Jan-March, 2021


Some skin affection in New Valley Governorate

Galbat S. A.

ABSTRACT: During the veterinary convoys that toured the centers and villages of the New Valley in 2017and after clinical examinations of animals many skin problems are observed in animals After examining more than 250 cows, 120 goats, 73 sheep, 12 of equine, and five camels, It was found that there are various skin problems in more than 30% of the mentioned numbers, While more than 50% suffer from other disease Approximately 20% of the animals are in an apparently healthy By clinical examination of animals Showing skin symptoms, it was found that 50% of them suffer from external parasites such as ticks lice and fleas, while there were 17 cases of mange , 30 cases of Alopecia, 25 cases of dermatitis, 4 cases of photosensitivity and 8 allergic cases There were also 12 cases of lumpy skin disease nodules , 8 cases suffering from warts and skin papilloma A camel suffers from saddle ulcers, and the other two suffer from mange two cases of cows suffer from insect pit, which led to the presence of traces of ulcers on the back and the top of the tail. Our studies directed to identify parable causes of skin problems in New Valley and try to prevent and control its speeding with specific treatment.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-9 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.1.1


Potential Probiotic Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Vended Dairy Products

Mohamed Abdel baser, Samy Mohamed Abdelhamid, Ahmed Ali Attia Radwan and Hussien Hossney El-Shikh

ABSTRACT: Nowadays, there is an increasing regard in the production of functional foods, predominantly probiotic foods. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), especially strains of Lactococcus spp. and Lactobacillus spp., are important bacteria in field of food microbiology and human nutrition. The traditional, fermented dairy foods as a rich source of wild LAB can insert new Lactococcus spp. And Lactobacillus spp. strains having probiotic properties into some food products. The aim of this study was isolate and identify LAB in traditional vended dairy products and to determine some of their probiotic properties. Out of thirty samples of street vender different dairy products, three samples including homemade yogurt, raw milk and white cheese were found to contain Lactococcus spp. and lactobacillus spp., which were identified using biochemical and molecular testing. Potential probiotic properties, including acid and bile tolerant, antimicrobial activity, and antibiotic susceptibility were assayed for the. isolates The Lactococcus spp. and lactobacillus spp. isolates showed tolerance to pH 2 and 0.3% bile salt after 3 h of incubation and also showed antimicrobial activity against coded test organisms represented by Gram negative bacteria; Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Aeromonas salmonicida ATCC 9033 and Gram positive bacteria represented by Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Enterococcus faecalis NCTC 10413. Furthermore, they have been assayed for their antibiotic susceptibility. In conclusion, these strains of Lactococcus spp. and lactobacillus spp. isolated from vended dairy products showed alike some of probiotic activity.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 10-17 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.1.2


Clean Agritechnique Efficiency Using Compost, Halex-2 and Seaweed on Yield and Quality of Okra

Mona M. Yousry and Amal K. Abou El-Goud

ABSTRACT: Two field experiments were conducted at the Faculty of Agriculture, (El-shatby), Alexandria University, during the summer seasons of 2017 and 2018, in order to study the effect of compost, Halex- 2 and Seaweed on okra yield and quality (cv. Turkey). The effects of the treatments on the growth, yield and plant nutrient contents of shoots and fruits were determined. The results showed that using T1,T7, T8, T9, T10 and T11enhanced significantly vegetative growth characters (plant height cm, No. leaves/plant, No. of branches/plant, leaf area index cm2, shoot, root fresh and dry weights and nutritional status of plants in leaves and fruits) except T2, T3 gave the highest values in chlorophyll reading of leaves. From data it is obvious that T4 gave the lowest mean values of the given characters. Treatments contained Halex-2 and seaweed increased significantly all morphological characteristics and qualities of okra. The treatments (T7, T9, T10 andT12) lead to increase mineral contents, vitamin C and T.S.S. of fruits compared with T4 treatment. The highest values of total yield were achieved by T9 compared with T4. The use of T1, T8 and T9 were also increased mean values of the No. of fruits/plant, fruit length, fruit diameter and average fruit weight significantly compared with other treatments. This study demonstrated the possibility of producing a good yield of okra safe and healthy without any applying chemical fertilizers via integration of compost, Halex-2 and Seaweed algae as a Clean Agriculture technique.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 18-27 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.1.3


Nutritional Evaluation of Chia and Moringa Seeds Flour and Quality Characteristics of Fortified Cookies

Salem M.A., E.M. Elsharkasi, M.E.A. El-Sayed and M. A. El-Bana

ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to investigate the utilization of defatted Chia seeds flour (DCSF) and defatted Moringa seeds flour (DMSF), as replacement of wheat flour at different levels (5, 10 and 15%) to prepare cookies rich protein and minerals. The obtained results revealed that, DCSF and DMSF, are very rich in protein, ash and fiber compared with CSF, MSF and wheat flour 72%.Wheat flour (72%) contains lower values in all determined elements excepted for sodium compared to chia and moringa seeds in addition, moringa seeds had higher values of potassium, phosphorus, copper, than those of chia seeds. The total amino acids of chia and moringa seeds were (56.97 %) and (79.13 %) respectively. Furthermore, moringa seeds were rich in essential and non- essential amino acids than chia seeds. Total saturated fatty acid of moringa seeds oil were higher (23.43%) than that of chia seeds oil (9.53%).High amounts of extracted polyphenolic compounds by ethanol from chia and moringa seeds were (1.63 and
1.34 mg gallic acid/g of DW) respectively. Moisture, crude protein, ash and crude fiber contents increased in cookies products in contrast, carbohydrates value decreased gradually with increasing the substitution levels of DCSF and DMSF. From the results of sensory evaluation, it should be noted that, fortification of DCSF and DMSF until 15% is acceptable for the sensory evaluation of cookies. Based on the obtained results, the new product of cookies contained DCSF and DCMF can be covered protein and minerals of nutritional needs of schoolchildren in developing countries and could be recommended as a food aid in institutional feeding programs for pupils in different school stages.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 28-42 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.1.4


Effect of Fertigation with NPK on Growth and Yield of Seqae Date Palm Produced From Tissue Culture Grown Under Al-Wadi Al-Jadid Conditions

Hamdy A. Mahdy

ABSTRACT: A field study was carried out during three successive growing seasons of 2018, 2019 and 2020 on Seqae date palm produced from tissue culture grown in a private orchard at El-Dakhala Oasis, Al-Wadi Al- Jadid Governorate, Egypt (latitude 25 ̊ and longitude 29 ̊). The palms were received different rates of N, P and K fertilization. Three N- fertigation rates (N1= 500, N2= 750, N3= 1000 g actual N/palm/year) in the form of NH4NO3; two P-fertigation rates (P1=400 and P2=800g P2O5 /palm/year) as H3PO4 and two K-fertigation rates (K1=600 and K2=1200 g K2O /palm/ year) as K2SO4. All the considered N and K rates were divided into 80 unequal doses applied from first week of February to the last week of November (8 doses in each month). Full dose of nitrogen in month’s (February, April, June, August and October). Half of nitrogen was used in March, May, July, August, September and November. While full dose of potassium in months (March, May, July, September and November) half of potassium was used in February, April, June, August and October. While P rate was divided into 40 doses (4 doses / month) and were added as solution by fertigation. The results showed that NP and K fertigation increased growth , fruit set ,yield and improved the fruit physical characteristics (fruit weight and fruit dimension) and fruit chemical characteristics ( total sugars % and T.S.S) at tamer stage, especially with high levels of NPK- fertigation. Thus, it is recommended to add the high levels of Nitrogen (1000g N/palm/year) Phosphorus (800 g P2O5 / palm) and Potassium (1200g K2O/palm /year) (treatment 12) to increase the yield and fruit quality of Seqae date palm grown under Al-Wadi Al-Jadid Governorate conditions.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 43-50 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.1.5


Milk Thistle Seeds Powder: A Potential Source of High Value-Added for Functional Pan Bread

Safaa S. Abozed, Manal F. Salama, Wafaa M. Abozeid and Doha H. Abou Baker

ABSTRACT: Silybum marianum is a member of the Asteraceae family, also known as milk thistle. The milk thistle seeds contain silymarin, silymarin is the main active compound in seeds and is both an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. The objective of the work was to determine the influence of milk thistle seed powder on the physical, antioxidant, and organoleptic properties of pan bread enrichment with different ratios (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%). Antioxidant properties, chemical composition, color properties, baking quality, texture profile analysis, freshness and organoleptic properties of pan breads enrichment with Milk Thistle Seeds (MTS) powder were analyzed and compared with control sample. Cytotoxicity effect of milk thistle seeds extract against hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG-2) using viability assay was investigated in this study. Total flavonoide contents, radical-scavenging activity, specific volume, significantly increased with the addition of MTS powder. Pan breads containing MTS powder also showed better organoleptic evaluation scores. Milk thistle seeds extract at various concentration showed an exhibited a potent anticancer effect against human liver cancer cell (HepG2). Pan breads containing MTS powder can thus be developed as a health-promoting functional food include protecting liver health.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 51-62 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.1.6


Assessment of Automatic Pulse Drip Irrigation Technique on Water Application Efficiency and Water Productivity of Cucumber Crop

El-Shafie A.F., M.A. Marwa, O.M. Dewedar, A.A. Ghoname and R.E. Abdelraouf

ABSTRACT: There are more implications for using controlling methods of scheduling irrigation and pulse drip irrigation to improve soil moisture distribution, water application efficiency and yield in greenhouse conditions. The main goals of this research paper are to maximize water application efficiency and improve crop and water productivity of cucumber crop, using manual and automatic control for scheduling irrigation and three pulses treatments (Ps6: 6 pulses/day, Ps3: 3 pulses/day and Ps1: 1 pulse as a control) using drip irrigation system under greenhouses conditions. To achieve the goals of this study, two field trials were conducted in greenhouse during 2017/2018 and 2018/2019 seasons at the research farm station of National Research Centre, Al-Nubariya Region, Al-Buhayrah, Egypt. The results indicated that, the automatic control scheduling irrigation under all pulses drip irrigation gave the superior in soil moisture content, water application efficiency, yield and water productivity. The highest values of soil moisture content were under 6 pulses for irrigation per day and the lowest values were at continuous irrigation “Ps1” with both irrigation scheduling controlling methods. The highest water application efficiency values were 97 and 96.3% under automatic irrigation and 6 pulses/day treatment, the lowest values were 89 and 86% under manual irrigation and 1 pulse/day, for the two growing seasons, respectively. The same trend is found between yield and water productivity of cucumber crop. Generally the highest values of yield were (453.8 and 152.1 ton ha-1), and the water productivity were (25.67 and 24.9 kg m-3) under automatic control of scheduling irrigation with 6 pulses/day, for the two growing seasons, respectively. Finally, the use of pulse irrigation with automatic control is preferred as an alternative to manual control of scheduling irrigation.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 63-75 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.1.7


Chloride Ions as a Beneficial and Essential Micronutrient Multifunctional, Role and Regulation in Plant Physiology: A Review

Abou Seeda M.A., Abou El-Nour E.A.A, Hammad S.A. and Yassen A.A.

ABSTRACT: Chloride occurs predominantly as Cl− in soil, plant, and considering as a micronutrient largely excluded by plants due to its ubiquity and abundance in nature. It is an essential micronutrient of higher plants and participates in several physiological metabolism processes. Including osmotic and stomatal regulation, evolution of oxygen in photosynthesis, disease resistance and tolerance. Chloride (Cl−) has traditionally been considered harmful to agriculture because of its toxic effects in saline soils and its antagonistic interaction with nitrate (NO3−), which impairs NO3− nutrition. It has been largely believed that Cl− antagonizes NO3− uptake and accumulation in higher plants, reducing crop yield. However, we have recently uncovered that Cl− has new beneficial macronutrient functions that improve plant growth, tissue water balance, plant water relations, photosynthetic performance, and water-use efficiency (WUE). Increasing plant biomass indicates in turn that Cl− may also improve nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). Structure of water around the sodium and potassium ions is a key test of the quality of interaction potentials, and are not completely aligned toward their electric fields, but rather tilted. This tilt is more defined for potassium than it is for sodium. The hydration number of sodium is restricted to either five or sex molecules, however for potassium has ranging from five to ten molecules. Most striking energetic difference between Na and K resides in the first shell. Water molecules have a very strong interact under such condition Na+ is more effect on the soil salinity than K+. However, an increase in Na+ content is always accompanied by Cl– accumulation and K+ loss in plants exposed to salt (NaCl) stress.Considering that N availability is a bottleneck for the growth of land plants excessive NO3− fertilization frequently used in agriculture becomes a major environmental concern worldwide, causing
excessive accumulation leaf NO3− in crops particularly in vegetables, that poses a potential risk to human health. New farming practices aimed to enhance plant nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), by reducing NO3− fertilization should promote a healthier and more sustainable agriculture. Given the strong interaction between Cl− and NO3− homeostasis in plants, we have verified if indeed Cl− affects NO3− accumulation and NUE in plants. For the first time to our knowledge, we provide a direct demonstration, which shows that Cl−, contrary to impairing NO3− nutrition, facilitates NO3− utilization and improves NUE in plants. This is largely due to Cl− improvement of the N–NO3− utilization efficiency (NUTE), having little or moderate effect on N–NO − uptake efficiency (NUPE) when NO3− is used as the sole N source. Clear positive correlations between leaf Cl− content vs. NUE / NUTE or plant growth have been established at both intra- and interspecies levels. Optimal NO3– versus Cl− ratios become a useful tool for increasing crop yield and quality, sustainability of agricultural land and reducing negative ecological impact of NO3− on the environment and human health as well .

[ FULL TEXT PDF 76-125 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.1.8


Effect of Adding Magnetic Iron and Fertilizer Rates on Vegetative Growth, Yield, Quality and Storability of Cucumber

Sheren A. Atala, S. Abou-El-Hassan, F.A. Hashem and Manal M.H. Gad El-Moula

ABSTRACT: Reducing the use of mineral fertilizers with maximizing their efficiency is a requirement of great importance for world agricultural production and leads to preserving the environment and reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), which will reduce the impacts of climate change on the agricultural sector. This experiment was performed to evaluate the efficacy of magnetic iron under different rates of mineral fertilizer on the production, fruit quality and storability of cucumber. The experiment was carried out in the experimental farm of Dokki site for Protected Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation and Laboratory of Handling of Vegetable Department, Horticulture Research Institute, Giza, Egypt, during two successive seasons of 2018/2019 and 2019/2020. Three rates of recommended mineral fertilizer (100, 75 and 50%) of NPK with and without adding magnetic iron (soil addition at rate 5g/plant), were applied on cucumber (Gianco F1). All vegetative growth properties, nutritional status of plants, yield and properties of cucumber fruits were improved significantly by increasing mineral fertilizer rate to 100%. The plants treated with magnetic iron recorded a significant increment in growth, NPK content of plants, yield and properties of cucumber fruits compared to
untreated plants. The highest yield was produced by using 100% mineral fertilizer with adding magnetic iron. Noteworthy, application of 75% mineral fertilizer with adding magnetic iron had achieved yield and fruit quality higher than using 100% mineral fertilizer without adding magnetic iron. The highest nutrient use efficiency was true using magnetic iron with 50% mineral fertilizer. The treatments of 100 and 75% mineral fertilizer with adding magnetic iron improved the storability of cucumber fruits (reduced weight loss and color change; maintained fruit firmness, TSS and ascorbic acid content) and exhibited good appearance till 16 days of storage at 10 °C plus two days at 15 °C as a shelf life compared to using 100% mineral fertilizer without adding magnetic iron which had less effect in this concern.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 136-142 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.1.9


Foliar Spraying of NPK to Relieve Salinity Stress on Tomato Plants

Hassan A. Hamouda and S.H.A. Shaaban

ABSTRACT: A pot experiment was carried out to study the effect of NPK foliar spraying on salt tolerant of tomato plants. Seedlings were grown in plastic pots 30 cm, filled with loamy sand soil. Seedlings were irrigated every week with saline two type’s salts (NaCl and CaCl) at two levels 2g and 4g L-1. Seedlings were sprayed with foliar spraying containing NPK. Two months later from transplanting of seedlings leaf samples were taken for determination nutrient contents. The result showed that NPK foliar spraying had a positive effect on soil, growth development, yield and the nutrient concentrations in leaf plant of tomato under the impact of adverse salinity. Although the salts levels of soil have an effect on the absorption of nutrients by tomato plant. But, foliar spraying has a positive effect on the concentration of N, K, Ca, Fe, Mn and Cu in plant leaves.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 143-152 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.1.10


Assessment of AquaCrop Model in Simulating Wheat Crop Water Use and Productivity in Middle Egypt

Nematallh Y.O. Mokhtar and Amira A. Kasem

ABSTRACT: The high cost of applied research and the effect of many environmental parameters limiting yield production encouraged researchers to develop and implement empirical models able to simulate and predict crop yield close to that obtained under field conditions. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) AquaCrop model is one of these models. It was calibrated and validated for its ability to simulate growth, biomass and grain yields and crop evapotranspiration of wheat (Misr 2 cultivar) using two-year observed data of a field experiment conducted on clay soil under Giza (middle Egypt) condition during 2018/2019 and 2019/2020 seasons. The effect of three irrigation intervals (I1: 21 days; I2: 28 days; and I3: 35 days) on wheat yield and its components and on some water relations was tested. After model calibration/validation processes, four sowing dates (10 and 25 November, 10 and 25 December) with four irrigation intervals and one deficit irrigation treatment were used as scenarios for adaptation study. The root mean square error (RMSE), coefficient of determination (R2), and percentage difference (Pd) statistical parameters were used to evaluate the model performance. Results revealed that the predicted data by AquaCrop were in close agreement with the measured data. The observed values were within 90 to 99% of the predicted values in the 1st season, and within 91 to 100% in the 2nd season. Statistical analysis results showed a strong linear relationship between the simulated and the measured data under different irrigation interval treatments in both seasons. The best-fitting model result was obtained with growing session duration with average values of two seasons for R2 (0.98), RMSE (5.23 days) and Pd (0.98%) followed by the simulated biomass yield with values of 0.97, 363 kg ha-1 and 0.99%. The corresponding values of grain yield were 0.94, 355 kg ha-1 and 0.95%, respectively. The crop water use values were 0.95, 35mm and 0.91%. The results of adaptation study showed that increasing soil moisture content increased simulated aboveground biomass, grain yield and ET crop. Results indicated also that sowing wheat cultivar Maser 2 at Giza region from 10 to 20 November with irrigating crop every 28 days maximize yield and save about 16.3% of irrigation water. The overall results based on extensive validation of the model indicated that AquaCrop is a valid model and can be used with a reliable degree of accuracy to predict wheat yield.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 153-164 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.1.11


Susceptibility of Purified Acetylcholinesterases from Rhynchophorus Ferrugineus towards Insecticides and Botanical Extracts

Magda A. Mohamed, Shebl Shaalan, Abd-Elhady M. Ghazy, Atef A. Ali, Ahmed M. Abd-Elaziz, Manal M. Ghanem and Sarah A. Abd-Elghany

ABSTRACT: The susceptibility of two purified acetylcholinesterases (AChEs), AChEIIb and AChEIIIb, from red palm weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, to inhibition by different synthetic insecticides and botanical leaves extracts in vitro has been investigated. In addition, the mechanism of inhibition has also been estimated. R. ferrugineus AChEs showed similar trends to inhibition by synthetic insecticides and the inhibition potency can be arranged in a descending order; deltamethrin > carbosufan > oxamyl> emamectin benzoate > chloropyrifose > malathion. All the examined insecticides competitively inhibited R. ferrugineus AChEs with Ki values ranging from 0.14 to 0.7 mM and IC50 values from 0.15 to 0.75 mM, while malathion and emamectin benzoate showed noncompetitive inhibition manner. The susceptibility of R. ferrugineus AChEs to inhibition by botanical extracts can be arranged in a descending order: olives Olea europaea > neem Azerachita indica > basil Ocimum basilicum with Ki values ranging from 3.5 to 14 mg and IC50 values from 5 to 20 mg. O. europaea competitively inhibited R. ferrugineus AChEs, while the others noncompetitively. By HPLC, oleuropein is the major active compound present in the O. europaea (96.8%). Malathion and chloropyrifos, as organophosphate (OP) insecticides, have the least potency to inhibit R. ferrugineus AChEs. The susceptibility of R. ferrugineus AChEs to insecticides and botanical extracts seems to be a helpful approach for selecting the most efficient insecticide(s) for RPW management. These results may justify the complaint by the farmers regarding the low efficiency of OP insecticides for controlling RPW. O. europaea extract can be examined in vivo for introducing it as integral part of an integrated pest management programs against RPW.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 165-187 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.1.12


Biosynthesis of Ag nanoparticles by associated root rot disease fungi of sugar beet and its biocontrol by Trichoderma hamatum fungus

Gamal A Farahat

ABSTRACT: Rhizoctonia solani , Sclerotium rolfsii, Fusarium oxysporum and other fungi were positive in extra than intracellular production of Ag NPs with different in ability. The tested fungi could be reduced silver salt to Ag NPs and confirmed stable brown color visually in mixture solution. Consequently, UVVis spectral analysis to reaction mixture of cells filtrates and silver nitrate salt were showed strong absorbance at peak 420nm which was specific for the silver NPs performance. In addition to, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) of dried powder samples of AgNPs from R.solani , Sc. rolfsii, F.oxysporum mycelium showed the presence of nine bands at cm-1. Moreover , Enrgy – Dispersive X- ray (EDX) spectroscopy analysis for AgNPs conformation showed presence of elemental silver by sharping signals at optical absorption band peak exactly at (3 keV) to the three fungi . As size of AgNPs ,Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed synthesis of polydisperse spherical ranged of 47-62 nm to R. solani , ranged from 84-134 nm to Sc.rolfsii and31-47 nm to F.oxysporum and rose like(pentagons). Mycelium of tested fungi contained Ag NPs of 5.36, 9.82 and 10.38% of mass, respectively. F.oxysporum was the most producer one but R. solani and Sc. rolfsii exhibited a new source to Ag NPs. In vitro, Trichoderma hamatum have mycoparasitism ability of Sc.rolfsii and R.solani fungi mycelium. Trichoderma inoculum at 4, 2g/hill were superior to 60 and 120g/ plot as soil drench ,in the revers, Trichoderma (1cm disk) / hill grown on PDA was the lowest one in controlling of root rot disease in sugar beet . F. oxysporum followed by Sc.rolfsii were more effective than R.solani by Trichoderma application .At all, Trichoderma led to reduce damping off by 3.22-82.71%; root rot disease severity by 9.36-43.07%; disease index by 51.82-85.79% ; sucrose and total soluble sugar enhanced by 2.37-36.24%.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 188-203 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.1.13


The Bacterial Lethal Effect of Gaseous or Liquid CO2 in Raw Milk

Baraka A. Abd El-Salam

ABSTRACT: The consumer demands for high-quality, minimally-processed products that are microbiologically safe have been increased. Raw skim milk or pathogenic bacteria-inoculated sterilized milk was treated with gaseous or liquid (subcritical) CO2at different levels and stored at 4°C for 7 days. The bacterial reduction performed by gaseous or liquid (subcritical) CO2, as nonthermal method, at different levels in raw milk was compared to those of achieved by laboratory thermal pasteurization. The counts of standard plate count (SPC), coliforms and psychrotrophic bacteria were determined at 1, 3, 5 and 7 days of storage period in raw milk treatments and pasteurized milk. The pathogenic bacterial counts were determined in inoculated sterilized milk during storage period. Changes in the pH values and sensorial properties of raw skim milk treated with different levels of gaseous or liquid CO2during storage at 4°C were evaluated. The results showed that the SPC reduced till the 5th day of storage period with liquid CO2 at different levels, while the SPC of control (without adding CO2) and gaseous CO2 treated raw milk treatments increased with prolonging storage period but the SPC growth rate of gaseous CO2 treated raw milk treatments was lower than those of control allover storage period. The coliforms and psychrotrophic bacteria of liquid CO2– treated raw milks were lower than those of treated with gaseous CO2 along storage period. The liquid CO2 (28.17 mM) treated raw milk showed the absence of coliforms allover storage period and almost similar low counts of SPC and psychrotrophic bacteria to those of pasteurized milk. The counts of different studied pathogenic strains inoculated in sterilized milk declined with increasing liquid CO2 level and prolonging storage period. The counts of E. coli (two strains) lowered, while S. aureus and B. cereus slightly increased with gaseousCO2. The pH slightly decreased with increasing gaseous or liquid CO2levels and storage period. Off odors and coagulation are not recorded for liquid CO2 - raw milk treatments along storage period. Hence, the liquid CO2 (28.17mM) can be used as effective method of storing bulk raw milk and as nonthermal method for milk pasteurization.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 204-211 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.1.14


Effect of packaging types on prolonging marketing period and fruit quality of Balady lime (Citrus aurantifolia B.) fruits

Ahmed H. A. Mansour

ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to investigate the influence of packaging types on prolonging the marketing period of Balady lime fruits as well as to maintain the best quality of fruits during the marketing periods. The fruits were harvested and received some post-harvest packaging treatments these treatments were packaging in perforated plastic bags (T1), Packaging in Perforated cellophane paper (T2), packaging in perforated plastic boxes (T3), packaging in non-perforated plastic bags contain calcium hydroxide (T4), packaging in non-perforated cellophane paper calcium hydroxide (T5), packaging in non-perforated plastic boxes calcium hydroxide (T6) and packaging in sealed foam plate by polyethylene stretch calcium hydroxide (T7). After packaging, fruits were stored in two different temperatures, room temperature (25°C and 50 – 65 % relative humidity) and cold temperature (7±2°C and 65-75% relative humidity). Fruits kept at room temperature were examined every 2 days but, under cold temperature conditions, the samples were examined every 1 week. Our results demonstrated that these packagings reduce weight loss and unmarketable fruits weight as well as maintain the highest quality of fruits during marketing were packaging in non-perforated plastic bags (T4), packaging in non-perforated cellophane paper (T5), and packaging in non-perforated plastic boxes (T6).

[ FULL TEXT PDF 212-225 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.1.15


Protective Role of Alpha Lipioc Acid against Liver Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Cytokines Induced By Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides

M. Fesal, F. Seif, A. Abdella and H.M. Amin

ABSTRACT: Lipopolysaccharide is one component of the gram-negative bacterial cell wall and its massive release within the circulation resulted in hepatotoxicity through inducing oxidative stress after a short period of time from the exposure. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the anti-oxidant effect of alpha lipioc acid (ALA) against liver oxidative stress induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Materials and methods: The experiments were performed on forty adult male albino rats for a month. Each group consisted of ten rats and was distributed as follows: (Group I): normal control saline, (Group II): LPS intoxicated group, (Group III): orally pre-treated with ALA, and (Group IV): orally pretreated with ALA before injection with LPS. Results: LPS injection amplified liberating pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β & IL-6) (Il- 10 anti-inflammatory cytokine) as well as lipid peroxidation
(MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as liver oxidative stress biomarkers. On the other hand, liver reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) levels were decreased. Liver function enzymes ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, beside total cholesterol, and triglyceride were significantly increased above normal rates. ALA was able to limit bacterial poison and its oxidative side effect on the whole body. Conclusion: Precautions, by taking ALA for a month before LPS injection was found to improve inflammations, antioxidant activities, and liver architecture.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 226-236 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.1.16


Rural-urban differentials in selected socio-demographic characteristics of Bangladeshi population

Rabiul Islam and K.M. Mustafizur Rahman

ABSTRACT: Differences is socio-demographic and economic sectors remain are somehow considered as the stumbling block to the sustainable development. This paper makes an attempt to explore the situation of rural-urban differentials to find a clear picture in formulating new policies and programmes regarding overall socioeconomic development of Bangladesh. The data of this study was mainly collected from the Report on Bangladesh Sample Vital Statistics (SVRS) of different years published by Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS). It is found that, despite government initiatives to reduce rural-urban disparity in the context of development, the inequality between rural and urban areas persists and challenges continue to evolve. The results of this study should contribute to the creation of innovative and effective policies and programmes that can improve the status of rural-urban differentials in Bangladesh. Findings of this study need to be scientifically utilised in developing suitable programmes addressing the causes of rural-urban differentials in Bangladesh. Otherwise, the aim of comprehensive and sustainable development may remain elusive.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 237-244 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.1.17


Investigation of the Effects of Gram -Negative Bacteria on the Immune Responses and Liver and Kidney Functions in Albino Rats

Amin, H.M.

ABSTRACT: Gram-negative bacteria can cause many serious infections, such as pneumonia, peritonitis, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections and wound or surgical site infections. The present study aimed to demonstrate the role of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in innate and adaptive immune responses, lipid profiles and liver and kidney functions in male albino rats. Animals were divided into control groups that were injected intraperitoneally with saline solution (0.9% NaCl) and treated groups that received daily intraperitoneal injection with 0.2ml of bacterial suspension containing 6 × 10 cells/ml of 0.9% NaCl. Rats were sacrificed at the days 4, 8, 12, 16 post-injection and the results indicated that bacterial infection induced alterations in most of the measured parameters. The biochemical changes recorded were characterized by decreased serum total proteins, albumin, urea, uric acid, AST, ALT and HDL cholesterol. On the other hand, remarkable increase was noticed in total lipids, total cholesterol and (LDL) cholesterol. Marked increase was noticed in total WBCs, monocyes, eosinophils, basophils neutrophils, phagocytosis in vitro and in vivo, PFC percentage, agglutination ratio, total immunoglobulin level. On the other hand, a marked decrease was noticed in lymphocytes percentage (lymphopenia), leukocyte migration inhibition factor (MIF) and Positive results of the precipitation test in all infected rats were recorded. Conclusion: From the previous results, we can conclude that Aeromonas hydrophila infection could affect the innate, cell-mediated and humoral immunity and liver and kidney functions in mammals. The complications accompanied with Aeromonas septicaemia may be attributed to the immunological and biochemical changes resulted from the bacterial infection, so, the use of immuno-modulator is necessary in treatment besides the antibacterial drugs.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 245-257 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.1.18


Studies on Micro Propagation of Dracaena sanderiana Plants

Gehan M. Y. Salama, A.S. Tawila and Abla H. Dergham

ABSTRACT: The experimental was intended to find out the well protocol for in vitro propagation of Dracaena sanderiana. In this respect, plant shoot tips were effectively surface sterilized with a mixture of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as commercial Clorox and mercuric chloride (HgCl 2 ) were used at 1.5 % NaOCl and 2.0 g/l HgCl 2 . Shoot tip explants were cultured on full MS-medium contains 1.5 mg/l IBA to establishment. For shoot multiplication, MS-medium contains 2 mg/l BA produced the highest number of shoots. For in vitro rooting, 2.0 mg/l IBA gave the highest number of roots and root length. Plantlets after rooting exhibited 100% survival in pots containing peatmoss and sand at a ratio of 3:1 under greenhouse conditions.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 258-264 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.1.19


The Effect of Spraying Boric Acid and Marine Algae Extract on the Growth and Yield of Coriander Plants

Hafiz Y.A.M. and Kenawy A.G.M.

ABSTRACT: This study was conducted at Sids Horticulture Research Station - Horticulture Research Institute - Agricultural Research Center during the seasons 2014/2015 and 2015/2016 under the conditions of North Upper Egypt to study the effect of foliar spraying with boron (0, 0.5 and 1 gl -1 ) and algae extract (0, 1, 2, 3 gl -1 ) and their combinations on coriander plants. The responses of growth characteristics, crop components and some chemical components, with fertilizing coriander with the recommended amount of mineral fertilizer with all foliar treatments (boron compound and algae extract). Results led to a significant improvement as there was a positive effect on various vegetative growth characteristics such as plant height, number of branches and herb dry weight /plant. The best treatments resulted from the treatment (0.5 gl -1 of boric acid with 3 gl -1 of algae extract), whether in a single condition or in an overlapping condition compared to control. There was a clear and significant improvement in the properties of coriander crops. i.e. the number of fruits per plant and the amount of fruit yield per acre, as well as, essential oil content and oil components. Accordingly it is recommended that spraying coriander plants with a boric acid at a concentration of 0.5 gl -1 in combination with 3 gl -1 of algae extract improved the vegetative growth, yield components and percentage and quality of volatile oil.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 265-276 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.1.20


Effect of some Bread Improvers on Staling in Flat Bread

Amany M. Sakr

ABSTRACT: Emulsifiers, hydrocolloids and enzymes are used as an anti-staling agent in bakery products, providing increasing of their shelf life, which is especially interesting for industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the emulsifier (monoglyceride), hydrocolloids (xanthan and guar gum) and of different α-amylases on the quality of flat bread during storage. The results showed that the maltogenic and fungi α-amylase turned out to be an ideal anti-staling enzyme in flat bread. Also, the addition of gums (guar and xanthan) caused a slight decrease in the firmness values of the flat bread as well as, firmness was found to be increasing with the increasing level of monoglyceride in flat bread. The moisture continued to decrease, but with different additives, the decrease continued with slower rate. Finally, bread containing a mixture of xanthan, maltogenic α-amylase, and monoglyceride maintained superior texture characteristics over the storage period while a mixture of guar, maltogenic α-amylase, and monoglyceride was less effective over the same period.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 277-292 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.1.21


Analysis of School Plant Management Practices towards Environmental Aesthetics on State Universities in South East Geo-Political Zone of Nigeria

Okwara H. U., Ukozor F.I., Onye C.O. and Anyaogu R.

ABSTRACT: The study was carried out to analyze school plant management practices towards environmental aesthetics on state universities in south east geo-political zone of Nigeria. Specifically, the study assessed the relationship between school plants procurement and environmental aesthetics; operation of school plants and environmental aesthetics; and the relationship between school plant maintenance and environmental aesthetics of State Universities. Data for the study were collected from 336 respondents from Abia State, Anambra State, Ebonyi State, Enugu State and Imo State using survey method. Pearson Product Moment Correlation PPMC was used to analyze the data collected. From the result, the coefficient of correlation between school plants procurement and environmental aesthetics of State Universities was 0.35, indicating the existence of low but positive relationship between school plants procurement and environmental aesthetics of State Universities. The coefficient of correlation between operation of school plant and environmental aesthetics of State Universities was also low and positive (r = 0.24). The coefficient of relationship between school plant maintenance and environmental aesthetics of State Universities was 0.29 implying the existence of low but positive relationship between school plant maintenance and environmental aesthetics in the study area. The study concludes that school plant management practices are very important for sound education of students towards the realization of educational goals and objectives. Hence, it recommended that Government should ensure that adequate funds are made available for the procurement of school plants.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 293-298 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.1.22


Ameliorative Effect of Honey and Bee Venom against Renal Injury Induced by Lipopolysaccharide (Lps) And Carbon Tetrachloride (Ccl 4 ) in Male Albino Rats

Nagy S. Tawfik, Suzan Alaa Ismail and Noha M. Meligi

ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to assess the potential effect of honey and bee venom (BV) on nephrotoxicity caused by LPS (Lipopolysaccharide) and CCl 4 (Carbon Tetrachloride) in rats. Sixty-four male albino rats of an average weight of 120–150 g were included in this study. Rats were divided into 8 equal groups of 8. The results showed that treatment with LPS/CCl 4 caused in a significant increase in serum urea, creatinine as well as uric acid. The use of honey (25 mg/kg b.wt.) and BV (1 mg/kg b.wt.) attenuates to LPS and CCl 4 induced renal dysfunction was demonstrated. Honey and/or BV may therefore be a potential therapeutic method to prevent LPS/CCl 4 -induced renal dysfunction.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 299-304 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.1.23


Biological evaluation of stabilized full fat black rice bran in hypercholsterolemic rats

S.G. Arafa

ABSTRACT: This study was performed to investigate the effect of feeding on stabilized full fat black rice bran (S- BRB) in hypercholesterolemic rats. Chemical composition and total phenolic compounds (TPC) of (S– BRB) was determined. Results revealed that (S–BRB) is a good source of crude protein being 15.45%, and crude fat was 16.31%, while the amount of ash and crude fiber were 9.10 and11.01% respectively. Also, total phenolic compounds of (S–BRB) contained (5.08 mg Tannic acid equivalent/g), obtained results illustrated that substitution of feeding hypercholesterolemic diet with (S–BRB) led to improvement the High lipoprotein cholesterol HDL-C. Furthermore, hypercholesterolemic diet with (S– BRB) replacement at 75% and 100% also recorded the best and nearest of HDL-C to the negative control. It was observed also that LDL- cholesterol value of negative control diets (G1) was 33.92mg/dl, but also the value of the hypercholesterolemic in control (G2) was 179.80 mg/dl. On the other hand, the LDL cholesterol of rats fed on hypercholesterolemic diet substitution with (S–BRB) 25, 50.75 and 100% (G3, G4, G5 and G6) being 77.04, 61.68, 54.51 and 50.98 mg/dl, respectively. At the final of experiment (10 weeks), ALT was significantly increased for the hypercholesterolemic control (G2) was 53.76 U/L, while negative control (G1) was 29.38 U/L respectively. Feeding on hypercholesterolemic diets substituted with (S–BRB) (G3, G4, G5 and G6) led to a more reduction at level 25, 50, 75 and 100% were 36.36, 34.35, 33.25 and 31.15 U/L, respectively comparing with hypercholesterolemic control (G2). Briefly it be could conclude that (S–BRB) has pronounced effect in lowering cholesterol serum levels and may be useful for patients suffering from liver and cholesterol diseases.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 305-312 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.1.24


Effect of Bacterial Inoculants on Composition, Quality Characteristics, Bacterial Count and Nutritional Values of Date Palm Frond Silage

Hala M. A. Farrag and M.M.El-Nahrawy

ABSTRACT: Three experimental silages were formulated from 59% date palm leaves, 40% discarded date palm fruit and 1% Urea, then it was divided into three different parts. The first, control without inoculant; second, inoculated by Enterococcus faecium; third, inoculated by Lactobacillus plantarum and opened on 0, 7, 21, 40 and 60 days of ensiling. Results showed that inoculated silages with E. faecium and L. plantarum were led to significant (P<0.05) in contents of CP, EE, NFE and NFC and significant (P<0.05) decrease in contents of CF, NDF, ADF, ADL, cellulose and hemicellulose compared to the control silage. The pH value of silage was lower significantly (P<0.05) with E. faecium and L. plantarum treated silage contrasted to control silage. Concentrations of lactic, acetic and propionic acids were significantly (P<0.05) the highest, however the concentrations of butyric acid and ammonia-N were significantly (P<0.05) the lowest in silage inoculated with L. plantarum followed by silage inoculated with E. faecium, however the lowest values were done in untreated control silage, The counts of E. faecium inoculant increased up to 21 days of ensiling and L. plantarum inoculant increased up to 40 days of ensiling and decreased afterwards. Counts of E. faecium strain was the highest at 21 days of ensiling, whereas, the highest counts of L. plantarum strain was at 40 days of ensiling. The counts of Enterococci and Lactobacillus increased significantly (P<0.05) in inoculated silages in comparison with uninoculated silage. Enterococci rich the highest counts at 21 days of ensiling in L. plantarum inoculated and at 40 days of ensiling in E. faecium inoculated silage. Meantime, he counts of Lactobacillus rich the highest counts at 7 days of ensiling in L. plantarum inoculated silages and at 21 days of ensiling in E. faecium inoculated silage. However, uninoculated silage recorded significantly (P<0.05) higher counts of Enterococci and Lactobacillus at 60 days of ensiling in compared to inoculated silages. Predicted dry matter intake (DMI) as a percentage of live body weight (LBW), dry matter digestibility (DMD), relative feeding value (RFV), relative forage quality (RFQ), digestible energy (DE) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) were significantly (P<0.05) higher with E. faecium and L. plantarum inoculated silages compared to uninoculated control silage. However, gross energy (GE) did not affected significantly by bacterial inoculants.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 313-322 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.1.25


Incorporated Untraditional Sources of Roughage in Growing New Zealand White, NZW) Rabbit Rations and Its Effects on Nutrient & Cell Wall Digestibility and Nutritive Values

Roshdy I. El-Kady, Hamed A.A. Omer, Sawsan M. Ahmed, Walid S. El-Nattat Aly A. El-Shahat, Mahmoud Y. El-Ayek and Ashraf A. A. Morad

ABSTRACT: Seventy eight rabbits (4-5wks) divided into 13 groups that contained 6 were used in thirteen digestibility trials to study the availability of using rice straw (RS) or corn stalks (CS) as untraditional roughage sources as a partial or complete substitution or replacement for clover hay . Replacing clover hay (CH) that incorporated in control at 33% of ration formulation by RS treated with or without Pleurotus ostreatus and CS with or without Trichoderma reesei at levels (0, 11, 22 and 33%).Untreated RS (UBTRS) or biological treated (BTRS) with Pleurotus ostreatus caused an increasing in their contents of crude protein (CP), nitrogen free extract (NFE) and Ash while CF, OM, NDF, ADF, ADL and hemicellulose decreased in comparable with the raw rice straw. On the other hand, biological treatment of CS (BTCS) with Trichoderma reesei occurred a decreasing in their values of OM, crude fiber (CF), NFE, NDF, ADF, cellulose and hemicellulose, meanwhile, CP, ash and ADL contents of (BTCS) and untreated CS (UBTCS) were increased. All dietary treatments significantly increased OM digestibility. The best value of OM digestibility was recorded by rabbits fed 33% BTRS. Rabbits fed 22% and 33% BTRS or 22% UBTCS and 11% BTCS significantly (P<0.05) increased CP digestibility. Rabbits fed 33% (UBTRS or BTRS) and significantly increased CF digestibility. The best value of EE digestibility was recorded by rabbits that fed 33% BTCS. All dietary treatments significantly (P<0.05) increased NFE digestibility. All dietary treatments significantly (P<0.05) increased TDN value. Also, Rabbits received 22% and 33% BTRC and 22% UBTCS & 11% BTCS significantly (P<0.05) increased their value of DCP. The highest value of NDF digestibility was recorded by rabbits fed 11% BTCS, meanwhile the lowest value was observed with 33% UBTCS (P<0.05). Rabbits fed 11, 22 and 33% BTCS occurred significantly (P<0.05) increasing in hemicellulose digestibility.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 323-333 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.1.26


Effects of Bio-Stimulants on Pre and Post-Harvest of Hippeastrum hybridum Cv. Baby Star

Rehab A. Soffar

ABSTRACT: Hippeastrum hybridum cv. “Baby star” is grown for its ornamentals’ cut spike as well as a pot and bedding plants. Plants were exposed to eight foliar application with one month intervals of two biostimulants, dry yeast extraction at the rates of 3.0-4.0-5.0 and 6.0 g/l and seaweed extraction (algal extraction) at the level of 1.0-2.0-3.0 and 4.0 ml/l and control treatment (0.0). Using seaweed extraction at 2 ml/l greatly affected the vegetative growth, resulting in the highest plant height, leaves fresh and dry weights, leaf area. The lowest flowering time resulted from using seaweed at 1 ml/l. The vase life of cut spikes was increased by using dry yeast extraction at the level of 5 g/l or seaweed extraction at 3 ml/l, in the two seasons. However, spike length and its dry weights were greatly increased by 4 ml/l of seaweed foliar spray. The highest cut flowers in vase was obtained using yeast foliar spray at 5.0 g/l or seaweed foliar spray at 3ml/l Bulbs volumes and weights were also affected using seaweed foliar spray at the rate of 2 or 4 ml./L in the two seasons, respectively. Seaweed foliar spray 2 ml/l resulted in the highest chlorophyll content as well as yeast extraction at 4.0 g/l. However, the highest anthocyanin content in petals’ spike was obtained using 5 g/l from yeast foliar application.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 334-342 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.1.27


Productivity and Pest Resistance of Black Cumin in Response to Organic and Chemical Fertilizers

Esam A. A. Al-Azzony and M.M.A. Ibrahim

ABSTRACT: The present study was carried out to investigate the impact of organic fertilizers as land application under NPK levels on black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) growth, chemical components, productivity, susceptibility to pest's infestation and harboring natural enemies during 2016 / 2017 and 2017 / 2018 seasons. The results cleared that, the tested fertilizers were influenced target parameters of N. sativa plants significantly. The high means of plant height, root length, branches, roots and inflorescences numbers, fresh weight of plant (with and without fruit), fruit, root and 100 seeds; chemical components of, N, P, K, Carbohydrates, Volatile oil and Fixed oil; Also, the high values of Lauric, Myristi, Palmitic, Stearic, Oleic, Linoleic, Linolenic and Eicosadienoic fatty acids were recorded for plants received humic acid and/or Nitrobeen under the level of 75 % NPK. The results of pests infested N. sativa plants revealed highly significant differences (P < 0.01) between its mean numbers due to variation in rates and types of fertilizers. The lowest mean numbers of dominant pests were recorded for E. decipiens, A. gossypii, B. tabaci and T. tabaci, N.viridula , O. hyalinipenni and H. armigera on N. sativa plants received same previous treatments. Also, the mean numbers of inspected pests were correlated significantly with plant height and branches number. According to these results, mineral fertilizers could be managed with bio and organic fertilizers for producing good yield and tolerant black cumin plants to pest's infestation to avoid bad side effects of agrochemicals with the aim to get safe foods

[ FULL TEXT PDF 343-359 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.1.28


Application of Trichoderma Spp. in Controlling Orobanche Ramosa Parasitism in Chamomile

Mahmoud A.T. El-Dabaa, Karima H. E. Haggag and Ragab A. El-Mergawi

ABSTRACT: Biological control could play a role in the management of Orobanche parasitism in plant production. Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of three Trichoderma spp.including T. hamatum, T. viride and T. harzianum on controlling O. ramose parasite in chamomile plant .Soil treatment with Trichoderma (at 3.6×10 8 propagules g -1 ) was effective in reducing infection with O. ramose by delaying in Orobanche attachments and reducing number and growth of tubercles. T. hamatum and T. viride completely protected chamomile plants against Orobanche infestation until 3 months after transplanting. Fungi treatments caused more than 75% reduction in number of O. ramosa attachments, fresh and dry weights of tubercles. Moreover, Trichoderma treatments improved chamomile growth, where the treatments increased fresh and dry plant biomass between 59-90% and 67.6-112.2%, respectively compared with untreated plants. Among the three applied fungi, T. viride produced the most enhancement effects on chamomile growth. Results revealed that the application of tested Trichoderma spp. could play an important effect in controlling O. ramosa parasitism in chamomile as a natural bio-herbicide as well as enhancing the growth parameters of chamomile.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 360-367 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2021.11.1.29