Oct-Dec, 2019


Effect of grafting date and rootstock type on vegetative growth parameters of Flame seedless grape grafted on three nematode resistant rootstocks

Abourayya M.S., K.E. Nabila, A.S.E. Abd-Allah and R.A.M. Amal

ABSTRACT: The present study was carried out during two successive seasons of 2012 and 2013 in a private vineyard located at Sadat city, Menofia Governorate, Egypt. to investigate the influence of three grapevine rootstocks; namely, Harmony, Freedom and Salt creek at two different grafting dates using Cleft grafting method on the percentage of survival and growth parameters of Flame seedless cv. at two grafting dates.(January and February months). The survival percentage and (F.C.C.) varied significantly according to rootstock type, grafting dates and the interaction between them. Freedom rootstock recorded the highest survival percentage and (F.C.C.) in 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively, while Harmony rootstock exhibited the lowest figures in both seasons, regardless of grafting date. Meanwhile, rootstocks grafted in mid February recorded significantly higher survival percentage in 2012 and 2013 seasons than those grafted on mid January regardless of rootstock type. The same result was detected for F.C.C. value in 2012 season only. On the other hand, Feb. grafting exhibited greater shoot length and leaf area than Jan. grafting regardless of rootstock type. The interaction between rootstock type and grafting date showed that Flame seedless cv. grafted on Freedom rootstock on mid February gained the maximum values of scion shoot length (93.84 and 100.15 cm) and leaf area (130.35 and 143.69 cm2) in 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively. Contrastly, the same scion when grafted on Harmony rootstock on mid January recorded the minimum value of shoot length (59.12 and 56.16 cm) and leaf area (51.27 and 64.10 cm2) in 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively. Freedom rootstock recorded the maximum figures of fresh and dryweight of the aerial portion (leaves and shoots) and root systemin the two seasons followed by Salt creek rootstock without significant difference between them. While, Harmony rootstock showed the minimum values in the two studied seasons. Grafting in Feb. 15th was better than in Jan. 15th especially in 2012 season regardless of rootstock type.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 967-972 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.1


Influence of Some Nitrogen Fertilization and Dry Yeast Extract Levels on Growth and Pod Yield of Snap Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

Nadia Al-Munir Abu Khouder, Abd Al-Rahman M. S. Abobaker and Kholoud Mohamed El- Amin Al- Mashat

ABSTRACT: This investigation was carried out during two successive summer seasons of 2015 and 2016 in a private farm at Al-Harsha, Zawia region, Libya, to examine the effect of N-Fertilization (in the form of ammonium sulphate, 20.5% N"; 0, 50 and 100kg/ha")and foliar application with dry yeast extracts (0.2 and 4 g/l) , and its combined effect on growth, yield and its attributes, as well as, quality traits of snap bean (bronco cultivar). The experiment was laid out as spilt plot arrangement in randomized complete blocks design (RCBD) with three replications. The results showed that applying N-Fertilizer and foliar application with dry yeast extract gave significant differences in all studied traits compared to the control (untreated) in favor of 100kg/ha, N and 4g/l dry yeast extract in both seasons. Concerning the combined effect between N-Fertilization and dry yeast extract, there were significant effects in most of studied traits in both seasons. The combination of 100kg N/ha, and 4 g/l dry yeast extract recorded the highest mean values of vegetative growth characters yield components, total yield and pod quality in the both seasons. Conclusively: it could be concluded that the treatment of NFertilization in the form of ammonium sulphate (20.5% N) at 100 kg N/ha and foliar application with dry yeast extract at the level of 4 g/l, as well as, the combined effect between 100 kg N/ha and 4 g/l dry yeast extract enhancing the studied characters of snap bean.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 973-982 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.2


Silicon in soils, plants and its important role in crop production: A review

El-Sayed A.A., Abou Seeda M.A., Yassen A.A., Sahar M. Zaghloul and A. Khater

ABSTRACT: Silicon in soil solution is present as silicic acid, at concentrations normally ranging from 0.1 to 2.0 mM, roughly two orders of magnitude higher than the concentrations of phosphorus. Cropping system cannot allow for recycling Silicon element by plants. The decrease of bioavailable-Si may have significant impacts on cereal crops. The assumption of the depletion of plant available-Si is still admissible, but new conspicuous have proven that phytoliths are a significant source of Silicon for plant. Plants uptake silicon in silicic acid form. Silicon concentrations vary greatly in plant aboveground parts, ranging from 0.1 to 10.0% SiO2 of dry weight basis or even higher. The difference in Si accumulation attributed to the ability of the roots to take up Si. It is obvious that most of the effects of Si were expressed through Si deposition on the leaves, stems, and hulls. In spite of Si has not been proven to be an essential element for higher plants, it is a beneficial element for the healthy growth and development and even productivity of many crop species, particularly for rice which contains about 10% SiO2 in shoots on a dry weight basis. The beneficial effects of Si are particularly distinct in plants exposed to biotic or abiotic stress. Silicon is effective in controlling various pests and diseases caused by both fungi and bacteria in different plant species. Silicon also exerts alleviative effects on various abiotic stresses including salt stress, metal toxicity, drought stress, radiation damage, nutrient imbalance, high temperature, freezing and so on. Also, Silicon has been widely reported to alleviate the plant water status and water balance, especially under various stress conditions in both monocot and dicot plants Numerous research studies showing that the application of Si enhances the tolerance of some plant species to toxic metals, including manganese Mn, zinc Zn aluminum Al, cadmium Cd and arsenic As. In addition, studies have shown that Si alleviates growth inhibition and oxidative damage.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 983-1004 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.3


Function of silicon and its mechanisms in plant physiology: A review

Abou Seeda M.A., A.A. Yassen, A.A. El-Sayed, Sahar M. Zaghloul and A. Khater

ABSTRACT: Silicon (Si) is the most prevalent macroelements in soil, performing an essential function in healing plants in response to environmental stresses. The assumption of the depletion of plant available- Si is still admissible, but new evident have establish that phytoliths are a denoting derivation of Silicon for plant growth. Biotic and abiotic stress factors can adversely affect the agricultural productivity pleading to physiological and biochemical damage to crops. Therefore, the most effective way to overcome such negative effects is to increase the resistance to stresses. Silicon plays a vital role in reducing the negative effects of abiotic and biotic stresses on plants. Silicon is accumulated in the cell walls and intercellular spaces and increase its strength, and thus it has beneficial effects on disease infestations in especially small grains. In addition, application of silicon may reduce the effects of environmental stresses on plants while making effective use of plant nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous. Reducing, the toxic effects of heavy metals in soil. It may protect the foliage and increase light uptake and reduce respiration. However, the concentration of Si depends on the plants genotype and organisms. Physiological mechanisms and metabolic activities of plants may affected by Si treatment. Generally, plant physiologists consider an essential element by two criteria. (a): if a deficiency of it makes it impossible for the plant to complete its life cycle, therefore, the element must be directly involved in the inorganic nutrition of the plant. (b): it is contributed as a part of the molecule of an essential plant constituent or metabolite. It is by the first criterion that the essentiality of the elements now known to be essential has been established. Conceptually, it is a simple, operational definition. In practice, it is not necessarily easy to apply if, as is the case with Si, it is difficult to create and maintain an environment adequately purged of the element. Peptides as well as amino acids can effectively create polysilicic species through interactions with different species of silicate inside solution. The carboxylic acid and the alcohol groups of serine and asparagine tend not to engage in any significant role in polysilicates formation, but the hydroxyl group side chain can be involved in the formation of hydrogen bond with Si (OH) 4. The mechanisms and trend of Si absorption are different between plant species. Furthermore, the transportation of Si requires an energy mechanism; thus, low temperatures and metabolic repressors inhibit Si transportation.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1005-1024 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.4


Regeneration of some grape rootstock shoot tips after cryopreservation by dropletvitrification

El-Homosany A. Abd El-Wahab and Mina Samaan

ABSTRACT: Shoot tips of three grape Vitis vinifera rootstocks (Freedom, Salt creek and SO4) were excised and precultured on half strength MS medium supplemented with (0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 M sucrose) for 4 days (24 hours for each concentration successively) and loaded with 2M glycerol+0.4M sucrose + half strength MS for 20 min at 25°C, then exposed at 0°C for 0, 40 and 50 min to full strength of Plant Vitrification Solution 2 (PVS2) carried on an aluminum foil strip, further immersed in Liquid Nitrogen. Results showed that the highest survival percentage of shoot tips after cryopreservation was observed with 50 min exposure time of pvs2 (80, 66.67 and 53.33%) for SO4, Freedom and Salt creek rootstock also, SO4 rootstock gave (53.33%) when exposure to 40 min of pvs2 after cryopreservation. On the other hand, shoot tips of the three rootstocks on zero time of exposure to pvs2 after cryopreservation failed to survive (0%). In addition, shoot tips after cryopreservation with 50 min exposure time gave the highest regrowth percentages (46.67%, 33.33% and 26.67%) for SO4, Freedom and Salt creek rootstock also, SO4 rootstock gave (33.33%) when exposure to 40 min of pvs2 after cryopreservation.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1025-1030 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.5


Effect of microbial fertilizer, bio-stimulant, multivitamin, macro and micro elements on growth, leaf chemical composition, yield and fruit quality of "Fagri Kelan" mango trees, grown in sandy soil.

M.I.F. Fwazi, Laila Hagagg F., M.F.M. Shahin and Eman S. El-Hady

ABSTRACT: The current study was conducted through 2017 and 2018 seasons on mango trees Fagri Kelan cv. The target of this work was to evaluate the influence of microbial fertilizer, bio-stimulant, multivitamin, macro and micro elements in the form of commercial compounds as Hormufol (biostimulant, Multivitamin, macro and micro elements) and Nile fertile (microorganism and macro elements) on growth measurement, leaf mineral and pigments content, yield and fruit quality. Hormufol (H) was used as a foliar spray in spring (mid-March) whereas Nile fertile (N.F) applied as a soil drench in autumn (mid-November). Data demonstrate that the applications of different used treatments increased significantly shoot length, number of leaves/ shoots, and leaf area in the three growth cycles, leaf pigments content (Ch. 1 A & B), leaf minerals contents (Nitrogen, Phosphor, potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, iron, Zink and Manganic), yield as well as fruit chemical and physical properties. Economically, the best results fruit quality and quantity were gained when "Fagri Kelan" mango trees sprayed with Hormufol 3g/l as a foliar spray on vegetative growth plus Nile fertile at 2.0 kg/ tree as a soil drench.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1031-1039 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.6


Heterosis, Nature of Gene Action for Yield and Its Components in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)

Mohamed K. Rakha and Samah A. Sabry

ABSTRACT: The present experiment was performed to classify best combiner parents and cross combinations for developing accomplished hybrids for yield and quality components in tomato, using half diallel analysis for five parents and ten hybrids including; Super Marmande, Peto 86, Super strain B, Edkawy and Red Star. The results indicated that heterosis over high parent gave significant values in most crosses. The combinations of good combiner parental cultivar and best hybrids for each character were estimated according to the best GCA and SCA. Specifically, all the studied traits showed highly significant GCA and SCA values. Therefore, additive and non-additive gene actions were vital in the expression of these traits. Concerning general combining ability, it was found that ̔Red Star̕ was the best combiner for plant height, number of branches, fruit length, number of fruit locules, and total fruit weight;̔Peto 86̕ for leaf area index, fruit shape index and number of fruits per plant, ̔Super strain B̕ for T.S.S. and total fruit yield, and ̔Edkawy ̕ for number of leaves, fruit diameter, number of fruit locules and average fruit weight. The cross P1xP2 was found to be the best combination for plant height, (P1 x P3 ) for number of branches/ plant, (P2 x P5) for No. of leaves / plant, (P1x P5) for total fruit yield and number of fruit per plant, (P2 x P3) for fruit shape index and leaf area index ,(P2 x P4) for fruit weigh/ plant, ( P2 x P5) for fruit length and number of leaves / plant, ( P3 x P4) for fruit diameter, ( P3 x P5) for number of fruit locules and ( P4 x P5) was the best combination for T.S.S. Effects of additive gene appeared to be more important than non-additive gene effect as reflected on plant height, No. of leave, fruit length, fruit diameter, T.S.S, No. of fruit locules, average fruit weight, No. of fruit / plant, and total fruit weight. However, it was found that nonadditive gene effect appeared to play important roles than additive effect for No. of branches and fruit shape index. In addition, both broad and narrow sense heritability values were high for all studied traits, indicating that all traits were highly heritable.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1040-1053 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.7


Economic study of some agricultural wastes in Fayoum Governorate

Haitham Bayoumy Ali Hassan and Eman Abd Elghafour Ahmed

ABSTRACT: The estimated volume of agricultural waste is about 35 million tons annually, of which about 23 million tons of plant waste (about 7 million tons of feed, 4 million tons of organic fertilizers and 12 million tons of non-profit) and animal waste of about 12 million tons annually 3 million tons as organic fertilizer and leaving about 9 million tons per year without benefit), meaning that there are about 21 million tons of agricultural waste (plant and animal) annually without benefit and it is important to reconsider the definition of the concept of agricultural waste, and to deepen the public awareness of the importance of dealing with it as a basic economic resource that achieves its optimal use of economic and developmental revenues and the result of its waste and neglect Economic burdens and environmental and social disadvantages. It became necessary to activate the interest in the recycling of agricultural waste of crops, which constitute a large proportion of waste, and the most appropriate means to convert those wastes into materials of economic value, which contribute to increasing the productivity of agricultural crops, saving energy and improving the environment and increasing self-sufficiency rates. It was found that the average area of maize maize in Fayoum governorate is about 2853.90 thousand feddans representing about 95.61% of the total area of study crops at the governorate level, While the average area of sorghum crop is about 1008.77 thousand feddans representing about 3.34% of the total area of study crops at the governorate level, While the area of cotton yield is about 44.454 thousand feddans representing about 1.05% of the total area of study crops at the governorate level, as an average during the period (2007 - 2017).

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1054-1066 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.8


Effect of some Postharvest Treatments on Quality of "Alphonse" Mango Fruits during Cold Storage

Abd El-Gawad M.G., Zeinab A. Zaki and Z. A. Ekbal

ABSTRACT: The effect of different treatments; chitosan, gum Arabic and Aloe vera gel addition to control on fruit quality of mango (Mangifera indica, L. cv. Alphonse), in 2017 and 2018 seasons during storage periods at low temperature 13±1°Cand air (90-95% relative humidity) for 30 days was investigated. The quality characteristics such as fruit weight loss, disorders, firmness, TSS, titratable acidity, vitamin C and total sugars were determined at an interval of 10 days during storage. Results showed that, in both seasons, all used treatments caused a significant decrease in fruit weight loss and disorders percentage during cold storage as compared with control. Where, it was increased significantly with prolonging storage periods compared with initial date. Furthermore, the pervious treatments significantly increased fruit firmness, total soluble solid, total sugars and vitamin C, where it were caused a significantly decrease in titratable acidityduring cold storage period in compared with control. At the end of storage periods, the lowest values of fruit weight loss were presented by gum Arabic 10% and fruit disorders was presented by chitosan 2% and gum Arabic 10%. Where, chitosan 2%, gum Arabic 10% and Aloe Vera gel 50%, positively, affected postharvest quality prosperities including fruit firmness, TSS, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid and total sugars in comparison with other treatments

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1067-1079 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.9


An Analytical Study of Fish Consumption in Egypt

Nagwa M. El-agroudy, Fatima A. Shafiq, Soheir Mokhtar and Monia Bahaa El- Din Hassan

ABSTRACT: Fish is conspicuously an important source of necessary food sources for the construction of the human body because it is one of animal protein sources necessary for maintaining human health and safety. Besides, fish is characterized by its easily digestion and absorption and synthesis compared to the protein found in red meat and poultry meat. This is in addition to containing fatty acids necessary for the protection of human from heart and circulation diseases.Moreover, Egypt suffers from a deficit in animal protein and low production average per Individual's Share compared to the world average. The average of animal protein per individual in the world was about 27.5 kg per year, while in Egypt it did not reach half of this rate because there are many problems that limit expanding the production of red meat and poultry meat, including the limited agricultural area, thus intensifying competition on main crops such as wheat and feed crops. This is in addition to the deficit in the concentrated feed production, where most livestock production requirements are imported from abroad.Consequently, the development of fish production is one of the pillars of the development of animal protein sources in Egypt, where the Egyptian fish production increased from about 649 thousand tons in 2000 to about 1870 thousand tons in 2018 with an increasing rate reached about 188% and with a production average of 1205.2 thousand tons during the period 2000-2018.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1080-1084 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.10


Relative susceptibility and tolerance of thirteen Egyptian wheat cultivars to the cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae Woll.)

A.M. Korayem, M.M.M. Mohamed

ABSTRACT: Relative susceptibility and tolerance of thirteen Egyptian wheat cultivars to the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae were determined under greenhouse conditions. Resistance/ susceptibility was assessed as relative susceptibility (RS) to the standard susceptible control cultivar Sakha-93. The results showed that H. avenae infected and well reproduced on all tested cultivars, so all of them were designated as susceptible cultivars. Cultivars Misr-1, Misr-2, Misr-3 and Shandaweel were highly susceptible to H. avenae, as their (RS) were more than 92%. Data also indicated that cultivars Sakha-8, Sakha-93, Sakha-95, Shandaweel and Giza-168 were ranked as less tolerant according to their tolerance index. Other wheat cultivars, Giza-171, Misr-1, Misr-2, Misr-3, Seds-1, Seds-12, Seds-13 and Seds-14 were ranked as intolerant (sensitive) cultivars, as their tolerance indices were more than one.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1085-1090 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.11


Utilization of sweet whey and Ultra Filtration-milk permeate in manufacture of yoghurt drink

Aita O. A., Suhila A. Saad and Hoda S. El-Sayed

ABSTRACT: Sweet whey and UF-milk permeate, the nutritional and valuable dairy by-products were successfully used in yoghurt drink manufacture. Sweet whey, UF-milk permeate or water were added to fresh cow’s milk in a ratio of (1:1). Yoghurt drink cultures: ABT probiotic yoghurt culture (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum, & Streptococcus thermophilus) and YC- X11 thermophilic yoghurt culture (Streptococcus thermophilus & Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus) were also used. The higher total solid (TS) content were shown in sweet whey yoghurt drink samples meanwhile, water samples were the lowest. ABT yoghurt drink samples exhibited pH values slightly lower than that of YC-X11 when compared at the same order. Lb. acidophilus was recorded a developing count in water yoghurt drink treatment along 14 days meanwhile; sweet whey yoghurt drink treatment recorded the highest developing count up to 21 days of storage at (4 ± 1°C). The lower TS content the lower developing count of Lb. acidophilus. The joint growth of S. thermophilus and (B. bifidum & Lb. acidophilus) was better more than that with Lb. bulgaricus even at the low levels of the TS. No yeast and mold counts were detected in all treatments when fresh and during storage up to the day 21. For the sensory character assessed sweet whey yoghurt drink treatments were the most preferred and UF-milk permeate yoghurt drink was slightly less acceptable. Three replicates were carried out for each treatment and the data obtained were statistically analyzed at p ≤ 0.05.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1091-1102 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.12


An economic study of the current situation of olive production and export, and economic feasibility study for expansion in the olive trees cultivation in Egypt

Ahlam Ahmed Hassan and Shaker Gomaa Ahmed

ABSTRACT: The olive fruit is one of the fruits that have great benefits and high nutritional value, it is rich in carbohydrates, vitamins protein and mineral salts, which it distinguish from other oils, The total production in Egypt, was about 496.1 thousand tons of fruitful tree cultivated area, averaging about 120.03 thousand feddans, the average of productivity of feddan was about 4.8 tons during the period (2000-2017), Egypt's largest share of production went to the local consumption for pickling, and exported around 25.5 thousand tons of olive crops at a value of 275 thousand dollars, The study problem was despite the increase in the area cultivated with olive, the area increased from 108.3 thousand feddans in 2000 to 241.9 thousand feddans in 2017, the amount of production increased from 287.1 thousand tons in 2000 to about 1094.7 thousand tons in 2017, but it did not contribute to reducing the gap of vegetable oils in Egypt, where the self-sufficiency of vegetable oils reached about 5% in 2017,the Objective is the economic evaluation of the cultivation of olives in the areas of the project for the reclamation and cultivation of one and a half million feddans, to prove the feasibility of olives cultivation in these areas to increase the exported quantity, The main results were Egypt has a comparative advantage in olive production at low cost and good quality, The study proved the economic feasibility of expanding olive cultivation in the proposed areas, Produced amount of the proposed area is estimated at 3750.6 thousand tons of olives, and 815.6 thousand tons of oil, valued at 5.66 million dollars, contribute to reduce the deficit in the Egyptian trade balance by 0.167 %, so
the study recommends the expansion of olive cultivation.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1103-1111 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.13


Fruit Set, Productivity and Fruit Quality of Barhi Date Palm As Influenced by Foliar Application with Sugar and Boron under Coverage and Non-Coverage Conditions

Salah A.M. Abd-Elhaleem, F. M. Abd El-Latif, H. E. M. El-Badawy, S.F. El-Gioushy and B.M. AbdAlla

ABSTRACT: This study was conducted on 15 years old date palm Barahi cv. during the 2018 and 2019 experimental seasons. Such cv. is suffered fertilization failure growing in sandy soil in the Agricultural Research Station at Qassasin Ismailia Governorate, Egypt, to increase the proportion of fruit set and productivity by using sugar sucrose and boron solutions with different levels and their interaction under female inflorescence coverage and non-coverage conditions. Anyhow, the sugar levels (zero, 3, 5 and 7 grams/L) & Boron levels (zero, 100, 150 and 200 mg/L). Moreover, the pollen grains Guenami male date palm. Results indicated that the best concentration of each factor sugar & boron was 5 g/L and 150 mg /L, respectively. The best interaction between both factors was 5 g/L sugar + 150mg/L boron. Meanwhile, treatments covering gave the lowest values in the percentage of fruit set and productivity while spraying sugar and boron as well as covering the inflorescences immediately after pollination increased the percentage of fruit set, Productivity and fruit quality of Barahi date palm. Therefore, this can be recommended under the same conditions.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1112-1122 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.14


Iron oxide Nanoparticales role in micropropagation of Moringa oleifera L. under salinity stress

Iman M. El-Sayed, Lobna S. Taha, Azza M.A. Mazhar and Magda M. Kandil

ABSTRACT: Micropropagation is the most important tool to propagate some important economic trees such as Moringa oleifera L. to examine the morphological reaction of in vitro grown plantlets on MS culture medium supplemented with different PGR (BA, IBA, NAA and Kinetin) and investigate the in vitro propagation ability under NaCl different concentrations (0, 1, 2, 4 and 8g/l). Adding two levels of Iron Oxide NPs (5 and 10mg/L) was used to mitigate the effect of salt stress on micropropagation of plants. The results showed that NaCl at different concentrations significantly reduced the in vitro recorded shoots and roots parameters (number of shootlets, shootlet length, rooting %, number and length of roots), chlorophyll content and carotenoids. Moreover, proline content was increased with increasing NaCl concentration in the culture medium. In addition, adding Iron Oxide NPs to culture medium showed positive effects on alleviating salt stress. This study aimed to evaluate the adverse effect of salt stress on Moringa oleifera L. micropropagation and the possibility of using Iron oxide NPs to overcome these effects.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1123-1132 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.15


Effect of compost and chemical fertilizer addition on improving calcareous soil properties in Ras sudr area

Hoda A. Elia, Diia S.M. Boulos

ABSTRACT: Field experiment was carried out on a calcareous loamy sand soil at Ras Sudr Station, South Sinai Governorate, during two season successive in winter season of 2017/2018 cultivated by fennel plant (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and in summer season 2018 cultivated by pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.). The current work aims to asses effect of compost application as organic amendment at rates of 0, 5, 10, and 15 ton.fed-1, recommended chemical fertilizer of each plant and their combination on soil physical and chemical properties and its productivity. A complete randomize plot design used with three replications of treatments under studied. The results showed that, application of compost and combination treatments (compost + recommended chemical fertilizer) were significantly decreased effected soil bulk density, hydraulic conductivity, EC, pH and SAR values after each of the first and the second seasons comparing to control. On contrary in case of the recommended chemical fertilizer did not affect of these parameters. Meanwhile soil available water, available N, P and K after each of the first and the second seasons and productivity of fennel plant and pearl millet respectively, were significantly increased. In addition, the results showed that, the affect of difference significantly of treatments under studied after the first season higher than after the second season on soil properties.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1133-1141 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.16


Productivity, plant composition and importance value of natural plants of Wadi Mrokwan at Halaib region in south east Egypt

EL-Shesheny, M. A.

ABSTRACT: The present investigation was carried out at Wadi- Morkwan in the south east of Egypt in Halaib and Shalatin region, during the period extended from spring 2016 till autumn 2017 under rainfed condition. The objective of this investigation was to identify the natural vegetation and to estimate some range measurements such as, plant density, plant cover, plant frequency, importance value of the native plants as well as foliage yield at different sites. Results showed that Twenty-three plant species belonging to 12 families were found, the highest number of plant species and palatable plant species were recorded under family Fabaceae. Generally, the highest values of range measurements under this investigation were obtained in spring season compared with autumn during both years. There was a significant effects of the studied factors (growth seasons and sites) and their interaction on some range measurements. Highest figures of importance value (IV) were contributed by Panicum trgidum, Prosopis juliflora and Acacia raddiana, all these plant species are perennials and showed high adaptation under the environmental conditions of Wadi- Morkwan.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1142-1154 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.17


Influence of different concentration of cyanobacteria bio fertilizers and NPK fertilizer ratios on growth and volatile oil of rosemary

Esam Abd-Elkareem Abd-Elazeem Al-Azzony

ABSTRACT: Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L., Family: Lamiaceae) is an important aromatic herb. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of different concentration of cyanobacteria bio fertilizers and NPK fertilizer ratios on vegetative and root growth, NPK content and volatile oil % as well as major compounds of rosemary essential oil, experiment was conducted at the Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Egypt during two successive seasons of 2016/2017. The treatments were 1 NPK 0 CB, 1 NPK 1CB, 1 NPK 2CB, 1 NPK 3CB, 2 NPK 0 CB, 2 NPK 1CB, 2 NPK 2CB, 2 NPK 3CB, 3 NPK 0 CB, 3 NPK 1CB, 3 NPK 2CB, 3 NPK 3CB, 4 NPK 0 CB, 4 NPK 1CB, 4 NPK 2CB And 4 NPK 3CB. The different concentrations of cyanobacteria bio-fertilizers and NPK fertilizer ratios significantly increased vegetative growth and volatile oil% as well as major compounds of rosemary essential oil. The optimum levels of cyanobacteria bio fertilizers and NPK fertilizer ratios for successful production were 4 NPK 1 CB, 4 NPK 2 CB, 4 NPK 3 CB, 4 NPK 0 CB, 3 NPK 1CB and 3 NPK 3CB gave the highest vegetative growth , essential oil % and major compounds than other treatments respectively, while the lowest vegetative growth , essential oil % and major compounds were obtained from the 1 NPK 0 CB, 1 NPK 1CB, 1 NPK 2CB, 1 NPK 3CB, 2 NPK 0 CB treatments during both seasons. On the other hand treatments (2 NPK 1 CB, 2 NPK 3CB and 3NPK 0 CB) recorded moderate values for vegetative growth, essential oil % and major components, while the best treatment was (4 NPK 1CB) when compared with other treatments.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1155-1165 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.18


Influence of irrigation and splitting Nitrogen fertilizer on productivity of some wheat varieties in clay soil

Kassab M. M., R. Kh Darwesh and M. Hefzy

ABSTRACT: Irrigation and fertilizers play a vital role in agriculture, so field experiments were performed in a clay soil at Sakha agricultural research station farm, Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, during the two successive growing seasons (2017/18 and 2018/19). Experiments involving winter wheat with irrigation every 21 (I1), 28 (I2) and 35 (I3) days and application of nitrogen fertilizer requirements with one, two and three doses through the season for two varieties Gemaza-11 and Misr-1. Results showed that, irrigation every 28 and 35 days were reduced the applied water by 14.0 and 20.0 % less than that irrigation every 21 days. The overall mean values for wheat consumptive use can be descended in order I1>I2>I3 in the two growing seasons. Gemaza-11 cultivar gave the highest value of CU comparing with Misr-1. Values of productivity of irrigation water (PIW) and Water productivity (WP) were increased by decreasing the amounts of applied water, where the highest values were recorded under irrigation treatment I3 comparing with other treatments I2 and I1. The highest mean values were recorded under splitting nitrogen fertilizer to three doses comparing with other treatments for Misr-1 variety. The highest mean values for grains, straw, biological yield, 1000-grain weight, plant height, number of Spikes, m-2 and Spike length, were produced with irrigation every 35 day and splitting nitrogen fertilizer to three doses for Misr-1 variety in the two seasons. So, irrigating wheat every 35 day during growing seasons and application of N in three doses gave the highest values of yield and yield components of Misr-1 wheat cultivar under North Nile Delta condition.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1166-1181 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.19


Influence of different NPK fertilization levels and humic acid rates on growth, yield and chemical constituents of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)

Asmaa A. Fahmy and H. M. S. Hassan

ABSTRACT: In order to study the influence of NPK fertilization levels (0.0, 50, 75 and 100 of recommended dose), humic acid rates (0.0, 2.0 and 4.0 l/fed.-1 as foliar spray) and their combinations on growth and productivity of roselle, two field experiments were conducted for two summer seasons of 2017 and 2018 at the Experimental Farm of Faculty of Agriculture (Ghazala Farm), Zagazig University, Egypt. The recommended dose (RD) of NPK were (N fertilizer at 68 + P2O5 fertilizer at 32 + K2O fertilizer at 24 kg/fed.-1). The experimental design was split-plot which arranged in three replicates. Furthermore, the obtained results referred that the highest values of plant height, number of branches/plant and total dry weight/plant were achieved with 100% of RD compared to the other levels. Also, the same trend were obtained toward the yield components (fruit number/ plant, sepals and seed yield per plant and per fed.-1) and chemical constituents (N, P and K percentages as well as total soluble solids). In addition, the highest values of abovementioned parameters were recorded by 4 l Fed.-1 humic acid which followed by 2 l Fed.-1 humic acid with significant difference between them and control (untreated plants). Generally, it could conclude that humic at 4 l/fed.-1 combined with 100% RD, showed a uniform influence in enhancing of roselle growth and its productivity under Sharkia Governorate conditions.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1182-1189 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.20


Effect of Growing Media and Nutrient Solutions by Using Drip Hydroponic System on Growth, Flowering and Quality of Lilium bulbs

Taghreed E. Eissa, Magdy A. Eskarous and Enga M. Niel

ABSTRACT: This study was administrated to analyze the impact of drip hydroponic system on flowers and daughter bulblets production of the Asiatic lily hybrid plant cv. "Honesty" using some nutrient solutions (Hoagland No. 2 basal salt mixture, Murashige and Skoog basal salt mixture, algae extract (balanced fertilizer), Hoagland No. 2 basal salt mixture and balanced fertilizer, Hoagland No. 2 basal salt mixture and silicon, in addition to tap-water as a control) with gravels, vermiculite and organic soil conditioner (Hundz-soil) as media. Results showed that the drip hydroponic system was a good methodology to induce flowers in fifty days. Hoagland solution with Hundz-soil gave the best vegetative growth, flowering and bulblets production.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1190-1205 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.21


An Economical comparison Study between the Mint Oil Produced by Japanese Mint and that Produced by Spearmint in India and Egypt

Shabbara M. Hany, Hussein M.S., Karima A. Mohamed and Haitham Bayoumy Ali Hassan

ABSTRACT: There is an increase in international demand for peppermint oil for its many uses. It is used in the manufacture of perfumes, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and some other industries. Japanese mint contributes by more than half of the world's production of mint oil, followed by piperita oil and spearmint oil. Japanese mint oil contains a high percentage (reach to 92% of its content) of menthol, which is widely used in the pharmaceutical and flavor industries. India is the world's largest exporter of this oil and Uttar Pradesh is the largest producer in India. In Egypt, mint located in the fifth place of the list of Egyptian exports. The spearmint and piperita mint are grown widely for domestic consumption and export but mint oil is produced on a lesser scale and there is no production for Menthol crystals in Egypt. The present study was conducted in Rampur district of Uttar Pradesh in India and in Minya governorate in Egypt, with the objective to estimate the economic efficiency of mint oil produced by distillation of the Japanese mint plant in Rampur in India and the oil produced by Spearmint in the study area of Minya in Egypt. This study was relied on both descriptive and quantitative analysis plus using some statistical methods to economic efficiency measurements. Data was collected on random basis through personal interviews, structured questioners and group discussions with farmers in the study area in Minya governorate in 2016-2017. While the derivative data and Indian data were collected from publications and other governmental agencies. The current study materials consist of spearmint oil in Minya in Egypt; and Japanese mint (M. arvensis var.
piperascens) oil in India. Results show that the value of the net return from the production of spearmint mint oil per acre over average total cost of its production per acre in Egypt is less than that value produced by Japanese mint oil in India. The study recommended to interest in the development of Japanese mint cultivation with a large economic area, to extract Menthol oil from it and export it to the United States and European countries due to the increasing demand from those countries for it.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1206-1210 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.22


Alleviation of salinity stress on in vitro propagation ability of Populus alba L. using Iron Nano particles

Nora M. Youssef, Nahed G. Abdel Aziz and Awatef I.A.R. Ali

ABSTRACT: This work was conducted to examine the in vitro propagation (shooting and rooting) behavior of Populus alba L. via culturing the nodal explants under different concentrations of NaCl (0.0, 1000, 2000, 4000, 8000 ppm) and alleviating salinity stress on in vitro shooting and rooting ability using two concentrations (5.0 and 10.0 mg/l) of Nanoparticles of Ferric Oxide (Fe2O3 NPs) added to MS culture medium. The results showed that the highest number of shootlets per explant, number of leaves and number of roots per shootlet of Populus alba plant were observed for control (salt-free MS culture medium). All concentrations of NaCl (2000 to 8000 ppm) led to decreasing of rooting percentage. Supplementation of Fe2O3 NPs at 10 mg/l with 2000 ppm salinity to MS culture medium had significant promotion effect on in vitro shooting parameters compared with other treatments. The maximum chlorophyll a and b contents were observed from control plants while, the highest carotenoids content was observed when the explants were cultured on 2000 ppm salinity. Addition of Fe2O3 NPs to culture medium led to an increase in the content of chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids compared with using NaCl alone. Using Fe2O3 NPs at 5mg/l that were added to MS culture medium under salinity 2000 ppm promoted both chlorophyll (a) and (b) contents while, the maximum content of carotenoids was observed from plants treated with 2000 ppm salinity combined with Fe2O3 NPs at 10 mg/l. Increasing the concentration of salinity in culture medium led to increase of proline content. Using Fe2O3 NPs at all salinity levels reduced the proline content compared with using NaCl alone. The highest reduction of proline content was obtained at 1000 ppm of NaCl plus Fe2O3 NPs at 5 or 10 mg/l treatments compared with other treatments.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1211-1218 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.23


Fruit thinning and its effect on yield and quality of apricot fruits "Priana"

Taher A. Yehia, M.A. Abdel-Mohsen, Atef M. Hussien and Hend H. K. Hussein

ABSTRACT: Priana apricot trees usually carry a very heavy crop of small fruit and reduction of quality. Fruit hand thinning is hard activity in a short period of time and a reliable good way to low crop level and enhance the fruit quality to be acceptable with the prices which exporting is too difficult to apricot fruits. Consequently, hand-thinning of Priana cv. fruits were applied on 5 years old trees for two times through fruit set or Pit hardening. In both times there were three intensity of thinning were done 40%, 50%, 60% during two consecutive years 2016 and 2017. The results showed that to obtain high fruit quality with reasonable yield, the hand thinning at 40 or 50% procedure at the fruit set stage will work on it. However the 60% thinning will provide luxury fruits, especially in terms of size, but this will be achieved with high reduction in crop yield. While, control (without thinning) treatment for thinning was given despite a high yield, but the quality of the physical or chemical fruits was very low.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1219-1227 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.24


An Econometric Model for Egyptian Onion Exports

Asmaa Mohamed El-Tokhy Bahloul and Mohamed Osman Abdel Fatah

ABSTRACT: The selection of the Egyptian onion crop due to that the most economic studies indicated that the onion crop is considered one of the most important vegetable crops, which occupies a high position in the Egyptian agricultural export earnings. However, the statistics indicated that the ratio of exports to production fluctuates and decreases. The results of the current model show that the most critical factors affecting the average of Egyptian per capita consumption of onion according to the simultaneous model is the average of per capita share of domestic production of onion, and the average of price per kg of Egyptian consumers of
onion. The estimation showed that the most important factors affecting the average of per capita import in the main import markets of Egyptian onion exports (according to the model) are both the average of per capita Egyptian domestic production, China's average export price (a direct relationship), while the average export price of Egyptian onion (inverse relationship). By forecasting total household consumption, it will reach about 2537 thousand tons during 2020, and reach about 2961 thousand tons in 2025, by increasing about 16.7% of its value in 2020 using the simultaneous model. The most important factors affecting the local production of Egyptian onion (according to the model) are the average of per capita UAE imports of the previous year, the average of Egyptian farm price of onion in dollars in the previous year, and the average of per capita consumption of Egyptian onion in the previous year. The total domestic production is expected to reach about 2783 thousand tons during 2020 and reach about 3620 thousand tons in 2025, representing an increase of 30.1% of its value in 2020 using the simultaneous model.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1228-1239 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.25


Maximizing efficiency of land and water utilization and profitability of interplanting maize with mandarin trees using irrigation with fish waste water under sandy soil and drip irrigation conditions

Mohamed A.F. Selim and Amr S. Shams

ABSTRACT: A field experiment was carried out at El-Kassaseen Agricultural Research Station, Ismailia governorate, Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Egypt, during 2016 and 2017 summer seasons to reduce the consumption of conventional irrigation water use and mineral nitrogen fertilizer inputs with increase in land usage and economic return. Six treatments were involved using combinations among three irrigation water treatments (100% of fish waste water without addition of mineral N fertilizer "I", 50% of fish waste water + 50% of the conventional irrigation water with addition of 50% of recommended rate of mineral N fertilizer "II" and 100% of the conventional irrigation water with addition of 100% of recommended rate of mineral N fertilizer "III" control treatment) and three cropping systems (interplanting maize with four years old mandarin trees, sole cultures of maize crop and mandarin trees). The experimental layout was designed in strip plot with three replications. For mandarin trees, the results showed that the highest fruit weight and volume, as well as, fruit yields per tree and per ha were obtained with application of irrigation water treatment (II), meanwhile it decreased total soluble solids in fruits as compared with those by application of the other irrigation water treatments. Interplanting maize with mandarin trees had no significant effects on all traits of mandarin trees. The interaction between irrigation water treatments and cropping systems was insignificant effects on all traits of mandarin trees. For maize, application of irrigation water treatment (II) caused significant increments in number of ears per plant, ear length, diameter and weight, as well as, grain yield per ha compared with those obtained by application of the other irrigation water treatments. Interplanting maize with mandarin trees increased number of ears per plant, ear length, diameter and weight, but decreased biological and grain yields per ha compared with those of maize sole culture. The interaction between irrigation water treatments and cropping systems was significant only for ear weight and grain yield per ha. Land and water equivalent ratios were above 1.00
indicating interplanting advantages for all treatments. The values of aggressivity of mandarin trees were negative for all treatments indicating that mandarin is dominated component in the present study. Interplanting maize with mandarin trees with application of irrigation treatments (II) increased net profit for Egyptian mandarin growers by about 25.47 and 27.74% in the first and second seasons, respectively, compared with mandarin sole culture, as well as, monetary advantage index. Interplanting maize with mandarin trees and applied irrigation water as 50% in form of fish waste water + 50% in form of the conventional water with addition of 50% of the recommended mineral N fertilizer rate increased yields of both crops, average of land and water equivalent ratios by 56% and economic net return by 27% compared with sole culture of mandarin. This could increase average of farmers net return by US$ 656 ha-1 (LE 4961 fed-1) and improve welfare of farmers.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1240-1252 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.26


Field Applications for Color Enhancement of 'Valencia' Oranges while Reducing Leaf Abscission

Farag K.M., Ahmed S. Elsabagh, Neven M. N. Nagy, Omnia M. Mekkawy

ABSTRACT: The present study was performed during the two successive seasons 2014 and 2015 using 'Valencia' orange trees. Trees were 7 years old, budded on 'Volkamer' lemon rootstock. Thirty-Two uniform trees were selected for the investigation. The soil texture was sandy and the drip irrigation system was adopted. This study was conducted to enhance the coloration of 'Valencia' orange fruits by using Ethrel before harvest in a new formulation to mitigate its damaging effects on abscission of leaves and fruits. Treatments included water as the control, Lisophos (LPE) at 200 ppm, Ethrel at 500 ppm alone or in a combination with LPE and LPE followed by (24 hours later) Ethrel. Meanwhile, calcium acetate were applied individually at 300 ppm or mixed with Ethrel in addition to calcium acetate preceded Ethrel by 24 hours. Top film at 0.05 (v/v) was added to all treatments and the trees were sprayed in 15, 22 and 29 January, respectively during the two seasons of study. The results proved that the treatment with Ethrel alone resulted in the highest percentage of leaf abscission. The percentage of leaf abscission was over 50%. However, treatment with either calcium acetate mixed with Ethrel, calcium acetate followed by Ethrel, Lisophos mixed with Ethrel or Lisophos followed by
Ethrel reduced the percentage of leaf abscission compared to Ethrel alone. Meanwhile, calcium acetate when preceded the application of Ethrel or when Lisophos was followed by Ethrel were able to alleviate the damage on leaf abscission, especially at the period between the third spray and the harvest time. An enormous leaf abscission occurred following the third spray with many treatments, especially with the sole application of Ethrel that resulted in about 86% leaf abscission. However, the application of Ethrel three times on the same labeled branch resulted in a very drastic leaf abscission that ranged between 84 and 91 % for the two seasons, respectively. On the other hand, calcium acetate followed by Ethrel or calcium mixed with Ethrel treatments had a significantly increase fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit size, total sugers and carotene as compared with the control but caused a decrease in chlorophyll a and b contents. In conclusion, research emphasized that using Ethrel before harvest in a new technique to mitigate its damaging effects on abscission of leaves and fruits especially when sprayed after LPE or calcium acetate 24 hours.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1253-1263 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.27


Comparative study of different shading types on growth and yield of ginger plants

Mona M. Aly, A.M. El Sawy, Raghdaa A. El Gendy

ABSTRACT: Ginger plant recently is gaining attention in the food and pharmaceutical industries because of its medicinal importance and as a spice. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of different shading types on growth and yield of ginger plants (Zingiber officinale), during two seasons (2017 and 2018) at Dokki Research Station, Central Laboratory for Agricultural Climate, Egypt. The experiment consisted of seven treatments [Control (without shading), two levels of shade by using saran 30 and saran 60%, the two level of shade covered with plastic (30%+plastic cover and 60%+ plastic cover) and intercropping ginger with sweet corn in different densities (4 ginger + 4 sweet corn plants/m2 and 4 ginger + 8 sweet corn plants/m2)]. The treatments were applied in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Data for ginger growth parameters were obtained during the experiment period while the yield parameters were obtained at harvest. The results showed that the highest values of growth parameters were obtained from 60% shading+ plastic cover and intercropping ginger at 4 plants (with sweet corn) at 8 plants/ m2. Rhizome yield was increased with increasing levels of shade. The growth of ginger plants enhanced with decreasing light transmission and increasing relative humidity and air temperature. The economic evaluation shared that intercropping ginger at 4 with sweet corn at 8 plants/m2 was more economic compared with net shade, net shade+ plastic and without shade.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1264-1270 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.28


Enhancement of Biometrics, Anatomical Characteristics and Fatty Acids Profile of Sunflower Plants by Foliar Application with Yeast Extract and Salicylic Acid

Engy A. Seleem and Z. K. Taha

ABSTRACT: Field experiments were carried out during the two successive summer seasons; 2017 and 2018, at the Agricultural Experiments and Researches Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt to study the effect of foliar spray with yeast extract at 2, 4, 8 and 12 g/L concentrations and salicylic acid (SA) at 50, 100, 150 and 300 mg L-1 on morphological, anatomical and yield characters as well as on fatty acids analysis of sunflower cultivar Sakha-53. Results indicated that the first three concentrations of yeast extract as well as salicylic acids improved all the studied growth parameters (plant height (cm), number of internodes, leaf number/plant, stem diameter (cm), shoot fresh and dry weights/plant (g), as well as yield characters (Head diameter (cm), number of seeds/capitulum, seed yield/ plant (g), seed index (100 seed weight (g)), while 12 g/L yeast extract concentration and 300 mg L-1 SA decreased the previous growth and yield parameters. The best results of these parameters were obtained at 4 g/L yeast extract concentration or 100 mg L-1 SA, which gave also a positive effect on the anatomical structure, as the whole stem diameter was enlarged as a result of foliar spray with these concentrations of yeast or SA; this increment in stem diameter reflects the increase in the internal tissues i.e., fiber cap, phloem, xylem, and pith diameter. Contrary, cortex layer thickness decreased to less than the control plants. These two concentrations also improved the oil quality and content by increasing the unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linoleic and linolenic) and decreasing the saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic).

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1271-1280 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.29


Performance of eight cultivars of sweet basil grown under Egyptian conditions

Reham M. Sabry, A.A.A. Elsayed, M.E. Khattab and S.S. Ahmed

ABSTRACT: Two field experiments were conducted during two successive seasons to evaluate growth, yield and essential oil components of eight cultivars of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). The cultivars under this study were: Edwina, Emily, Eowyn, Genovese, Martina, Rosie, Dolly, Piccolino. Genovese cultivar produced the most vigorous plants with the highest fresh and dry herb yield but the lowest values of leaves and inflorescences percentage per plant. All cultivars yielded essential oil ranging from 0.15% to 0.46 %. All cultivars showed that the dominant oil constituent was linalool (ranging from 37.25 % to 61.99 %) followed by 1, 8 cineole (ranging from 9, 5 % to 23.6 %), α –Bergamotene (2.87 to 14.18 %), Ʈ –cadinol (2.13 to 8.3 %). Considerable amounts of bornyl acetate (0.20–1.90%),α-terpineol (0.42–1.62%), cubenol (0.13–1.38%) and γ-cadinene (0.80-1.76) were also found. Rosie and Dolly cultivars showed the highest content of linalool (61.99 and (61.83).

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1281-1289 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.30


Allelopathic Effect of Ecofriendly Botanical Extracts and Application of Vinasse as Alternative Source of Mineral Potassium Fertilizers on Yield and Oil Quality of Caraway Plant

Gehan F. Massoud, A.S. Dapor and A.M. El-Shoura

ABSTRACT: A field trial was performed during two consecutive winter seasons of 2017 and 2018 at a private farm located in Kafr El Wekala , Sherbin, El Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt to evaluate the allelopathic effect of garlic and licorice extracts at 0, 1, 2 and 4 % and application of vinasse as organic fertilizer at V1 (50%) and V2 (100%) from the recommended dose of potassium fertilizer on growth of caraway plants, seed measurements, essential oil productivity as well as N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Fe contents of caraway seeds. The obtained results showed that garlic and licorice extracts under both the chemical fertilizer NPK and levels of vinasse possess the positive allopathic effect on growth and the yield of caraway. Vinasse at two levels resulted in significant increments on all studied parameters compared to chemical fertilizer, Furthermore, the plants treated with the high rate of vinasse (100%) in combinations with licorice extracts at 2% in both seasons recorded the maximum means values for growth characters, plant dry weight, seed weight per plant subsequently seed yield per fed. and essential oil production. Moreover, Vinasse (100%) in combinations with garlic extracts at 4%, significantly increased the chemical constituents of caraway seeds compared to the control and other treatments in both seasons. GCM analyses for oil showed that a total of 10 compounds, the main component was carvone which constitutes the maximum percentages in plants treated with vinasse (100%) in combination with garlic foliar application at all levels. The obtained data revealed that the best growth, essential oil and chemical composition were obtained from treated plants with vinasse (100%) from the recommended dose of K in combination with licorice extracts at 2% and garlic extract at 4% which had attained the uppermost values of yield and quality of caraway compared to either control or other treatments. Therefore, we recommend spraying caraway plants with ecofriendly, organic and costless extract of licorice at 2% and replacement of the mineral K fertilizers by vinasse (100%) as an organic potassium source without adverse effects on caraway yield and oil quality.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1290-1305 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.31


Vegetative growth, flower quality and seed production of Zinnia elegans cultivars in response to foliar application of potassium from different sources

Abla Hassan Dorgham

ABSTRACT: A pot experiment was carried out to study the effect of foliar application of some potassium sources on growth and flowering quality of some Zinnia elegans cultivars, during 2018 and 2019 seasons. The K-sources were in the form of sulphate, nitrate, chloride, humate and citrate (each at 1000 ppm). The results indicated, in most cases, that K-citrate and K-humate gave the tallest plants, the largest leaves, the highest No of branches and the heaviest fresh and dry weights of leaves, stems and roots, whereas, No. of leaves was the highest with K-humate and K-nitrate. Spraying plants with K-sulphate or K-citrate produced the thickest stems. All K-sources reduced the period to flowering and K-chloride was the most effective one. The Red cultivar of zinnia showed the longest vegetative growth period prior to flower initiation, the highest No. of flowers with K-humate ,whereas the Yellow and Purple cultivars gave the highest No. of flowers with K-citrate then K-humate, but the flowers of these cultivars (Yellow and Purple) were the largest with the application of K-nitrate and K-citrate. The fresh and weights of single flower (inflorescence) and the highest seed yield /flower were significantly increased by K-citrate, K-nitrate and K-humate. The purple cultivar produced the highest yield of seeds/inflorescence with K-citrate, whereas Yellow cultivar thus resulted from Knitrate. Potassium citrate or humate were the most effective on increasing the contents of total chlorophyll and carbohydrates % in the leaves. K % in the leaves was positively and significantly affected by the different K-sources.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1306-1318 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.32


Using multi objectives transportation model in distribution strawberry crop in Egypt

Dalia E. Abozaid and Soha M. Eldeeb

ABSTRACT: Strawberry is one of the most perishable agriculture plants and that it starts spoiling soon after harvest. This research considers studding transportation problem of strawberry crop in Egypt (between surpluses governorates and shortage governorates), by using Multi-Objective Transportation Problem (MOTP). Also, in this research a relation is given between distance, speed, time and spoilage percentage. Here, research uses commercially available package LINGO software to solve the MOTP to get an optimal compromise solution.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1319-1324 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.33


Improving Fruit Quality of Mango Fruits cv. Zebda by Coating with Moringa and Green Tea Leaves Extracts under cold Storage

E. Abd El-Razek, Elham Z. Abd El-Motty , Salwa A. Orabi and Aboelfetah M. Abdalla

ABSTRACT: This investigation aims to study the effect of moringa and green tea leaves extracts as naturally substance coating materials on fruit quality attributes of mature mango fruits cv. Zebda under cold storage periods of 2,4 and 6 weeks. A solution of 2.5, 5 and 10% of both moringa (Moringa oleifera) and green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves extracts were prepared form 6 treatments beside the control. Mango fruit samples were harvested and randomly taken on mature stage (mid-August) then coated by extracts during two successive seasons. The treatments were as follows i.e., Moringa extract 2.5%, 5%, and 10%; Green Tea extract 2.5%, 5%, and 10%; plus the control (untreated fruits).The results showed that all treatments has a positive effect on reducing fruit weight loss %, fruit decay %, total acidity %, lipid peroxidation (MDA) content and increased T.S.S, T.S.S./acid ratio, vitamin C, antioxidant activity % (DPPH), PAL enzyme activity and total phenols content compared with the control. Moringa leaves extract 10% was the recommended treatment followed by green tea leaves extract 5% were improved high fruit quality of mango cv. Zebda under the cold storage periods (2, 4 and 6 weeks) during the two consecutive seasons of this research. During the cold storage period of 6 weeks of fruit storage, it was expected a high percentage of fruit weight loss and fruit decay occur and this period (6 weeks) is indicator for the maximum of oxidative damage or lipid peroxidation (MDA). In this regard, the results showed that the anti-oxidative criteria (PAL, total phenols, antioxidant activity) were increased by all treatments and it explains how they could overcome oxidative damage or lipid peroxidation (MDA) than the untreated ones during the storage period.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1325-1343 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.34


Influence of intercropping systems and foliar spray by various growth stimulators on production and profitability of bed planted wheat

W.A. Hamd-Alla and T. Singh

ABSTRACT: A field experiment was carried out during Rabi seasons of 2017-18 and 2018-19 at the research farm of the Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India. In order to study the effect of intercropping systems and foliar spray by various growth stimulators on production and profitability of bed planted wheat. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design using spilt block arrangement with three replications. The first variable was the foliar sprays which occupied horizontally (control, salicylic acid @ 200 ppm, ascorbic acid @ 200 ppm and the combination of salicylic & ascorbic acids @ 200 ppm). Intercropping system treatments as a second variable consisted of sole wheat, sole canola, sole linseed, sole oats fodder, wheat + canola, wheat + linseed and wheat+ oats fodder, which allocated vertically. Results showed that: wheat + oats
fodder seasons as compared to wheat + linseed and wheat + canola intercropping systems. The salicylic acid @ 200 ppm produced the maximum values for all the traits as compared to control in the two growing seasons. Land equivalent ratio indicated the yield advantage over sole crops. Higher values of competitive ratio of wheat showed that it was the dominant species over the intercrops in the intercropping systems. Monetary advantage index values showed the economic advantage of salicylic acid @ 200 with wheat + oats fodder as compared to other treatments. All the component crops (oats fodder, canola and linseed) in intercropping system with wheat resulted in the higher values of wheat equivalent yield than their respective sole planting except sole crop of canola in both seasons.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1344-1360 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.35


Agronomic and Physiological Evaluation of Egyptian Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress

Mohamed Ebaid, Ali I. Nawar, Sanaa I. Milad, M.N. Barakat and O.M. Ibrahim

ABSTRACT: The objectives of this investigation were to study salt effects on grain yield, its components and some agronomic & physiological traits of eleven bread wheat cultivars. These cultivars were grown in pots under greenhouse conditions, and subjected to four salinity levels (tap water (control), 3000, 6000 and 9000ppm), as dilutions of seawater. The experiment, in each year, was laid out in randomized complete block design and split-plot arrangement, with four replications. The results revealed that there were significant variations with all studied characters due to years(Y) (except for number of spikes /pot and 100-grains weight), Salinity levels (S), wheat cultivars (C), Y*S interaction (except for 100-grains weight), Y*S, S*C and three factor interaction Y*S*C. The data in indicated that the significantly highest grain yield was obtained at 3000ppm salinity level and that character decreased significantly with lower or higher salinity levels. Cultivar Debiera recorded the highest grain yield (12.65g) among all cultivars, which was not significantly different from Sakha 93 (11.88g), while Gemmiza 9 ranked the lowest (8.58g). Cultivars differed in their response to increased salinity levels. In general, all cultivars suffered reduction in grain yield increase in salinity level to 9000 ppm ranging from 16.8 to 62.5%. However, cultivars Giza 168, Giza 171 and Misr 2 recorded low reductions in the range from 16.8 to 32.0%, while cultivars Sakha 8 and Sakha 93 suffered intermediate reductions in the range from 32.0 to 47.3%. The highest reductions, in the range from 47.3 to 62.5%, were recorded for Sids 1, Sids 13, Gemmiza 9, Gemmiza 12, Nubaria 1 and Debiera cultivars. According to salinity susceptibility index, cultivars were categorized into three groups, high tolerance to 9000 ppm included Giza 168, Giza 171 and Misr 2 with SSI values ranging from 0.358 to 0.678. Cultivars that revealed intermediated tolerance included Sakha 8 and Sakha 93 with SSI values ranging from 0.678 to 0.998. Finally, the last tolerant (susceptible) Cultivars included Sids 1, Sids 13, Gemmiza 12, Gemmiza 9, Nubaria and Debiera with SSI values ranging from 0.998 to 1.32.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1361-1370 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.36


An Econometrics Analysis of the Impact of Agricultural Foreign Trade on Agricultural Development in Egypt

Walaa Ali Mohamed and Eman Abd Elghafour Ahmed

ABSTRACT: This paper aims to measure the impact of agricultural foreign trade on agricultural development in Egypt through studying both: the agricultural development variables and agricultural foreign trade variables. Annual data covering the period (2000-2018) were used to estimate the impact of agricultural foreign trade on agricultural development in Egypt. Recursive Equations Model method was used in formulate standard model. The Two-Stage Least Squares method (2SLS) was used to estimate Simultaneous Equations Model, and it was found a positive relationship between AGDP and all of: agricultural investment, agricultural exports (at one year lagged) and agricultural imports. The results showed statistically significant positive relationship between Agricultural investments and Agricultural loans. While it found that agricultural exports have statistically significant positive relationship with Agricultural exports (at one year lagged). The positive relationship between agricultural imports and exchange rate has been confirmed. The results confirm the positive relationship between Agricultural labor force and both, Agricultural investments and Agricultural laborer wage.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1371-1376 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.37


Impact of Replacing Molasses by Discarded Dates as a Source of Energy on Date Palm Leaves Silage Characteristics

Hala M.A. Farrag

ABSTRACT: Date palm by-products including palm leaves and discarded dates were preserved as silage after chopping and grinding. In the first silage (S1) molasses was used as a source of energy at level of 10%, whereas in the second (S2) and third (S3) silages discarded dates were used as a source of energy at two levels of 30 and 40%. Urea was added to the different silages at the level of 1%. Moisture content of the silage were adjusted by water to the normal moisture content of silage (65- 70%). Silage ingredients were mixed, packed in closed plastic bags and were stored at a room temperature for 60 days. Results revealed that discarded dates showed high contents of DM (dry matter), CP (crude protein), EE (ether extract), NFE (nitrogen free extract), ash and NFC (non-fiber carbohydrate), but low OM (organic matter), CF (crude fibers) and fiber fractions contents in compared to palm leaves. The content of DM (dry matter), OM (organic matter), CP (crude protein) and ADF (acid dissolve fibers) were nearly similar for the different silages. Contents of CF (crude fibers) and NDF (neutral dissolve fibers) were significantly (P<0.05) higher in S2 than that of S1. The content of EE was significantly (P<0.05) higher in S2 and S3 compared to S1. Moreover, NFE (nitrogen free extract) and NFC (non-fiber carbohydrate) contents were significantly (P<0.05) higher, however the contents of cellulose and hemicellulose were significantly (P<0.05) lower in S1 in comparison to S2 and S3. Ash content was higher significantly (P<0.05) in S3 followed by S2, but was lower in S1, but ADL (acid dissolve lignin) while opposite trend. Silage fermentation traits showed that pH value was nearly similar for the different silage ranging from 4.15 to 4.30. Lactic acid concentration was significantly (P<0.05) higher in S1 in comparison with S2 and S3. Whereas, S3 had the highest concentrations of acetic and propionic acids followed by S2, while S1 had the lowest concentrations. Concentration of butyric acid was higher significantly (P<0.05) in S2 compared to S1. Ammonia nitrogen concentration was higher significantly (P<0.05) in S2 and S3 compared to S1. Energy contents detected as GE (general energy), DE (digestible energy), ME (metabolizable energy) and NE (net energy) were nearly similar for different silages. Consequently, we can benefit from the waste as fodder while raising its nutritional value and maximizing the added value of the national product of date palm.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1377-1383 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.38


Assessment of Genetic Behavior of Some Selected Families from Local Okra Cultivar (Abelmoschus Esculentus L. Moench)

Essam M. A. Helmy and Entsar I. M. Ragheb

ABSTRACT: This study was planned to assess variability and heritability with genetic advance in okra, using 18 divers’ families; which produced from three cycles of individual plant selection, Balady cultivar, during the three summer seasons of 2014, 2015 and 2016. The 18 selected families were grown in a randomized complete block design with three replications during summer 2017 at the Experimental Station Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University; at Abies, Alex, A.R.E. Observations that recorded on ten characters reflected considerable variability. The results indicated, also, that the all 18 selected families, that obtained after three cycles of individual plant selection; varied in their horticultural characteristics, and exhibited highly significant differences, with desirable effect, for all studied characters. Moreover, the mean performances showed uniform plants within each family; and a clear indication of agronomic superiority of some families over others, as well as, over the original population also was recorded. Mean values were used to determine characters’ phenotypic and genotypic variances, phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation, broad sense heritability and genetic advance. Clear narrow range of different between PCV and GCV was observed for six characters from ten studied characters; plant height, internode length, branches number per plant, pod diameter, total pods number per plant and total pods weight per plant. High heritability along with high genetic advance as percent of the mean were obtained for total yield per plant, pods number per plant, branches number per plant, internode length and plant height revealing the importance of additive gene action in the inheritance of these characters and suggested reliable okra improvement through selection of these traits.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1384-1391 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.39


Numerical and Economic Evaluation of Some Papaya Genotypes Trees Grown In Qalyubia Region

Abd-elkawy M.M.A. and H. Khairy

ABSTRACT: The study was undertaken to assess the genetic diversity on the basis of morphological and physiological characterization among 8 papaya genotypes in Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt during three successively seasons (2017, 2018 and 2019). Morphological, physiological and agronomical traits were studied across 8 papaya genotypes to characterize the genetic assessment which includes the following aspects: breeding method, sex form, special characteristics and fruit shape and size, plant height (cm), stem girth (cm), average No. leaves/plant, leaf length and diameter (cm), days from planting to first flowering, days from planting to first fruiting, days from planting to first harvest, number of fruits /tree, fruit weight (kg), yield (kg/tree), physical properties i.e. fruit length and diameter (cm) and fruit dimensions (fruit length/fruit diameter), fresh and dry weights (g) of papaya seed, chemical characteristics (SSC, vitamin C, papain enzyme, total, reducing and non-reducing sugars (%), study showed significant variation among all the genotypes in morphological and physiological traits. The obtained results showed that the availability of the selected papaya genotypes (G4 and G8) made it possible to study the influence of genotypes characteristics on the morphological, fruiting, yield, characteristics of fruits physical and chemical. Genetic diversity studies of available papaya genotypes are necessary to facilitate unambiguous identification of the various germplasms and their protection, and in turn can be provide to farmers and breeders to further improve auspicious papaya that could have a positive effect on the local economy.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1392-1402 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.40


Effect of Different Levels of Organic, Mineral Fertilization and Foliar Application with Some Nutrition Elements on Dry Seed Yield of Cowpea Plants

A.A.M. Fayed

ABSTRACT: The effective nutrients management is requiring for increase the productivity and development of cowpea crop as suitable agronomic practice. A field experiment was conducted during the two summer seasons of 2018 and 2019 at Sakha Agricultural Research Station Farm, Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) cv. Kafr El-Sheikh to study the impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers and foliar spray with K, Ca and B and their interactions on vegetative parameters, seed yield and leaf chemical composition as well as protein content and seeds germination percentage. Results indicated that, the highest values of vegetative growth parameters i.e., plant height (cm), No. of branches/plant, plant fresh and dry weights and chemical composition of leaves (N, P, K, Ca and B), as well as the percentage of protein and germination seeds were recorded by fertilized plants with 50% mineral + 50% organic (compost). Cowpea plants sprayed with 1cm/l potassium sulfate showed better growth performance, higher values of chemical constituents especially N, P and K in leaves than unsprayed plants. Also, the best results on most growth parameters, leaves chemical constituents were resulted when plants fertilized by 50% mineral as ammonium nitrate (50 kg/fed.) + 50% organic as compost (1.2 or 1.3ton /fed.) and sprayed with potassium sulfate at 1cm/l. Therefore, this treatment could be recommended for improving cowpea plants performance under similar condition of this study.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1403-1416 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.41


Effect of Foliar Application of Some Aromatic Waters on Productivity and Chemical Composition of Garlic under Sandy Soil Conditions

El-Saied R.M., Hala F. Mohammed and Reham S. Abd Elhamed

Abstract: Two field experiments were conducted during two successive seasons of 2017/2018 and 2018/2019 at the Horticulture Research Station Farm in El-Quassassin, Ismailia Governorate, Egypt, to assay the effect of various sources of aromatic waters of peppermint, geranium, spearmint, rosemary and sour orange (petitgrain) on growth parameters, yield, chemical constituents and volatile oil production of garlic plants (Allium sativum L.). Results showed that the foliar application with aromatic waters gave significant response in various aspects compared with plants treated with distilled water (control) during two seasons. Garlic plants that sprayed with petitgrain aromatic water significantly enhanced plant growth and yield. Moreover, the highest values of chemical contents and antioxidant activity were recorded for the same treatment. On the contrary, this treatment recorded the lowest nitrate content for both seasons. Results showed non-significantly affect among sulphur content values. It is remarkable that spraying with peppermint recorded significant volatile oil production compared with untreated plants during two seasons.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1417-1422 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.42


Cinnamon ethanolic extract mitigates salinity stress and activates the antioxidant defence system in cucumber seedlings

Mervat A. R. Ibrahim

ABSTRACT: Salinity stress is one of the most causative abiotic stress of crop losses. This study aims to improve the growth of cucumber seedlings under salt stress conditions by applying different concentrations of cinnamon ethanolic extracts. The effects of foliar treatments with 50, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg / L of the ethanolic extract of cinnamon bark on cucumber seedlings watered with tape water or 2000 ppm NaCl were investigated. The results indicated that salt stress resulted in the reduction of cucumber seedling's fresh and dry weight and a significant increase in the level of lipid peroxidation and % of electrolyte leakage. Also, salt stress resulted in a significant increase in the activities of antioxidant defence enzymes, including peroxidases (POD) (EC, ascorbate peroxidase (AS-PX) (EC, and SOD (EC by 97%, 19%, and 31% respectively in addition to significant reduction in catalase (CAT) (EC activity by 22 % compared to control. Foliar application with all examined concentrations of ethanolic cinnamon extract improves the fresh and dry weight in a concentration-dependent manner and significantly reduces lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage. The highest fresh and dry weights were recorded in salt-stressed plants treated with 1000 and
2000 ppm of cinnamon extracts. Treatments of non-stressed cucumber seedlings with different concentrations of the cinnamon alcoholic extract resulted in significant increments in the activities of POD, AS-PX and SOD. Moreover, treatment of salt-stressed seedlings with ethanolic cinnamon extract increases the activities of POD, AS-PX, SOD as well as CAT. It can be concluded that the ethanolic extract of cinnamon mitigates the oxidative stress induced by NaCl and activates the antioxidant enzymes under salinity stress conditions.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1428-1436 ] 10.36632/mejar/2019.8.4.43