July-Sept. 2021


Utilization of Marjoram to Improve the Nutritional Value and the Safety of Snacks

Badawy W.Z. and Arafa S. G.

ABSTRACT: The herb marjoram is one of the most important crops for increasing Egypt's foreign currency earnings. Marjoram is also a common spicy medicinal herb. It's also used in food all over the world to add flavor. The mineral content, vitamin A content and fatty acid profile of the marjoram herb were estimated in this study. The sensory properties, quality properties, mineral content, fatty acid composition and physical properties of snacks containing marjoram powder (2.5, 5, and 7.5 %) were also assessed fatty acids (PUFA), followed by monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs). The data revealed that the marjoram herb has mineral content. The vitamin A content of the marjoram herb, on the other hand, was 1570.36 mg/kg. Marjoram herb also contains a high amount of unsaturated fatty acids (74.35%), especially Linolenic acid (44.9 %). The results, on the other hand, showed that there were no major variations in all sensory properties between the marjoram-fortified snacks and the control snacks at p ≤ 0.05. The addition of marjoram powder to snacks improved the snack's consistency. The most prevalent fatty acids in marjoram-fortified snacks were polyunsaturated. On the other hand, Elaidic acid isomers in snacks containing marjoram powder decreased as marjoram powder levels increased. As different levels of marjoram powder were increased, all minerals present in snacks increased. When the amount of marjoram powder added was increased from 0 to 7.5 %, the water absorption index of snack samples increased and the expansion ratio decreased. Finally, adding marjoram powder to the snack formulation improved the micronutrient content, sensory quality, Tran's fatty acid content and nutritional quality of the snacks.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 595-602 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.3.47


Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Low-Grade Date Syrup for Production of Active Edible Films

Sanaa R.A. Rohaiem, Abeir M.F. Elbaz and ElKady A. A.

ABSTRACT: Nowadays more researchers are giving more attention toward eco-friendly biosynthesis of green silver nanoparticles. In this study, the possible role of bioactive compounds date syrup extract in reducing silver nitrate into silver nanoparticles is highlighted. These biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized with the help of UV-visible spectrophotometer, atomic absorption spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. It was observed that date extract can reduce silver ions into silver nanoparticles within 26 min. of reaction time. The intense peaks centered near 420 nm by UV-analysis, affirmed the reduction of Ag+ to Ag0. ASS analysis showed decrease in concentration of Ag+ ions from 5.6 ppm to 0.04 ppm with 26 min. FTIR measurements confirms the presence of CH3 and CH2 stretching, C = O carbonyl group, C - S stretch and OH stretching in the analysis which exist in bioactive compounds of date syrup extract, such as phenols, all act as reducing and stabilizing agents for silver nanoparticles and protect it from further changes. Antibacterial activity of these synthesized nanoparticles was studied against gram positive and negative pathogenic bacteria. Additionally, an edible films of pectin reinforced with AgNPs were prepared to evaluate its antibacterial efficiency to be used as food packaging materials. The findings suggest that antibacterial activity of biosynthesized AgNPs from date fruit shows a promising zone of inhibition pathogenic bacteria. Also, results exhibited clear bacteriostatic activity of pactin/AgNPs blend films against all microbes tested after 5 weeks of storage a meat patty samples at 4oC and its decreasing diminution reached to about eight-fold the decreasing of control sample.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 603-611 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.3.48


Effect of Some Natural Extracts as an Alternative to Chemical Growth Regulators on Rooting of the Terminal Stem Cuttings of Codiaeum variegatum "Gold Dust" Plant

A. S. El-Fouly, A.W. Sayed and O. F. Abou El-leel

ABSTRACT: An investigation was consummated under propagation greenhouse conditions at Al-Zohriya Garden, Hort. Res. Inst., Giza, Egypt during 2018 and 2019 seasons to study the effect of immersing the terminal stem cuttings of Codiaeum variegatum (L.) A. Juss. "Gold Dust" plant in the following solutions: distilled water (as control), the aqueous solution of cabbage leaf extract at 50 and 75% concentrations, the aqueous solution of molasses at 50 and 75% concentrations and that of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) at 1500 and 3000 ppm concentrations for either 15 or 30 minutes on rooting % and the initial growth traits of the produced transplants and chemical composition of their leaves. The obtained results indicated that various rooting solutions used in this study significantly increased the mean values of rooting% with the superiority of submersing in the cabbage extract solution at 75% concentration, which gave the highest percentages in the two seasons over control and all the other treatments. Elongating immersing time from 15 to 30 min. significantly improved the percent of rooting. Thus, combining between immersing in cabbage extract solution and immersing time of 30 min. recorded the highest rooting percentage in both seasons. This combined treatment also attained the highest mean values of transplant growth characters (transplant length, number of both leaves and roots/ transplant, root length and fresh and dry weights of top growth and roots) compared to the individual and other combinations in the two seasons. Similarly, were those results of total chlorophyll (a + b), carotenoids, N, P, K, total carbohydrates, total indoles and total antioxidants concentrations in the leaves of the new formed transplants. However, the highest concentrations of both total phenols and total flavonoids were acquired by control treatment, but the different rooting solutions employed in such study significantly reduced their concentrations to reach the minimal values by soaking in 75% cabbage extract solution treatment relative to all the other ones. Accordingly, it is advised to soak the terminal cuttings of Codiaeum variegatum "Gold Dust" plant in the aqueous solution of cabbage leaf extract (75% concentration) for 30 minutes as natural growth regulator to score the highest rooting rate and the best growth performance of the resulted transplants.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 612-624 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.3.49


Effect of Packaging and Cold Storage on the Quality of Sweet Basil Herb

T.F.A. El-Moghazy

ABSTRACT: Storage and packaging are among factors affecting the quality properties of fresh herbs. Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is an important herb used for fresh and dry consumption and as a source of volatile oil. The aim of this study was to evaluate fresh sweet basil herb in response to packaging and cold storage treatments. Experiments were carried out at Sabahia Horticulture Research Station, Alexandria Governorate, Egypt. Samples (100g) were packed at seven different packages; unpacked (control), 3 punnets polyethylene (PE); Non-perforated polyethylene packaging (NPPEP), Lowperforated polyethylene packaging (LPPEP) and Medium-perforated polyethylene packaging (MPPEP), and 3 punnets polypropylene (PP); Non-perforated polypropylene packaging (NPPPP), Lowperforated polypropylene packaging (LPPPP) and Medium-perforated polypropylene packaging (MPPPP). The fresh sweet basil herb was stored at 7oC during storage periods; 0, 5, 10 and 15 days in the two seasons. Lost weight, decay, dry matter, chlorophyll content, volatile oil and its main constituents were investigated. Results showed that lost weight and decay, increased with increasing the storage period. Dry matter, chlorophyll and volatile oil decreased with increasing storage period. Active components increased at end of storage period. Storage packages (PE and PP) showed significant differences in lost weight, decay, dry matter, chlorophyll, volatile oil and active compounds during storage. It may be concluded that PP packages were better than PE packages in keeping fresh basil especially NPPPP and, LPPPP compared to other packages and control.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 625-636 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.3.50


Improving Growth, Yield and Quality of Onion Plants by Amino and Humic Acids under Sandy Soil Conditions

Hanaa A. Abd-Alrahman, Neama M. Marzouk, S.M. El-Sawy and S.D. Abou-Hussein

ABSTRACT: For improving the growth and increasing the production and chemical compositions of onion plants, two field experiments were established for studying the effect of amino acids and humic acid on onion plants grown in sandy soil. Three concentrations of mixed amino acids (0, 1 and 2 cm/l) as a foliar spraying and four rates of humic acid (0, 25, 50 and 75 kg/fed.) as a soil drench were applied. Results clearly indicated that increasing the concentration of amino acids significantly improved the vegetative growth characteristics and increased the production as well as enhanced the bulb chemical compositions compared to the control plants and the maximum values were noticed with 2 cm/l amino acids treatment. Humic acid treatments had a positive effect on the onion plants, where 75 kg/fed. humic acid treatment produced the highest significant values of vegetative growth characteristics, yield and bulb physical properties and chemical compositions. It could be recommended that using amino acids at rate of 2 cm/l as a foliar application mixed with humic acid at rate of 50 and 75 kg/fed. as a soil drench improve the growth and production as well as the chemical compositions for onion plants grown in sandy soil.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 637-648 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.3.51


Role of Metformin and Estradiol in Alleviating the Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Dysfunction Induced by Ovariectomized Female Albino Rats

Nashwa M. Saied

ABSTRACT: The current study used human equivalent therapeutic low dose of metformin to address its cardioprotective effect in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Method: Forty adult female rats were equally divided into 4 groups. Group 1; sham operated group (n=10), groups 2-4 (n=30) were subjected to ovariectomy. After 1 month the groups 3, and 4 were assigned for the following treatments; Estradiol (E2) (100μg/kg, i.m., every other day and Metformin (MF) (100 mg/kg/day orally. The study conducted for 1 month. Results: OVX- group showed a significant elevation in serum cardiac markers enzyme (CK-MB and LDH) where MF has superior effect on E2 in attaining their levels. Compared to OVX-group, MF-OVX and E2-OVX groups showed a significant decrease in serum Angiotensin II, cardiac MDA level and cardiac NO metabolite (NOx) with a significant increase in cardiac CAT activity and TAC. OVX-group showed a status of dyslipidemia while MF-OVX group showed normalized lipid profile markers, whereas the E2-OVX group showed a significant increase in the total cholesterol, and LDL-C levels. OVX -group showed a significant elevation in proinflammatory markers (TNF-α and IL-6). The treatments with MF and E2 were shown to significantly decrease the levels of both TNF-α and IL-6. Conclusion: By focusing on cardiac dysfunction markers, dyslipidemia and cardiac oxidative insult, it was found that the therapeutic dose of MF has a great merit in attenuating these markers over E2 treatment. Furthermore, MF has a similar effect as estradiol in mitigating inflammation status.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 649-658 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.3.52


Geology, Petrology and Radioactivity of the Younger Granite and Associated Pegmatites along Wadi Umm Balad Area, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

Ahmed Ali Abu Steet

ABSTRACT: The present study focuses on the younger granite and associated radioactive pegmatites of Wadi Umm Balad area that forming the northern parts of Gabal Gattar uranium province, North Eastern Desert of Egypt. The younger granite at this region is intruded into volcanosedimentary associations of Dokhan volcanics and Hammamat sedimentary rocks. It is dissected by numerous dike swarms as well as pegmatites, aplites and quartz veins and can be classified as monzogranite. It displays I-type characteristics, being ferroan, alkali–calcic and metaluminous originated in post-orogenic environment. The radioactive anomalies are recorded in pegmatites hosted within this granite. They have associations of radioactive minerals including zircon, columbite-(Fe), pyrochlore, xenotime and uranothorite. The distribution of trace elements in these pegmatites is higher than those in the host monzogranite, evident by the higher concentrations of Zr, Nb, Y, Th and U. Like other showings in the Basement Complex of the Eastern Desert, the elevated concentrations of these elements could be explained as the result of differentiation from granites to pegmatites. The overall geochemical data confirmed that the studied pegmatites can be classified as Rare-Element, NYF-type systems.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 659-671 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.3.53


Effect of Turmeric powder on the Quality Attributes of Fish Sausage

Naglaa A. El-Senousi

ABSTRACT: Fish products are a high-protein consumed food by a large percentage of the population due to its availability and palatability, and the fish industry has developed processed or minced fish products such as fish burgers, fingers and sausages. The aim of this study is to study the dual effect of turmeric utilization as an antimicrobial and an antioxidant. In addition its roles in improving the quality of fish sausage properties during frozen storage at -18 ° C, which improving the shelf life and producing a healthy product. The obtained results indicated that in most estimates fish sausage samples contained 0.0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2% turmeric powder showed no significant differences with respect to TBA values in zero time, while significant differences(p < 0.05) were detected among the stored samples at -18 °C for 30, 60 and 90 days .There was, also found a significant increase in the number of milligrams malonaldehyde/kg of sausage during 90 days of storage at -18 °C in all samples, but the turmeric fish sausage samples contained fewer milligrams of malonaldehyde than the control sample: (0.0% turmeric). The microbiological analysis (total number of bacteria, coliform bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, yeasts and fungi) indicated a significant decrease in log10 cfu/g values with in storage period of 90 days at -18°C. The control sample (0% turmeric powder) had the highest total bacterial count value of fish sausage samples after 30 days storage at -18 °C, while the total bacterial count values were gradually decreased as the turmeric powder concentration was increased during storage at -18°C for 90 days. After 60 days of storage, the untreated samples (control: 0.0% turmeric powder) had the highest value (log10 cfu/g) for Staphylococcus aureus compared to samples contained different concentrations of turmeric powder.The sensory properties of fish sausage indicated that all samples treated with turmeric powder had higher significant differences in taste and overall acceptability compared to untreated samples.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 672-681 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.3.54


Egyptian Honey Bee Products as Alternative Agents for Antibacterial Activity and Milk Preservation

Eman M. Abdalla, Mohamed N. Elbassiony and Hatem M. Mahfouz

ABSTRACT: The honey bee products have curative properties for many human infections and diseases. The antibacterial activity of honey bee products (bee venom, bee honey, propolis, pollen and royal jelly) at different concentrations against some pathogenic bacteria by zone of inhibition assay (compared to artificial antibiotics) and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) to prolong shelf life of dairy product was studied. Also, a growth equation model was used in predicting bacteria growth in milk as a function of time. The results reveal that all bee products exhibited antimicrobial spectrum to some extend among the tested pathogenic bacteria. The highest inhibition zone area (IZA) of growing Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enterica was recorded with propolis at 20, 40 and 80%, respectively. For Augmentin antibiotic, the highest IZA was found against E. coli (52.8±7.91 mm2) while both Salmonella sp showed lower IZA. From MIC data, the honey and propolis have a superior effect in inhibiting pathogenic bacteria. The addition of both honey and propolis at a final concentration of 50 mg/ml had a considerable inhibitory effect on the growth of bacteria compared to control. Inhibitory effect on the growth of bacteria in treated milk with propolis was higher than that of milk treated by honey. In a pragmatic point of view, the model demonstrates that the milk without treatment (control) showed a good growing curve by which the highest growth rate was established at 41.5 days. However, the values in milk treated by honey and propolis were 1.20 and 0.80 days, respectively. The propolis could be used as a natural component to prolong the shelf life of milk.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 682-693 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.3.55


Effectiveness of Biofertilizers for Enhancing Nutrients Availability in Rhizosphere Zone, Stimulate Aggregate Formation and Their Effects by Climatic Changes

Abou Seeda, M.A Yassen, A.A, Abou El-Nour, E.A.A, and Sahar, M. Zaghloul

ABSTRACT: Land degradation is a major threat to the food security, with increasing world population the agricultural land is declining and degrading. Biofertilization with Fungi and bacterial inoculate, and their combination with organic fertilizers can be a promising approach for recovering degradation of the soil, minimizing the extensive use of chemical fertilizers. Biofertilization can enhance the bioavailability of nutrient for plant growth, though; fixation, chelation as well as improving the physical characteristics of soil aggregation by their execration of hydrophobins and Glomalin protein. The mechanisms of microbial inoculate in the provision or mobilization of nutrients in degraded land is a key for their success in field applications. Microbes are important, for improving the physical characteristics as well as reinstating the soil fertility of degraded soils. Such mechanisms may help in the developer of innovative cost-effective management practices in order to improve the soil fertility and crop production in degraded soils. The role of bacterial and fungal inoculated in combination with organic materials could have a potential for restoration of soils degradation due to the effectiveness of organic matter that can fulfill the nutrient demand. Applications of bio-fertilizaters generally reduce the excessive use of chemical fertilizers. Several researchers reported that endophytes bacterial play a very crucial role in enhancing and promoting plant growth and resilience against abiotic and biotic stress. For enhancing nutrient availability, biomass production, leaf area, hydraulic activity, chlorophyll content, shoot and root ratio, there is a growing need to improve nutrients use efficiency in the soil in an eco-friendly manner, that can be achieved by the application of microbial nutrients solubilizes. Physical characteristics of soils provide by the plant rhizosphere and their microbial communities for a long time, the presence of plants with symbiotic fungal community always encourage the formation of stable macro-aggregates.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 694-773 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.3.56


Effect of Vermicompost, (PGPR) and Humic Acid on Egyptian Cotton Yield in A Clayey Soils

Ahmed H. S. A.

ABSTRACT: This investigation was conducted at Sakha Agriculture research station, Cotton Research Institute, Agric. Res. Center, Egypt, during 2018 and 2019 seasons to study the effect of vermicompost and the inoculation with some bacterial strains as bio-fertilizer (PGPR) and humic acid both separately or together with or without vermicompost on soil chemical and biological properties, cotton yield and some yield components, leaf chemical analysis and cotton fiber properties compared to the control at Giza 97 Egyptian cotton variety. The most important results can be summarized as follows: Adding vermicompost achieved the highest content of soil organic matter compared to the rest of the transactions under study Adding bacterial strains led to increase soil biological activity compared to the rest of the transactions, as well as the control treatments. This reflected directly on all the characters. The treatment of (PGPR) and humic acid in the presence of vermicompost increased the soil content of N, P, K elements along with the soil softness, soil total fungi, bacteria actinomycetes counts, as well as, boll weight, lint percentage, seed index and seed cotton yield (Kentar/fed.), the leaf chemical analysis, and fiber physical properties. All the treatments led to an increase in soil biological activity in terms of increasing the total bacterial, total Fungi counts. So, we can use this treatment safely to produce bio organic cotton. Generally, it could be concluded that the use of the treatment of spraying (PGPR) and humic acid in the presence of vermicompost is useful for the enhancement of soil chemical and biological properties. On the other hand, the pervious treatments decreased the degree of soil pH, EC and the fiber yellowness characters which followed an opposite situation than the rest of fiber characters. While, influence of main factors was not significant on fiber elongation percentage. From all the results we can recommend the use of bio-fertilization with Egyptian cotton varieties, which means using clean fertilizer, decrease used the mineral fertilizer and decrease environmental pollution.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 774-784 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.3.57


Assessment of Different Ventilation Methods for Compost Production

Fatma S. Moursy, M.A.M. El-Esaily, Ihab I. Sadek, Adel M.R.A. Abdelaziz and Medhat M. Boulos

ABSTRACT: Composting methods have resilient influence on spot differences in the physical and chemical characteristics of compost maturity. In the current study which carried out at Central Laboratory for Agricultural Climate (CLAC), from 1st October 2019 to 15th March 2020. Three ventilation methods for composting were evaluated, local turners, manual turning using hand shovels, and natural ventilation, the processes were examined between a week intervals up to 22 weeks. The gradual changes in physicochemical characteristics (temperature, pH, moisture content and C\N ratio) related by compost stability and maturity were studied and compared; the results showed that, mechanical ventilation and manual turning were higher than in the natural ventilation. The optimum level for compost stability and maturity parameters like moisture content, C\N ratio, pH, particle size, odor, and composting time were reached earlier in mechanical ventilation process as compared to manual turning ventilation processes. The final investigation results indicated that, using mechanical turning give best compost characteristics compared with natural or manual ventilation.

785-791 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.3.58


Distribution and Land Capability Classification of Soils in Wadi Watir Delta, Gulf of Aqaba, Sinai, Egypt

Moamen M. El Kady

ABSTRACT: Recently, the political leadership in Egypt focused on all state agencies concerned with the development of Sinai, with the need to achieve an economic dimension parallel to the security one. Hence, the Egyptian government always is seeking land resources potentially suitable for agriculture in Sinai. Especially, after establishing three stations of sanitary and agricultural wastewater treatment that pumping huge amounts of irrigation water annually inside Sinai. The scientists recommended that the delta of Wadi Watir, south-eastern of Sinai is a promising area for cultivation. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to; (1) identify and mapping the soils of Wadi Watir delta, (2) determine the dominant agricultural limitations, and (3) assess soils capability and their priorities for agricultural land use. The studied soils were characterized and distributed into; (i) almost flat deep coarse-textured soils that had 37.13% of the total studied area, (ii) gently undulating deep coarse-textured soils which covered most of the research site; 49.09%, and (iii) undulating deep coarse-textured soils that comprised the minimum portion 13.78%. Six agricultural limitations could be distinguished within the studied site as wind erosion, texture, content of gravel, topography, alkalinity, and soil fertility. The soils were evaluated into class III, indicating that the researched area are good for agriculture with special conservation practices. Soils of Wadi Watir delta was divided into two parts according to their priority for agriculture, i.e. priority (I) which had 54.52% of the total area, and priority (II) which had the rest portion of the considered soils.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 792-802 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.3.59


Physicochemical Analysis, Fatty Acid Composition and Heavy metals of olive oil obtained from different mills in Matrouh Governorate, Egypt

Sahar O. El-Shafee, Al-Shymaa F. Ali Gheita, Reham K. Badawy and Abd El-Nasser G. El-Gendy

ABSTRACT: This work was conducted to determine the physical and chemical properties, Fatty Acid Composition and Heavy metals in olive oil samples which have obtained from different Mills in Matrouh Governorate - Egypt. From the obtained results, it could be noticed that there were no significant differences among olive oil mills and extraction techniques which used in these mills in view of oils values; refractive index, Specific gravity, Peroxide value and unsaponifiable matters which appeared to be approximately the same. Also, results observed that there were slight differences in free fatty acids % and fatty acids composition between different olive oil mills. Fatty acid profiles for all olive oil samples were in the range of virgin olive oil according to IOC Standard and all mills were identical with permitted limits of extra virgin olive oil. Heavy metals (mg/kg) determined for six olive oil mills varied as follows: 1.272– 15.44 for Al; 0.6634-17.1 for Ca; 0.8357-35.17 for Fe; 0.1592-5.043 for Mg; 0.5397-16.88 for Sn and 0.0031-0.1024 for Ti. On the overall, Olive oil mill No_2 showed that higher concentration from heavy metal than other mills under study. We found that the content of the heavy metals in all of the tested oils was lower than the maximum values recommended for FAO/WHO.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 803-812 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.3.60


Effect of the Nozzle Shape and Diffuser on Droplet Size and its Precipitation Pattern for Gun Sprinkler

Imam H. M.

ABSTRACT: Gun sprinkler provides many distinguishes for on-farm water applicators but it produces a relatively high application rates and large droplets that tend to compact the soil surface and could damages leafs of seedlings. This work investigated the effect of orifice geometrical shape and adding diffuser vane on the droplet size and to improve the water precipitation pattern of the gun sprinkler. Three types of nozzles with an outlet orifice circular, square, and triangle shapes were standalone tested and with a diffuser vane of a 15° diffusion angle. The use of non-circular shape nozzles reduced the gun sprinkler range of 2.33 to 9.76 %, but the use of diffuser vane reduced the range of 18.75 to 30.43%. The noncircular shape nozzles improved the water precipitation pattern comparing the circular one. It produced a precipitation pattern with triangle shape and rectangle shape for square nozzle (SN) and triangle nozzle (TN) respectively. The circular nozzle (CN) produced droplet diameter less than 5 mm under 4 bar operating pressure while both square (SN) and triangle (TN) nozzles had no significant effect on droplet diameter under different operating pressures. The use of diffuser vane reduced the droplet diameter near to 5 mm for Square nozzle with diffuser vane (SND) and Triangle nozzle with diffuser vane (TND) under 3 and 4 bar operating pressures respectively. The mean droplet diameter (arithmetic, and volumetric) decreased by increasing pressure, and Square nozzle with diffuser vane (SND) gave the best droplet sizes.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 813-822 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.3.61