April-June 2020


Antifungal Activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens Metabolites against some Phytopathogenic Fungi

Omnia M. Mohamed, Rania A. A. Hussein, Mona H. Badawi and Hussien E. Makboul

ABSTRACT: The effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens culture, culture filtrate and the crude antibiotics extracted from culture filtrate were in vitro studied against six plant pathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium solani, Fusarium semitectium, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii and Botrytis cinerea). P. fluorescens effectively inhibited the mycelial growth of all fungi in dual culture tests. Also, the culture filtrate at different concentrations reduced the mycelial growth except S. rolfsii. The culture filtrate at the EC50 concentration was effective in reducing the total contents of soluble sugars, free amino acids, total proteins and enzyme activities produced by the phytopathogenic fungi. The antifungal compounds were extracted with equal volume of ethyl acetate. The antifungal
compounds from P. fluorescens at 100 mg ml-1 completely inhibited F. oxysporium and S. rolfsii and purified by column puriflash and re-tested for antifungal activity. The major compound in the crude antibiotics was characterized by TLC, mass spectrometry and FTIR. The molecular weight of this compound was 255.4 m/z. In FTIR analysis, antifungal compound extracted from P. fluorescens
revealed absorption at 3318.13 per cm pyrrole ring and CH3 (stretch) (1450.2) and C=C aromatic weak intensity (1662.44), C-Cl2 (624.81). This confirms that the antifungal compound in crude extract is pyrrolnitrin.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 158-168 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.2.18


Reproductive and Neuroprotective Effects of Selenium and Vitamins A, C, E against Mercuric Chloride- Induced Biochemical and Genetic Toxicity in Female Rats

Samah F. Ahmed, Ibrahim M. I. Laila and Marwa S.M. Diab

ABSTRACT: This study designed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of Selenium and vitamins A, C, E combination administration in the form of film coated tablets (Se-ACE) on induced neurological and reproductive disorders resulted from mercuric chloride (HgCl2) toxicity in rats. Twenty four adult female rats were allocated into four groups each of six rats. Group I: served as control, group II: was administrated Se-ACE (5 mg/kg), group III: intoxicated with HgCl2 (4 mg/kg) and group IV: received both HgCl2 + Se-ACE. Rats were given all treatments orally for 14 consecutive days. Intoxication with HgCl2 caused a significant increase in Hg concentration in brain and ovary homogenates, histopathological alterations in rat brain hippocampus and striatum as well as ovary architecture, DNA damage, and marked reduction in acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity, progesterone (P4), luteinizing (LH) and follicle stimulating hormones (FSH) levels. Also, HgCl2 toxicity generated imbalance in antioxidant-oxidant status in neuronal and ovarian tissue through raising the reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO) levels and a decrease in activity of super oxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels compared to rats of control group. Concurrent treatment with HgCl2 and Se-ACE pharmaceutical combination restored these parameters near to normal range when compared to HgCl2 intoxicated animals. Hence, our results suggest that Se-ACE tablets exhibited a protective and ameliorative potential against neurological and reproductive impairments caused by HgCl2 toxicity.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 169-182 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.2.19


Interactive Effect of Zinc Foliar application and Potassium Fertilizer on Productivity and Grains quality of Wheat

Abido W.A.E. and Rasha S.A. El-Moursy

ABSTRACT: In order to study the response of wheat growth, yield, yield characteristics and grains chemicals analysis to zinc (Zn) foliar treatments under top dressing of potassium (K) fertilizer levels, two field experiments were conducted at the Experimental Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Mansoura University, Egypt, during 2017/2018 and 2018/2019 seasons. The experiments were laid out in a strip-plot design with three replicates, each experiment comprising of twenty-five different treatments of five zinc foliar application treatments (without as control, spraying with water, 150, 300 and 450 g Zn/fed) were allocated at the vertical-plots. While, the horizontal-plots were devoted to five potassium fertilizer levels (0, 14, 28, 42 and 56 kg K2O/fed) as top dressing. The results showed that zinc foliar application treatments significantly increased growth, yields and its attributes and grain quality of wheat plants and the highest values of all characters under study were recorded with 450 g Zn/fed compared with the other foliar application in both seasons. Potassium fertilization positively enhanced the growth, yield characters and grains quality of wheat. Application of 56 kg K2O/fed produced the highest values of most studied traits and without significant differences with 42 K2O/fed as compared with other potassium levels during both growing seasons. Therefore, the current study detected that foliar application with 450 g Zn/fed), besides potassium soil addition at 42 K2O/fed to improve the productivity and grain qualities of wheat Gemiaza11 cultivar under the same environmental conditions of the agriculture area.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 183-195 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.2.20


Nickel, Iron and Their Diverse Role in Plants: A Review, Approaches and Future Prospective

Abou Seeda M.A., EL-Sayed A.A., Yassen A.A., Abou El-Nour E.A.A., Sahar M. Zaghloul and Gad Mervat M.

ABSTRACT: In plant sciences, the prodigious significance of micronutrient is unavoidable since plant relies primarily on micronutrient as it has profound influence on array of plant activities. Nickel and iron are considered as the most important essential heavy metals (HMs) for plant nutrition. However, the increased amount of HMs within the plant tissue adversely affected plant physiology, and displays direct and indirect toxic impacts. Such direct effects are the generation of oxidative stress, which further aggravates inhibition of cytoplasmic enzymes and damage to cell structures. Heavy metals (HMs) toxicity has an unavoidable threat to environment and public health due to their increasing contamination and accumulation in atmosphere that ultimately passes to the living beings by the route of food chain. Heavy metals are increasing rapidly in soil and water by weathering of rocks and anthropogenic activities and are now emerging as a major health hazard to humans and plants. Iron and nickel play a crucial role in biochemistry and are essential micronutrients for plants and humans alike, also controversial elements because of debate on its essentiality or non-essentiality in plants. Both elements are important micronutrients because many metallo-enzymes including urease, Ni - Fe hydrogenase, Ni-superoxide dismutase. High concentration of both elements may affects all cellular and metabolic processes and causes retardation of germination, competition with other essential metal ions, osmotic imbalance, alteration of many enzymatic activities, disruption of cell structure and wilting, reduced photosynthetic activity, oxidative stress. Plants also possess some natural and stress-induced strategies to cope up with Nickel excess and /or toxicity. While iron is complexed with chelators and distributed to sink tissues where it is used predominantly in the production of enzyme cofactors or components of electron transport chains. The processes of iron uptake, distribution and metabolism are overseen by tight regulatory mechanisms, at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level, to avoid iron concentrations building to toxic excess. This review focuses on researches done on the morpho-biochemical alterations induced by elevated both Ni - Fe elements concentration in plants and as well as the strategies adapted by plants to survive and neutralize the effects of these alterations.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 196-219 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.2.21


Effect of Drying Process on the Quality of Table Olives

Badawy H.A.A., Susan M.M. Abd-Elmageed and Rania I.M. Almoselhy

ABSTRACT: The present work aimed to investigate the effect of drying conditions (temperature and time) on the quality of green table olives (Oleo eurapaea L.) Picual cultivar during the drying process in order to obtain the best processing conditions to avoid losses and keep product quality of table olive. Oven temperature varied from 50 to 70°C drying rates were determined and the proximate analysis of dried green olives was evaluated by analysis of moisture, protein, ash, fiber and oil contents. Peroxide value, acidity and fatty acids composition of extracted oil from olive samples were determined. Consumer's acceptance test was applied. A comparison of fresh and dehydrated olive showed that oven drying led to decrease of crude protein. Crude fiber content showed a slight increase during drying and may have undergone some alterations in its structure due to Maillard reactions. Ash content also showed a slight variation but may be considered as practically unchanged. Fatty acid analysis revealed that table olives were especially rich in oleic acid and the fatty acid composition did not show significantly change during drying. Olives can be considered as a product with a satisfactory microbiological quality and nutritional value with regard to bioactive ingredients. It brings about substantial reduction in mass and volume which has important economic benefits through reducing packaging and minimizes the volume of containers with maximum net weight, thereby lowering transportation costs, avoids losses and keeps high quality of longer shelf-life of table olives.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 220-227 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.2.22


Importance of Molybdenum and it Diverse Role in Plant Physiology: A Review

Abou Seeda M. A., Yassen A. A., Abou El-Nour E. A. A. and Sahar M. Zaghloul

ABSTRACT: Nitrogen fertilization is an indispensable part particularly, in modern agricultural practices and rank first among the external inputs to maximize output in agriculture production. Nitrogen fertilizer may contribute substantially to environmental pollution. The continued and unabated use of N fertilizers would accelerate the depletion of stocks of non-renewable energy resources used in fertilizer production. Nitrogen fertilizers must be sought, thus, emphasis should be laid in developing new production methods that are sustainable both ergonomically and economically practices. When plants are grown under molybdenum deficiency, a number of varied phenotypes develop that hinder plant growth. Most of these phenotypes are associated with reduced activity of molybdoenzymes. These enzymes include the primary nitrogen assimilation enzymes such as Nitrate reductase (NR), and the nitrogen-fixing enzyme nitrogenase found in bacteroids of legume nodules. Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) can act as a renewable and environmentally sustainable source of N and can complement or replace fertilizer inputs. Molybdenum (Mo) may alleviate drought stress through enhancing antioxidant defense in plants; drought stress is a major environmental stress that limits plant growth and crop production. Plants have developed various complicated adaptive mechanisms to cope under drought stress by triggering a series of physiological and biochemical. Such mechanisms, antioxidant defense play crucial role in the alleviation of damage caused by drought stress. Phytohormones and signal molecules are involved in the regulation of antioxidant defense, which destroy reactive oxygen species (ROS), and thus, confers drought tolerance to plants. Molybdenum (Mo) extensively reported to facilitate the improvement of abiotic stress tolerance against salinity, and water stress in plants

[ FULL TEXT PDF 228-249 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.2.23


Change of Surface Charge of Moringa olifera Seeds Powder and their Effects on Protein Binding Lead (II)

Sherif S. Saleh, Nahed S. A. El-Shayeb, Adel F. Ahmed and Ahmed H. Ibrahim

ABSTRACT The drinking water needs to be treated in order to remove impurities and bacteria to meet the quality guidelines which satisfy 5 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) for drinking water requirement according to World Health Organization. In this study we conducted to use coagulation method to remove the heavy metal (lead ions) from synthetic waste water by using various pH (2, 4, 6 and 8) and concentration of lead (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/l) during coagulation periods (1, 2 and 3 days). At the end of coagulation periods, turbidity, total participant protein and quantity of heavy metals in clarified water was determined against distilled water as control. Moringa oleifera as coagulant reduced the initial amount of lead in clarifying water pH 6 to 0.097 (ug) optimum dosage of 1.5 g L–1 after 3 days. The treatment efficiency of Moringa oleifera as a coagulant matter with using pH 6 after three days gave 93.509 % of protein binding lead. Thus, in the light of this study, an establishment of a cheaper and safer coagulant such as Moringa oleifera seed to treat the problems that rises due to the usage of aluminum sulphate such as health implications for rural areas usage can be established.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 250-262 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.2.24


Rapid Authentication of Extra Virgin Olive Oil using UV and FTIR Spectroscopy

H. Hashem, Rania I.M. Almoselhy, M. El-Waseif and A. Magdy

ABSTRACT Spectroscopic examination in the ultraviolet (UV) can provide information on the quality of an oil, its state of preservation and changes brought about by technological processes. The absorption at the wavelengths 232 nm and 270 nm in cyclohexane is due to the presence of conjugated diene and triene systems, respectively, resulting from oxidation processes and/or refining practices. These absorptions are expressed as specific extinctions conventionally indicated by K (also referred to as "extinction coefficient"). In this work, the specific extinctions at 232 nm and 270 nm in cyclohexane are calculated for a concentration of 1% w/v for extra virgin olive oil adulteration with sunflower, corn oils in their binary admixtures in different concentrations (0, 5, 15, 25 and 100% w/w). Results revealed that the adulteration will be detected easily by UV absorbance at 270 nm because sunflower oil showed a shift out of the permitted range at 15% upward higher concentrations added to extra virgin olive oil. Also, corn oil will be detected if present in 15% upward higher concentrations in blends with extra virgin olive oil. The calculated ΔK allowed the detection of adulteration in extra virgin olive oil at the concentration of 15% upward higher concentrations of adulterant sunflower and corn oils; and this is the lowest detectable value in adulterated extra virgin olive oil. Also, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) is used as an effective analytical tool in order to determine extra virgin olive oil adulteration with sunflower, corn oils in their binary admixtures in different concentrations (0, 5, 15, 25 and 100% w/w). A band around 2925 cm-1 along with its intensity (assigned to C–O stretching and symmetric stretching vibration of the aliphatic CH2 group) along with a very strong band along with its intensity located at 1743 cm-1 (assigned to the C=O stretching band of the ester group) were important to detect concentration of 5% adulterants SO and CO in EVOO. The present work successfully achieved its aim included in the applications of UV and FTIR spectroscopy as rapid, cheap, nondestructive, authenticity measuring tools to assess the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil with other edible oils such as corn and sunflower oils in detection limit 15% for UV and 5% for FTIR spectroscopy. Library searching in the FTIR region is a well established and powerful way which was used in comparison and matching of measured spectra.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 263-271 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.2.25


Screening and Molecular Identification of Cellulase-producing Bacillus spp. from Agricultural Soil: its potential in biological control

Mohamed M. Gharieb, Gaber A. Abo-Zaid, Shimaa I. Bashir and Elsayed E. Hafez

ABSTRACT: Bacillus spp. were isolated from rhizosphere soils on LB agar plate. Forty cellulolytic bacteria were isolated and screened for production of cellulase enzyme on a basal agar medium containing carboxymethyl cellulose (0.5% w/v) as a sole carbon source. Among them, 23 isolates were identified as good producers of cellulase, which were then quantified. The crud enzyme of the selected isolates was harvested, after 24h incubation, and tested for enzyme activity. Isolate B71 had the highest extracellular cellulase activity at 0.05 U/ml. The molecular analysis of 16S rRNA gene showed a close relationship between the isolate B71 and Bacillus subtilis HGUP332. This bacterial isolate showed a high antagonistic activity toward Pythium spinosum where the percentage of inhibition was up to 50% as compared to control.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 272-278 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.2.26


Production and characterization of antifungal compound from Bacillus sp. GRP against Rhizoctonia solani using bio-nano-fungicide

Heba H. Maghrawy, Ola M. Gomaa, Samir ElGizawy, Refae I. Refae and Hussein Abd El Kareem

ABSTRACT: Rhizoctonia solani is responsible for stem canker which often leads to yield loss or in severe cases, plant death. Previously, Bacillus sp. GRP isolated from rhizosphere of healthy potato plants was found to produce antifungal substances that are active against Rhizoctonia solani. The present study tests the antifungal production, characterization and formulation into bio-nano-fungicide for field application. Among four media tested, the maximum growth and antifungal production was found in tryptone soya broth medium under static condition at 30°C, pH7, inoculum density 1% and 72 h incubation. Antifungal substances were extracted and identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) that revealed the presence of two compounds which were assigned as fengycin and surfactin. Crude antifun gal compounds were immobilized on nanoclay particles and its antifungal ability and stability test to inhibit the pathogen compared with the free compound were evaluated. At the same time, bio-nano-fungicide characterization was performed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and FTIR. The immobilized compounds inhibited fungal mycelial growth (92%) at 50 ppm. In addition, immobilized compounds showed good stability at different storage periods, as well as enhanced biocontrol efficiency in soil. All these characteristics suggest the possible use of bio-nano-fungicide as a valuable option for biological control purposes.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 279-293 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.2.27


Efficacy of Coconut Oil (Cocos nucifera L.) Fortification on Lipid Profile of Rats with Induced Hypothyroidism

Heba H. Mohammed, Naeem M. Rabeh and Mohammed H. Haggag

ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of coconut oil fortification on serum lipid profile of rats with induced hypothyroidism. Thirty adult male albino rats (Sprague-Dawley strain), weighing about (200 ± 10g) were divided randomly into two main groups as follow: the first group (- ve control, n= 6 rats) was fed on basal diet. The second group (24rats) were fed on basal diet and injected with 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) (10 mg/kg Body weight i.p.) for 15 days to induce hypothyroidism, then divided into 4 subgroups. subgroup 1 (+ve control) fed on basal diet only. Subgroups 2, 3 and 4 were fed on basal diet fortified with 5, 7.5 and 10% coconut oil, respectively. At the end of the experimental period (six weeks), animals were scarified for blood collection. Thyroid hormones (FT3 and FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), total cholesterol (TC),triglyceride (TG), malondialdehyde (MDA) and catalase (CAT) were determined. Hypothyroidimic rats which were fed a diet fortified with different levels of coconut oil had significant (P<0.05) decreased on serum TSH , VLDL-c , LDL-c ,TC ,TG and MDA levels while serum thyroid hormones (FT3 and FT4) , HDL-c and CAT were significantly (P<0.05 increased compared with +ve control group. It could be suggested that fortification with coconut oil could be used as a suitable therapy for hypothyroidimic patients.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 294-303 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.2.28


Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Type I Diabetes Mellitus at Tobruck Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

Nasren G. S. Al-Fraik, Salih M. Abdulrraziq and Miftah S. M. Najem

ABSTRACT: A retrospective descriptive study include 19 IDDM patients age from birth to 18 years old admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit at Tobruck Medical Center from 1st January 2017 to 1st January 2019. The overall mean age at diagnosis was 9.2 years. Different insulin regimens were used that included multiple daily injections in (52.9%) of patients, twice daily insulin in (47.1%) of patients, and no patient used insulin pump .Length of hospital stay range (1-11 days) with mean (4.158 ).95% of patients were Libyan and 59% from outside Tobruck. Mean age at onset was 6.7 years old. 47% presented with positive family history of IDDM and 63% with previous PICU admission. Most of cases presented with weight loss 42%, polyuria, polydepsia and vomiting were 37%, followed by DKA 31.5% and abdominal pain 16%.Onset mostly presented in winter and spring season. 60% admitted due to hyperglycemia, 31.5% DKA and only 10.5% due to hypoglycemia. Mean RBS at admission was 349 and at discharge was 222.5 but HBA1C mean was 11.33 and ketonuria were in 96%. The most common complications were hypoglycemia with42% followed by shock 31.5%, convulsion 10.5%, nephropathy 10.5% but hypokalemia, cerebral edema and coma comes later with 5.2%. Most of patients discharged, 10% died due to uremic encephalopathy. We found no correlation between RBS at admission and outcome and no correlation detected between HBA1C and outcome. We conclude the commonest cause of admission was hyperglycemia.Hypoglycemia was the commonest complications. Most of cases discharged. It is our hope that a major reduction in morbidity and hospitalizations due to DM can be achieved following our study.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 304-312 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.2.29


Development of eggless cake physical, nutritional and sensory attributes for vegetarian by using wholemeal chia (Salvia hispanica L.) flour

Dina A. Anwar, Heba A. Shehtta, Heba R. Eidand S.A. Soliman

ABSTRACT: Increasing health risks associated with consumption of eggs and consumer preference of vegan diet led researchers to look for alternative of eggs in food products. Cakes are the most confectionary consumed within groups. Eggs are the main component of cake preparation that plays a pivotal role in maintaining nutritional and physical properties. Eggless cakes were developed using chia seeds with levels of 4% (T1), 5% (T2) and 6% (T3) and were analyzed for physical, textural, organoleptic and nutritional properties compared with egg cake (C1) and eggless cake (C2). T1 recipe improved the specific gravity and viscosity of the eggless batter over other T recipes. However, T2 cake had higher specific volume (1.62 cm3/g) as compared with T1 (1.58 cm3/g) and T3 (1.52 cm3/g). On 9-point hedonic scale, the addition of chia seeds to eggless cakes resulted in a product sensorially acceptable especially for T2 which scored significantly higher values except for crumb color. The chia-eggless cakes contained significantly more protein, fiber, lipids and ash than control (C2). Antioxidant capacity of the eggless cake steadily increased with increasing percentages of the chia replacement. Essential amino acids (mg IAA/ mg AA) found to be higher in C1 (2.35%) followed by T3 (2.02%) and the lowest in C2 (1.29%). Significant increases were found in Ca, K, and Mg contents of chia-eggless cake samples. Cakes with formulations T2 and T3 were most nearly to the traditional cakes with respect to the nutritional value. Results recommended to use chia seeds as egg substituted and formulation of T2 (5% chia seeds) was considered as a potential candidate recipe for substituting eggs in cakes.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 313-329 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.2.30


Effect of Foliar Spray with Boron and Copper Sulphate on Productivity of some Garlic Cultivars

Badr L.A., M.H. Mohamed, Mohamed A.A. Abd Ellteif and T.M. Abd Elmonem

ABSTRACT: Two field experiments were carried out during the two successive winter seasons of 2017/2018 and 2018/2019 at Experimental Farm of Vegetable Research Institute at Kaha, Horticulture Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center (ARC), to study the effect of cultivars, i.e. Balady, Sids 40 and Egaseed, as well as some foliar spray substances, i.e. Boron at 100 and 200 ppm and Copper Sulphate at1000 and 2000ppm in addition to the control (spraying with tap water). The experimental treatments were arranged in a split plot design. The foliar spray treatments were carried out four times during the growing season, the first spray was followed after four weeks from planting date and the others were applied each two weeks as intervals between them. The results indicated that the tallest garlic plants that carried the highest number of leaves as well as the heaviest fresh and dry weight of whole plant and its different organs were associated with plants of Balady cultivar. These results were completely similar in the two seasons. However, the lowest values were obtained in case of cv. Sids 40. The highest values in all vegetative growth measured traits were recorded in case of using CuSO4 at 2000ppm or boron at 200ppm during the two seasons of study. Balady cultivar and sprayed with CuSO4 at 2000ppm resulted in the best values of plant growth parameters. Egaseed cultivar recorded the highest values in phosphorus, potassium, carbohydrates and copper content. Meanwhile, cv. Balady gave the highest content of nitrogen, sulphur and boron. On the other hand, cv. Sids 40 gave the lowest values of all chemical constituents of plant foliage. Moreover, all foliar spray treatments significantly increased N, P, K, carbohydrates and, S percentages, and B and Cu (ppm) compared to the control treatment (spraying with tap water). Spraying the plants with CuSO4 at 2000ppm recorded the highest increments in all assayed nutrient content. Egaseed cultivar plants foliar sprayed with CuSO4 at 2000ppm produced the highest significant values of nitrogen as well as phosphorus, potassium, carbohydrates and copper. Whereas, the highest significant values for sulphur and boron contents were gained with Balady cultivar sprayed with Boron at 200 ppm. However, plants of Egaseed cultivar recorded the highest values in all studied yield parameters except number of cloves which found in Balady cultivar. The highest total produced bulb yield was obtained as a result of spraying Egaseed cv. plants with CuSO4 at 2000ppm during the two season of growth.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 330-340 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.2.31


Effect of Pruning Intensity on Growth Characteristics of Some Timber Trees Grown under Treated Wastewater Irrigation

Hammad H.H., M.I. Bahnasy and H. El-kateb

ABSTRACT: This study was carried out at Sarabium forestry Plantation located in North eastern Egypt which was allocated for wastewater disposal. The study aimed to determine the optimal pruning intensities on growth characteristics of four tree species namely; Khaya senegalensis, Swietenia mahagoni, Gmelina arborea and Tectona grandis. The results indicated that, all growth characteristics (total height, root collar diameter, stem diameter at breast height and total biomass) were significantly increased in G. arborea followed by S. mahagoni, K. senegalensis and T. grandis. Pruning intensity of 30 and 50%of tree height significantly increased all growth characteristics as compared to non- pruned trees. Also pruning intensity of 30%of tree height significantly increased all growth characteristics in K. senegalensis and T. grandis. On the other hand, pruning intensity of 50%of tree height significantly increased all growth characteristics were studied in S. mahagoni and G. arborea. In addition, pruning intensity of 50% increased total volume of G. arborea followed by pruning intensity at30%. N, P and K in the tree species leaves were increased under 50%pruning intensity of G. arborea and S. mahagoni, while N, P and K values were increased under 30% pruning intensity in K. senegalensis and T. grandis.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 341-351 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.2.32


Effective Adsorption of Fe2+ and Pb2+ Ions from Polluted groundwater Using Moringa Seeds (Case Study: El-Sadat Area, Egypt)

Ehab Zaghlool and Mohamed E.A. Ali

ABSTRACT: This study examined the removal of heavy metal ions with takes in the consideration of (Fe2+ and Pb2+) from aqueous solutions and/or groundwater by adsorption technique using Moringa seeds. The groundwater quality indicators including total dissolved salts (TDS), ion ratios, and indices of the studied area for heavy metals contamination were examined. TDS values show 80% of groundwater samples being fresh while the rest are brackish. To identify the source of groundwater contamination either seepage of fertilizer, septic tank leakage, sewage or natural deposition erosion and hydrochemical ratios of the collected groundwater samples were considered. Based on heavy metal pollution index, 36% of groundwater samples were classified as poor samples, 60% as very poor and 4% were unsuitable samples. Additionally, 24 % of groundwater samples were found to be contaminated with Fe2+, while all samples are contaminated with Pb2+.The possibility of using moringa seeds for adsorption or removal the toxic ions from water was carried out. The removal efficiency of the Fe2+ and Pb2 + ions were found to surpass 90%. It was concluded that adsorption of Fe2+ was fitted better to Freundlich model than the Langmuir, and vice versa in case of Pb2+.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 352-367 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.2.33


Tolerance Response of some Tomato Cultivars to Salinity stress

Abou El Salehein E. H., M.M. El Hamadi and W.M.A. Al Gosabi

ABSTRACT: Two field experiments were carried out during the two successive seasons of 2017/2018 and 2018/2019 to evaluate the two cultivars of tomato (Arwa and Codse) to tolerance of two salts (NaCl and CaCl2) with its concentrations on vegetative growth, chemical constituents, fruit yield and quality of tomato plants. The experiment included 20 treatments; two cultivars (Arwa and Codse), two salts (NaCl and CaCl2) and its 5 concentrations (0.0, 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 ppm). Split split plot design with three replications were used, where the main plot are the two cultivars, the two salts were distributed at the sub-plot, and the concentrations of salts are distributed in the sub-sub plots.The obtained results indicate that; the cultivar of Arwa was recorded the highest values of all the studied parameters expressed as, plant height, number of leaves, number of branches, both of fresh and dry weight of biomass, chemical contents of leaves and fruits (N, P, K, Na, protein, proline) and TSS in fruits. With increasing the concentration of salts, the studied parameters of plants were significantly decreased, expect Na and proline contents in tomato leaves and fruits, and TSS in fruits. In addition, the interaction between the two factors or three factors had a significant effect in some combined factors, while in most cases without any significant effect. From the forgoing results of this study, it could be concluded that Arwa cultivar could increase tomato growth and production on salt affected soils.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 368-378 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.2.34


Suitability of some faba bean cultivars for intercropping with sugar beet

Ahmed M. Sheha, Amr S. Shams and Yasser E. El-Ghobashi

ABSTRACT: Field experiment was carried out at Gemmiza Agricultural Research Station, Agricultural Research Center, El-Gharbia governorate, Egypt during 2016/2017 and 2017/2018 seasons to determine the most suitable faba bean cultivar for intercropping with sugar beet in order to increase land equivalent ratio and farmer's benefit. Four faba bean cultivars (Sakha 1, Misr 1, Giza 843 and Giza 3 'Improved') were intercropped to sugar beet in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Sole cultures of sugar beet and faba bean were used for calculating competitive relationships and net return. Sugar beet plants grown with faba bean cultivar Misr 1 had higher total chlorophyll content and leaf area and better sugar beet root yield and its attributes than those intercropped with the other faba bean cultivars in both seasons. Faba bean plants of Giza 843 grown with sugar beet had higher total chlorophyll content and leaf area compared with the other cultivars in both seasons. In addition, Giza 843 had higher number of branches and pods plant-1, number of seeds pod-1, 100-seed weight, seed yield plant-1 and seed and straw yields fed-1 than the other faba bean cultivars in the two seasons. Land equivalent ratio and relative crowding coefficient were above 1.00 indicating intercropping advantages for all treatments. The value of aggressivity of sugar beet was negative for all treatments indicating that sugar beet was dominated component in the present study. Intercropping faba bean cultivar Misr 1 with sugar beet was more profitable to farmers than the rest of tested cultivars and the sole culture of sugar beet for gross income and net return.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 379-389 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.2.35


Development of extruded snacks and corn flakes using yellow corn and by-product broken beans

Omaima M. Dewidar and Hanan M.A. EL ghandour

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to investigate development of extruded snacks and corn flakes by using yellow corn and by-product broken white beans flour (BWBF). The methodology included in this paper is based on adding BWBF broken white beans flour (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %) as source of protein by a partial substitution of yellow corn flour and corn grits, all samples were evaluated for their physicochemical properties, minerals, amino acids content as well as sensory quality attributes, nutritional value compared with RDA and the production costs of different samples were also studied. The results indicated that BWBF percentage and also the extrusion condition (moisture and temperature) in flounced the physical color and functional (water absorption index and water solubility index) for corn Flakes and extruded snacks. The water activity was gradually decreased with increase adding BWBF in the blends for corn flakes and snacks. Therefore volume mass also density were significantly changed in the resultant corn flakes and snacks. Fortification with BWBF significantly increased in protein, ash, minerals and amino acids. While carbohydrates significantly decreased in corn flakes and snacks compared with control samples. corn flakes covers up to 38.85% of protein requirement, 22.6 %and 25.43% of energy requirement for male and female, 29.44% of phosphorus requirement, 66.25% of iron requirement, 63.63% of zinc and 6.91% of calcium, for children. Whereas, snacks cover up to 33.44% of protein requirement, 22.57 %and 25.39% of energy requirement for male and female, 28.86% of phosphorus requirement ,65.63% of iron requirement, 64.88% of zinc and 6.24% of calcium from RDA, for children of age 9-13 years. The fortification with (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%) significantly enhanced attributes of resultant corn flakes and snacks. while 40 and 50 % treatment a chivied low score of acceptability. Prices are very suitable for the Egyptian market, the investigated extrudates were cheaper than market products and high nutritive value. Therefore, it could be recommended to consume corn flakes and snacks to provide children with part of their daily requirements of protein, energy, phosphorus, calcium, iron and zinc.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 390-406 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejas/2020.10.2.36