July-Sept. 2020


Interaction of Copper, Zinc, and their importance in plant physiology: Review, Acquisition and Transport

Abou Seeda M.A., Abou El-Nour E.A.A., Yassen A.A., Gad Mervat M. and Sahar M. Zaghloul

ABSTRACT: Copper and zinc are essential metals for proteins production in plants; they play important roles in photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport chains, in ethylene sensing, cell wall metabolism, oxidative stress protection and biogenesis of molybdenum cofactor. Zinc is main composition of ribosome and is essential for their development, and is active element in biochemical processes and has a chemical and biological interaction with some other elements. Copper and zinc deficiencies can alter essential functions in plant metabolism. On the other h and, copper considers in agriculture as an antifungal agent and it is extensively released into the environment by human activities. Accordingly, excess of copper is present in certain regions and environments, and exposure to that can be potentially toxic to plants causing phytotoxicity by the formation of reactive oxygen radicals that damage cells or by the interaction with proteins impairing key cellular processes, inactivating enzymes and disturbing protein structure. Copper concentrations, relative to zinc, can reduce the availability of zinc to a plant. Zinc deficiency leads to (Fe) deficiency, due to prevent of transfer of Fe from root to shoot system. Phosphorus is the most important element that interferes on Zn uptake by plants, gradually reduced by increasing phosphorus in soil, due to plant physiological factors. Plants have a complex network of metal trafficking pathways to regulate appropriately copper homeostasis in response to environmental copper level variations. Such strategies must prevent accumulation of metal in reactive form (metal detoxification pathways) and to ensure proper delivery of this element to target metalloproteinase. Sufficient amount of zinc in the plant improve the harmful effects of boron deficiency, on the other h and zinc deficiency decreases by increasing the concentration of boron particularly in young leaves and tips of the branches. The mechanisms involved in the acquisition and the distribution of copper and zinc have not been clearly defined, mainly obtained on copper uptake, and both intra- and intercellular distribution, as well as on long-distance transport, are contributing to the understanding of copper and Zinc homeostasis in plants and the response to elements stress. This review gives a brief overview of
the current understanding of main features concerning copper and zinc functions, as well as acquisition and trafficking network.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 407-434 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.3.37


Impact of foliar application of nanomicronutrient fertilizers on some quantitative and qualitative traits of" Thompson seedless" grapevine

Asmaa A. Mohamed

ABSTRACT: The present study was carried out during 2017/2018 on forty-five uniform Thompson seedless grapevines grown in a private vineyard at El-badary area, Assiut Governorate. This investigation was aimed to improve the yield and quality of Thompson seedless grape cultivar by using bulk and nano Zinc, iron and manganese. Five treatments were used T1: control (spraying with distilled water), T2: 1500ppm (bulk Zn + Fe+ Mn), T3: 2000ppm (bulk Zn + Fe + Mn), T4: 1500ppm (nano Zn + Fe + Mn),T5: 2000ppm (nano Zn + Fe + Mn). The obtained results revealed that Using Zinc, iron and manganese bulk or nano significantly increased yield, and improved the cluster and berry traits, and also improved leaf area, leaf total chlorophyll as well as leaf nutrient composition compared to control. While the all treatments resulted in significant increase of TSS/Acid ratio and also significant decreased total acidity (TA %) compared to control during the two studied seasons. It was evident from the results that nano Zinc, iron and manganese at 1500ppm the best treatment for improving the yield, cluster and berry traits, leaf area as well as leaf total chlorophyll and nutrient composition compared to the other treatments.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 435-441 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.3.38


Evaluation Quality of Guava Juice Fortified with Probiotic

Heba Y. Nasef, Ahmed A. Farrag, Eman F. Mohamed, Abd El-Aziz N. Shehata, G.A. Ibrahim

ABSTRACT: Recently, new nutritional trends, consumers’ concern for healthy lifestyle, growing numbers of vegetarians, and vegans in developed and developing countries, as well as the low cost of obtaining plant materials also contribute to greater demand for nondairy-fermented products (probiotic fruit juice) so. This study was carried out to evaluate the functional properties of probiotic (Lb. rhamnosus and Lb. acidophilus 2%), prebiotic (inulin- 2%) and synbiotic on quality attributes of guava juice during storage periods (1, 2 and 3 weeks) at refrigerator temp (2-6 oC). Microbiological, chemical, physical analyses and sensory properties were investigated. Four treatments were studied. Fresh guava juice was taken immediately after processing,T5 Guava juice + Lb. acidophilus + inulin, T6 Guava juice + Lb. acidophilus without inulin, T7 Guava juice + Lb. rhamnosus + inulin and T8 Guava juice + Lb. rhamnosus without inulin, in addition of control sample (guava juice only) . Objective and sensory evaluations were carried out to indicate the acceptability of the final products. According to sensory evaluation, after 3 weeks of storage there were, no significant differences (p<0.05) in all sensory characteristics of guava juice fortified with probiotic in all treatments as compared to control sample. Total sugars (reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars), Vitamin C, PH, acidity, total soluble solid, viscosity and color of the products were evaluated. All treatments of guava samples achieved a mean viable count of at least 107 CFU/ml during storage period. It could be concluded that the probiotic bacteria grew well in all treatments and were capable of surviving and maintaining high viability and enhancing functional properties in the all treatments during storage period without any changes in quality attributes of fruit juices. Therefore, this study indicated a potential for probiotic fruit juices as a valid alternative to dairy based probiotic products. High numerous health benefits of inulin, when combined with the health benefits of probiotic bacteria, could lead to the development of commercial beverages with high health and nutritional values. So food industries should be encourage use probiotic and prebiotic in several products to achieve health benefits of them.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 442-460 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.3.39


Biochemical studies of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids from flax seeds and primrose oils to improve the blood lipid profile and conversion to DHA, EPA in the retina and brain of albino rats

Fawzy M. Lashin

ABSTRACT: The present study was carried out on 45 adult male albino rats randomly divided into 3 groups. The first and second groups' male rats treated separately with flaxseed and primrose oils a dose of 0.3 mg/100g/day were taken orally plus fed on basal diet and compared with control rats group fed on a basal diet for 30 days. At the end of biological experimental determined that the fatty acids content from brain, retina lipid profile and complete blood count, in addition, flaxseeds and primrose oils were determined using HPLC. The results showed that the flaxseed is found in high concentration > 50% α linolenic acid and primrose are found in a high concentration of γ linolenic acid; both are the metabolic precursor to eicosapentaenoic acid C20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid 22:6 n-3 were found accumulation n-3 the brain cortex and retina in rats fed on flaxseeds and primrose oil compared with control rats fed on basal diet. Concerning, the other results revealed that improvement in clinical parameters was present in the primrose oil and flaxseed compared with the control group. Lipid profile (cholesterol/LDL) was decreased in the group received primrose oil. Moreover, the liver enzymes AST and ALT were improved. Therefore, the level amount of EPA and DHA increasing compared with control. This result finding suggests that γ linolenic (Primrose oil) is an effective treatment than α linolenic acid and control.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 461-468 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.3.40


Groundwater Geochemistry in El-Gallaba plain, Western Nile Valley, Egypt

Ahmed Gomaa, Elsheikh E. Abdelfattah and Hassan S. Sabet

ABSTRACT: The groundwater is considered as the main source for all proposes in El-Gallaba plain. Recently, the study area is a part of the Egyptian government development plan. This plan relates to concerned with the opening of Benban solar power station, which is considered as one of the largest solar power stations in the Middle East. The success of these strategies depends on the availability and reliability of basic hydrogeological, hydrologic and geochemical data. The groundwater tapping the Quaternary aquifer in the study area varies from fresh to brackish water types. Groundwater with low salinity as well as major ion concentrations have been detected in the southern side of the study area due to the hydraulic connection and mixing with the recent meteoric water and the River Nile. The higher groundwater salinity is mainly attributed to the leaching and dissolution as well as the thick clay sheets interbedded the aquifer matrix. Five hypothetical salt assemblage have been detected reflecting the impact of rock-water interaction and mixing processes on the groundwater quality. Based on the concentration of the dissolved trace and minor elements in groundwater, the aluminum concentration is less than the standard limits for human drinking (0.2 ppm) according to the world Health Organization for drinking water quality (WHO 2007). The recorded boron and iron concentrations are marginal to the standard limits recommended for drinking and short-term for irrigation. All groundwater samples have manganese and zinc concentrations less than both drinking water and irrigation limits guidelines. Based on the results of the analyses of the major, minor and trace elements, the majority of groundwater in the study area is suitable for direct use irrigation, while it needs treatment when used for drinking purposes.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 469-478 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.3.41


Enhancing the Electrochemical Performance of Spinel Zinc Stannate by Mixing with Natural Activated Carbon as Energy-Storage Material

M.M. Morad, R.M. AbouShahba and M.M. Rashad

ABSTRACT: This paper aims to the evaluation the electrochemical properties of spinel zinc stannate (Zn2SnO4) and the enhancement of this performance by mixing it with different ratios of naturally prepared activated carbon from pomegranate peels, Zn2SnO4 nano-octahedron-like structure was prepared by facile hydrothermal method using NaOH as a mineralizer. The resulted powder was then mixed with different ratios of naturally prepared activated carbon. The characterization of the as-prepared Zn2SnO4 powder revealed a surface area of 49.5 m²/g. Further morphological, optical and electrochemical properties were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscope, UV–Vis spectroscopy, and the electrochemical techniques. The as-synthesized Zn2SnO4 exhibited a specific capacitance of 212 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 while the optimum ratio is 10%AC+90%Zn2SnO4 hybrid composite exhibited 558 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 which means that capacitance of the Zn2SnO4 improved by mixing with 10 % activated carbon, indicating an outstanding improvement of the electrochemical storage capability with capacitance retention of 87% after 2000 cycles at a current density of 10 A g-1. Meanwhile, the practical asymmetrical hybrid-device results show a specific capacitance value of 48.6 F g-1 at 1 A g-1, Ed of 19.5 Wh kg-1, and Pd of 1047.7 W kg-1 with capacitance retention of 80% of the initial capacitance after 2000 cycles at a current density of 10 A g-1. Overall, these results demonstrate that the enhancement of Zn2SnO4 behavior was considered with the addition of the activated carbon on the electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor application.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 479-489 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.3.42


In vitro Propagation of Phytoplasma-Free Strawberry Plants and Molecular Characterization of the Pathogen

Samah A. Mokbel and Ahmed A. Kheder

ABSTRACT: Multiplication of strawberry plants in tissue culture has advantages as reduced exposure to many insects and several various diseases. During 2019 growing season, strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne cv. Festival) plants showing phyllody fruit symptoms, in which petals and sepals become leaf-like, were detected in planting fields in Ismailia governorate, Egypt. Phytoplasma associated with phyllody of fruit in strawberry plants was detected using phytoplasma universal primers, accurately identified at the molecular level, and the DNA sequence has been deposited in GenBank under accession number MT757900 with Isolate name SAMA. DNA from all symptomatic plants yielded PCR products of 1278 bp, whereas DNA from asymptomatic plants collected in the field yielded no products. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence of SAMA-isolate indicated that the 16S rDNA gene shared 100% identity with StrawbPhF-isolate classified in a group 16SrI (AY102275) that belonged to new subgroup R. Meristems (0.1-0.3 mm in size) were excised from the terminal and axillary buds of the strawberry-runners and then cultured on hormone-free medium. The two sizes (0.2 mm and 0.3 mm) of meristem had pronounced effects on the phytoplasma elimination (100%), and survival rates (66.6 % and 90%, respectively), but the smaller size of meristem had a deleterious effect to survival rate (0%). After approximately seven months and a half, rooted plantlets raised from meristem culture were confirmed for phytoplasma-free by a nested PCR assay. Therefore, the production of strawberry plantlets that needs no examination for their phytoplasma infection could be expected by applying the meristem culture method.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 490-500 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.3.43


Comparative Evaluation of Dentinal Microcracks Formation Caused by WaveOne Gold, Protaper Gold and Manual Files

Mostafa Ali, Salma El Ashry, Amira Galal Ismail

ABSTRACT: Aim: The purpose of this study is to compare the microcracks formation between reciprocating single file system WaveOne Gold, rotational multi file system Protaper Gold and manual file. Material and Methods: Forty eight lower central incisors with single straight canals were selected to observe microcracks formation after instrumentation using manual file, WaveOne Gold and Protaper Gold. Samples were divided into three groups (n=16) according to the instrument used for preparation. The roots were then sectioned horizontally at 3, 6 and 9 mm distance from the apex with a low speed diamond saw. All specimens were coded for identification under the environmental scanning electron microscope at 80x for each group. The presence of dentinal defects (complete/incomplete cracks and craze lines) were noted and analyzed by using the Chi-square test. Results: All types of nstrumentation produced a significant amount of craze lines in the three levels of the canal. No complete or incomplete cracks were found in any of the manual group specimens, however no statically significant differences were found between the Protaper Gold and WaveOne Gold in term of incomplete and complete crack, although Protaper Gold produced a higher number of incomplete and complete cracks in a higher number of specimens. Conclusion: Regardless of the limitations of this study. Root canal preparation with both rotary and reciprocating file systems resulted in dentinal defects, however there was no significant difference between the two groups.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 501-507 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.3.44


Evaluation and Optimization of Subsurface Irrigation (SDI) System: A review

Abou Seeda M.A., Hammad S.A., Yassen A.A. and Abou El-Nour E.A.

ABSTRACT: Adapting an irrigation system is not clear duty and the number of available techniques can induce genuine doubt about which one would be the best. Still largely dominated by traditional irrigation methods, the agricultural sector is slowly living a turn in water management, to a more controlled and sustainable way of irrigating fields. Micro irrigation shows major benefit for saving water, improving yields and crop quality as well. Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is a relatively new system technique that may give higher crop yields with less water than other irrigation systems. Proper site selection helps ensure optimum system performance and crop yield and minimizing expenses. The subsurface irrigation that ensure the availability of water for crops need to be developed for sustainable agriculture particularly, under climate changes. Irrigation is costly, so technologies need to be improved or newly developed, for sustainable agriculture use of precious water resources, and reducing labor and energy costs, which lead to higher production costs. Subsurface irrigation is a super water-saving system developed to irrigate upland crops through soil capillarity, Furthermore, considering, as an environmentally friendly, solar-powered automatic irrigation method with minimum energy consumption and operational costs. Micro irrigation systems along with their suitable applications, their installation, their advantages and limitations will help you consider the characteristics of your field, soil, crop, cropping system, and irrigation water resources as they apply to SDI.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 508-534 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.3.45


Allelopathic properties of the seed powder of either Petroselinum crispum or Coriandrum sativum on the growth and yield of Glycine max and associated weeds

Ahmed, S.A.A., Nadia K. Messiha, Sanaa A. Mohamed, R.R. El-Masry and Kowthar G. El-Rokiek

ABSTRACT: Two pot experiments were conducted in the greenhouse of the National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt, during two summer seasons of 2017 and 2018 to study the Allelopathic influence of both Petroselinum crispum and Coriandrum sativum seed powder on the growth and yield of Glycine max as well as its associated weeds Corchorus olitorius and Portulaca oleracea. Treatments were applied by incorporating the seed powder of P. crispum or C. sativum to the soil at (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25g/kg soil). The results showed that all the used rates (5,10,15,20 and 25g/kg soil) of P. crispum and C. sativum seed powder significantly decreased fresh and dry weight of both C. olitorius and P. oleracea at both growth ages (45 and 70 DAS) as compared to their mixed control. The maximum reduction in the fresh and dry weight of the two weeds i.e. C. olitorius or P. oleracea at the two ages was recorded with the highest concentration (25g/kg soil) of both materials. On the other hand, G. max growth, yield and its components were increased with all rates used as compared to their corresponding mixed controls. The highest increase in the growth, yield and its components of G. max associating C. olitorius was recorded with treatments (15, 20 and 10g/kg soil) P. crispum and (10, 15 and 5 g/kg soil) of C. sativum when compared with free control. Whereas, treatments of free control, P. crispum at 15& 20g/kg soil or C. sativum at 10 and 15 g/kg soil, respectively gave the highest increases of the previous parameters of G. max associated with P. oleracea at both ages. The allelopathic efficiency of P. crispum and C. sativum seed powder may be related to the presence of allelochemicals, mainly phenolic compounds as well as flavonoids which could play an important role, as a natural selective bioherbicide.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 535-544 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.3.46


Geophysical Investigation for Detecting the Groundwater Occurrence along Qift El- Quseir Road, Eastern Desert, Egypt

Hassan S. Thabet, Ahmed M. Kotb, Mohamed A. Khaled and Mohamed H. Amria

ABSTRACT: Surface geophysical survey was performed along Qift EL-Quseir Road between the Red Sea coast at the east and Qift town at the River Nile westward, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt, to delineate its groundwater situation. The groundwater in this hyper-arid area has a precious value for the different development objectives. The study area is characterized by presence of several aquifers (fracture basement, Nakheil formation, Nubian sandstone and Quaternary aquifers). These aquifers represent the main source of groundwater that used in tourist activities, mining and agriculture projects. The integration between surface geophysical techniques (land magnetic profiles, vertical electrical soundings (VES's) and electric resistance tomography), cover all gaps in study area. These surveys determine the horizontal and vertical extensions of the lithological succession, estimate the aquifers dimensions, the depth to water, the water level, estimate the characteristics of the water bearing formations, detect the basement relief, geological structures that affect the groundwater occurrences, locate the best sites for drilling productive water wells and finally Assess the groundwater potentialities in the study area. From this geophysical study, it can be mentioned that the promising sites for digging new productive water wells are, the delta of Fawakheir–Mathula basin, the Nubian sandstone plateau area (between km 15 to km 65 East the Nile), localities of El Sid and the downstream portion of W.Um Slimat, location of the delta of Abu Zeran-Ambagi basin (between km 2 to km9 from the Red Sea coast) and the downstream of W.El Nakheil sub-basin. Some exploratory drilling wells can be recommended in downstream portions of W.Kareem, El Beida area, W.Hamad and El Sheikh Abd Al'al region.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 545-563 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.3.47


Establishment of tissue culture study for in vitro propagation of Fortunella margarita from callus induction for shoot regeneration

Neveen H. El-Sadat

ABSCRATC:This work deals an establishment for in vitro propagation of Kumquats (Fortunella margarita.) from callus for shoot regeneration. Two types of explants (cotyledons and shoot tips) and two kinds of cytokines (BA and TDZ) at various concentricity from 0.1 to 4.0 mg/L, plus basal medium without any growth regulators as a control were used. Addition of the both of cytokines at levels 0.1 mg/L to 4.0 mg/L to WPM medium to both shoot tip and cotyledon explants gave 100 % of shoots proliferation with non-formation of callus. Shoot tip explants at 4.0 mg/L from both of two cytokine's produced shoots with callus formation. The cotyledons explants at 0.1 to 2.0 mg/L for both of two cytokines produced shoots and callus together. All the concentrations of both cytokines from 0.1 mg/L to 4.0 mg/L did not produced any roots. The media without any cytokines at 0.0 concentrations prevented development of callus, shoot, and root production. The cotyledons callus morphology was different than that derived from shoot tip. The shoot tip explants produced a yellow callus fail to format to shoots directly, and the yellow callus turn to brown callus when it transferred to the embryo induction medium, while the cotyledons explants produced a compact green embryonic callus when it transferred to direct shoot proliferation media. The highest concentrate (4.0 mg/L) from both cytokines produces the highest shoot number.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 564-571 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.3.48


Enhance in vitro propagation of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Barhee cv. by using Nano-bio fertilizers (Lithovit)

Ghazzawy H.S.

ABSTRACT: This work aimed to study the effect of Lithovit as a Nano bio-fertilizer on in vitro propagation of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivar Barhee, during multiplication and rooting stages, to obtain full intact plantlets, that can be successfully transferred to the acclimatization stage. Lithovit added at different concentrations (0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.0 g/L.) to culture media of proliferated somatic embryo clusters during the multiplication stage and elongated shoot proliferation during rooting stages. Data collected for vegetative growth during both studied stages, moreover the biochemical constituents of date palm cv. Barhee explants evaluated during the rooting stage. The results indicated that using Lithovit at 0.25g/ L caused a significant increase in all studied vegetative growth parameters during the multiplication stage comparing to the control treatment. And for the rooting stage, data indicated that using Lithovit at 0.75 g/L concentration gave the highest values of vegetative growth parameters. Also, the results showed that Lithovit at 0.75 g/l in rooting medium gave a significant increase in biochemical constitutes of the total sugars (mg /1g), amino acids, total chlorophyll, total indole (mg /1g), and total phenols (mg /1g) comparing to the control treatment. In conclusion, the obtained results recommended using Lithovit as growth stimulators, for enhancing the multiplication stage and, improving the rooting stage, in date palm cultivar Barhee, to optimize successful micropropagation protocol.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 572-582 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.3.49


Effects of Malaria on Rural Households’ Farm Labour in South-East, Nigeria

Nwakwasi, R.N., Nwachukwu I., Okoli I.C., Ukpongson M.T and Godson-Ibeji C.C.

ABSTRACT: This study analyzed the effects of malaria on rural households’ farm labour in South-east Nigeria. The objectives were to describe the socioeconomic characteristics of farmers; determine labour days lost to malaria and the cost of labour days lost due to malaria in South-east Nigeria. Structured questionnaire and mixed Focus Group Discussions (FGD) and key informant interview were used to collect data from 360 household heads in rural communities of Imo, Abia and Ebonyi States of the Soiuth-east region. Percentage score, mean, bar charts and labour cost analysis were used to achieve the stated objectives. The results revealed that majority of households in Ebonyi and Imo State, were headed by women (55.0 % and 59.2 % respectively) unlike Abia State (49.2%). Average farming experience in the study was 15 years. Rural farmers from Imo recorded lower years of farming experience because some of them went into full time farming in the later part of their lives usually close to retirement age as was observed in the field. Rural farmers in the three States had an average farm size of 0.5 ha. Ebonyi State however had the highest percentage (5.8 %) of rural farmers having farm size of 3ha and above. Rural farmers in Ebonyi State had the largest household size of 8 and above (33.3 %). The average household size for the study was in the range of 4-7 persons per household. Reasonable proportion of rural farmers in the three States had primary education and secondary education qualitifcations with higher percentage of the rural farme rs in Ebonyi State in this category but having fewer rural farmers (20.0 %) who attained tertiary education when compared with Abia State (23.3 %) and Imo State (29.2 %). From the result, an average of 6 days, 5days 6days per episode of malaria in every 3 months in Abia, Ebonyi and Imo States, respectively. Imo State had the highest cost of labour (N2188.00) lost to malaria due to incapacitation, the next being Abia (N1730.66) and finally Ebonyi (N1171.80). The study concludes that malaria results in increases household spending on labour as well as decline productivity by incapacitating available household labour. Hence, it is recommended that government should deploy effective healthcare delivery through community-based healthcare advocacy and services to reduce the days of incapacitation.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 583-589 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.3.50