd and Pb. While translocation factor % (TF%) was ˃ 100 except for Pb translocation factor of control which was less than 100. Also, total accumulation rat (TAR) of Cd and Pb was dependent on the levels of such elements in the combinations. Tolerance index (TI) of biomass and root was ˂ 1, except for tolerance index of Pb in case of low levels of Cd and Pb, it was ˃ 1. From the results of BCF, TF, TAR and TI, it can be recommended that Jatropha plant is a good candidate for research of phytoremediation and phytoextraction of Cd and Pb contaminated soil.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1005-1017 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.4.78


Obtaining Dwarf Althaea rosea Plants by Application the Pinching and Maleic Hydrazide Treatments

Samah Mostafa El-Sayed

ABSTRACT: Althaea rosea is aesthetic value plant has many uses in the landscape, so the aim of this study is to produce dwarf plants suitable to use as potted plant. The experiment was carried out in the greenhouse of National Research Centre during two seasons (2019/ 2020 and 2020/ 2021) by spraying maleic hydrazide (MH) at concentrations (0, 400, 600 and 800 mg. L-1) on two groups of Althaea rosea plants, the first one was pinched plants (P) and the second one was non-pinched plants (NP). The results cleared that (P) produced shortest plant, smallest leaf area and lowest value of photosynthetic pigments, total sugars and total flavonoids in leaves, whereas; number of leaves, number of branches, shoot and root fresh and dry weights, root length, number of roots, total phenols, total indoles and nutrient elements (N, P and K) in shoot and root were increased at the same group. The plants received (MH) at 800 mg. L-1 gave the shortest plants, smallest leaf area and lowest values of shoot fresh and dry weights, but the plants received MH at 600 mg. L-1 increased the rest of vegetative growth parameters and the most of chemical compositions. The interaction treatments showed that (P)*(MH) at 800 mg. L-1 gave the shortest plants and smallest leaf area and (P)*(MH) at 600 mg. L-1 gave the highest mean values of number of leaves, number of branches, stem diameter, shoot and root fresh and dry weights, root length, number of roots, the contents of photosynthetic pigments, total flavonoids, total phenols, total indoles and nutrient elements (N, P and K) in both shoot and root.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1018-1026 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.4.79


Supplementary Applications of Phosphorus to Improve Yield and Fruit Quality of 'Le Conte' Pear Trees under Calcareous Soil Conditions

E. Abd El-Razek, M.M.M. Abd El-Migeed and N. Abdel-Hamid

ABSTRACT: Phosphorus (P) deficiency is one of the major problems in agricultural soils for crop production around the world. Mono ammonium phosphate (MAP) as foliar application used an effective tool to enhance nutritional status of fruit trees not only overcome leaf p deficiency but also improve flowering, increase yield and enhance fruit quality. However, use of bio fertilizers such as phosphorus solubilizing bacteria (PSB) proved to friendly environmentally and economical way for increasing P availability and improving P use efficiency under P deficiency conditions. Consequently, the aim of the present trail was to study the effects of MAP at 1% foliar application and/or soil application of phosphorus solubilizing bacteria (PSB) solely or in combination as supplementary P doses (beside H3PO4 common P fertigated source) under calcareous soil conditions on full bloom time, flowering %, yield (kg/tree)
and fruit quality not only fruit physical properties i.e. fruit weight, length (L) and circumference (C), shape index (L/C) and fruit firmness but also fruit chemical components via TSS%, acidity%, and TSS/acid ratio as well as nutrient status of macro & micro leaf contents (N,P,K, Fe, Zn and Mn) of "Le Conte" pear trees. The experiment was carried out during the two successive seasons on 12 years old 'Le Conte" pear trees budded on betulifolia rootstocks (Pyrus betulifolia) grown in calcareous soil under drip irrigation system from Nile river source in a private orchid at Km 80 Alex-Cairo desert Road, El- Nubaria district, El-Behaira, Egypt. All trees received the standard horticultural practices & the experiment was designed in a complete randomized block and the treatments were as follows: (T1) control; H3PO4 common P fertigated source. (T2) T1 + MAP at 1 % as foliar application. (T3) T1 + Bacillus megatherium P solubilizing bacteria (PSB) as soil application. (T4) T2 +T3. The result showed that foliar MAP spray (T2) and PSB soil application (T3) independently improved all aforementioned parameters. However, both T2&T3 gave more or less similar result values and no significant differences were detected between them. In this respect, T2&T3 when applied together (T4) maximized to a grate extend enhancement in most studied parameters and increased yield (kg/tree) by about (167%) than the control. Improvement in leaf P nutritional status after MAP foliar spray to an adequate level (>0.3%) in the range of P and N fertilized plants as well as availability of P, Fe, Zn and Mn following soil PSB application improved nutritional status and help in better management of P fertilization in pear trees grown under calcareous soil condition. Generally, T4 (MAP + PSb) is recommended treatment since, it promotes effectively the nutrient status that achieved the shortest time to FBD, highest flowering %, yield and fruit quality of "Le-Conte" pear trees under calcareous soil conditions.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1027-1037 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.4.80


The Impact of Some Growth Regulators on Growth and Productivity of Faba bean Plant Grown under Newly Reclaimed Soil Conditions

Abdel-Baky Y.R., A.A. Amin, A.E. El-Sh. M. Rashad and Hayam A.A. Mahdy

ABSTRACT: Two field experiments were conducted during two winter successive seasons 2019/2020 and 2020/2021 at the National Research Centre Research and Development Station, Noubaria Area, Behira Governorate, Egypt. The purpose of the study was to investigate the link between vegetative development, yield, yield components, and numerous metabolic variables components of the "Giza 716" Egyptian faba bean cultivar (Vicia faba L.) to foliar application of three growth regulators; paclobutrazol
(PBZ; 30, 60 and 90 ppm), mepiquat chloride (MC; 500, 1000 and 1500 ppm) and baritone (AGR; 400, 600 and 800 ppm). The foliar application of PBZ, MC, and AGR had positive effects on all growth and yield parameters. On the other hand, the three growth regulators reduced plant height, fresh and dry weights of branches and leaves/plant, fourth leaf area and leaf area index, specific leaf weight, crop growth rate, net assimilation rate, relative growth rate, and yield (number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, pod weight/plant, seed and straw yield/plant, seed and straw yield/feddan, seed index), and harvest index), when used in high concentrations. By boosting total carbs, crude protein, total free amino acids, nitrogen, phosphate, and potassium, PBZ, MC, and AGR considerably boosted total photosynthetic pigments content in leaves and improved seed quality and nutritional value. Generally, foliar application of PBZ, MC, and AGR When used at low quantities, it had a favorable impact on growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments, seed yield and yield components, as well as several biochemical components of the faba bean seeds yield.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1038-1052 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.4.81


Efficacy of fungi Beauveria bassiana against the citrus brown mite, Eutetranychus orientalis (Acari: Tetranychidae)

D.M. Hassan, S.I. Afia and B.M. Farahat

ABSTRACT: Eutetranychus orientalis (Klein) (Acari: Tetranychidae) is primarily a serious pest of citrus orchards that causes injury to the host and a cosmopolitan key pest of citrus worldwide. The long-term application of synthetic acaricides causes many adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem. Nowadays, the interest in the use of bio-acaricide in Green Integrated Pest Management (GIPM) programs has increased. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana against the citrus brown mite, E. orientalis in the laboratory. B. bassiana was isolated from the Egyptian soil and evaluated against the citrus brown mite, E. orientalis compared to the commercial bio-insecticide Bio-fly® as a standard under laboratory conditions. Three concentrations of isolated B. bassiana 106, 107, and 108 conidia/ml and a concentration equaled to the recommended concentration of the commercial Bio-fly® (250 ml /100 L = 3x106/ml) were sprayed on leaf discs containing pest mite adults. The adult stage was generally susceptible to all concentrations. Based on Ldp line analysis, B. bassiana LC50 and LC90 were (1.51 x 107 spores/ml and 1.26 x 109 spores/ml) for adults. For commercial Bio-fly®, the percentage of mortality was 86 % while for the isolated B. bassiana was 71%. These results showed that the entomopathogenic fungi B. bassiana was effective against the citrus brown mite, E. orientalis and could be used as an alternative to synthetic acaricides in Green Integrated Pest Management (GIPM) programs with no adverse effects to humans and the ecosystem.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1053-1060 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.4.82


Evaluation of Using Aquafaba as an Egg White Replacer in Sponge Cake Processing

Manal S. Helal and Shereen L. Nassef

ABSTRACT: Aquafaba is a viscous liquid formed during cooking of kidney bean (Nebraska Variety) in water. This solution is now widely used by the vegan community and egg allergens as an egg replacer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality and possibility of egg white substitute with aquafaba in sponge cake. Physical characteristics, chemical composition and sensory properties of the cake samples were evaluated. The results demonstrated that foaming capacity values of aquafaba were 389.33% and egg white was 582.66%. Foam stability values were 85.49 % and 92.28 % in aquafaba and egg white, respectively. Water and oil absorption capacity of the aquafaba and egg white were 2.66 g/g 1.32 g/g, 2.94 g/g and 1.99g/g, respectively. The replacing of egg white by aquafaba did not greatly affect physicochemical parameters of the sponge cake made by using egg white. The cake made with aquafaba was slightly less moist than cake made with egg white (21.67%and 22.79%), had less height (4.21 and 4.47 cm), lower volume index (11.25 and 11.65 cm) and lower pH (7.95 and 8.02). Baking weight loss in aquafaba cake is 11.47% higher than egg white cake 9.09%. Sensory evaluation of aquafaba cake samples showed an acceptance and no negative effects in overall
properties. The texture profile analysis of cakes prepared with aquafaba showed less hardness. The mineral composition (Zn, Cu, Mn, Ca, Fe, Mg and P) showed a high amount in aquafaba compared with egg white cake therefor, it could be is concluded that aquafaba is beneficial when instead of with egg white in eggless cake recipes.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1061-1069 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.4.83


Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Efficacy of Optimized Ezetimibe Chitosan Nanoparticles against the Induced- Hyperlipidemia in Rats

Samya Mahmoud Ahmed, Amany Hegab, Marwa H. Skukr and Soha Ismail

ABSTRACT: Hyperlipidemia not only involves an elevation in serum lipids, but it is also an inflammatory disease, as excessive lipid accumulation is known to trigger local inflammatory responses with the production of oxidative stress. The developed and optimized formula of ezetimibe chitosan nanoparticles encompassing 30 mg EZE together with low molecular weight of chitosan at a ratio to TPP 1.75: 2, showed a considerable superior anti-hyperlipidemia when compared to the marketed product. This study investigated the role of optimized ezetimibe chitosan nanoparticles (optimized formula) in combating the oxidative stress and inflammation against induced - hyperlipidemia in rats. forty male rats were divided into two main groups: normal control (10 rats) and hyperlipidemia group where hyperlipidemia rat model was created by oral administration of cholesterol – cholic acid mixture in a ratio of 3:1 and feeding on 55gm butter /kg diet for ten weeks, then this group divided into three subgroups; hyperlipidemia, ezetimibe treated group (0.9mg/kg b.wt) and optimized formula treated group (0.63mg/kg b.wt). Ezetimibe and optimized formula were prescribed for 4 weeks. Hyperlipidemia induced a significant increase in serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, aminotransferases (ALT and AST) in association with a significant decrease in serum total antioxidant capacity. Additionally , marked increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) level along with significant decline in reduced glutathione (GSH) content, antioxidant enzymes (glutathione S-transferase and Catalase) and nitric oxide (NO) production were observed in liver tissue of hyperlipidemia group. Hepatic tumor necrosis factor -alpha (TNF-α) was significantly increased in association with a significant decrease in interleukin 10 (IL-10). Treatment with Ezetimibe or the optimized formula effectively ameliorated these disorders and elicited their efficiency against oxidative stress and inflammation with the priority of the optimized formula. According to the obtained data, it can be concluded that treatment with optimized formula significantly relieved hyperlipidemia, by ameliorating the levels of aminotransferases with the suppression of oxidative stress and inflammation.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1070-1079 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.4.84