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July-Sept 2021

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Identification of Honeybees, Apis Mellifera L. Based on Some Morphometric Analysis

Ashgan A. Abougabal, Mustafa Ib. Abdullah, Nadia M. Kh. Hassona and Nader R. Abdelsalam

ABSTRACT: The honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) one of the most vital societal insects. The importance of honeybee is the major pollinators, agricultural productions and honey production in worldwide. Nine different districts were randomly selected from El-Beheira governorate, Egypt to assess the subspecies and identification percent of mixing among colonies via estimating cubital index characters to determinate honeybees’ races. Overall means were 2.52. Analysis of variance is highly Significant differences (P value =0.00) at according to Tukey's Studied Range (HSD) test (α=0.05) for the different locations. overall percentage for previous districts, the highest percent was 28.51% for the group of A. m. ligustica or A, m. carnica, 21.54% for A. m. mellifera. Also, the category of A. m. lamarkii percentage is 17.13%. Furthermore, A. m. yemenitica or syriaca category, multiplied by the percentage of 16.41%. The percentage of 16.41% for the of Apis mellifera spp. we indicate that the Egyptian honeybee "A.m. lamarkii" percentage was lower than A. m. carnica and A. m. ligustica in Egypt.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 813-819 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.3.54

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Evaluation of Lead Deposit and Fertility Indices of Lowland Rice Fields in Rock Mining Areas of Ishiagu, Southeastern Nigeria

Nwite J.C and B.O. Unagwu

ABSTRACT: The present study assessed the effect of quarrying on topsoil lead deposit and selected soil fertility indices of lowland rice fields in Ishaigu, Ebonyi State. A purposeful sampling technique was used in selecting the locations evaluated in this study. The locations were: Danger zone, which is where industrial waste waters/ effluents are discharged to, Ngwogwo and Okue locations are the mining areas, while Ovumte served as the control location. Two sets of factors used in this study were: four locations (Factor A) which constitute the main plot and three toposequence positions (upper, middle and bottom) (Factor B) which served as the sub-plots. Nine soil auger samples were collected randomly from each of the locations at 0 to 40 cm depth. Soil parameters were evaluated; soil pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, cation exchange capacity, and lead concentration. Results showed that lowlands of danger zone had the highest (0.075 mg/kg, p < 0.05) lead deposit while Ovumte recorded the least (0.015 mg/kg, p < 0.05) lead deposit. Results also revealed that other soil parameters studied were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in Ovumte lowland area than those other lowlands around the Crush Rock Industry. Based on Bowen (1979) and EU lead recommended level (35 mg/kg), lead contamination is no threat to lives and agricultural production across the study locations. However, the soil quality for crop production is compromised. This suggests that mining operations by Crush Rock industry impact negatively on the fertility indices of the study area.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 820-826 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.3.55

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Evaluation of Selected Agricultural Extension Approaches Operating in the Sudan

Ahmed M. Abdel Rahman, Musa H. Elfaki and Elbadawi K. H. Khalifa

ABSTRACT: The main objective of this study is to evaluate selected agricultural extension approaches operating in Sudan to recommend the suitable ones to suit the conditions of the country. Field surveys were used to collect data from 160 extensionists and 400 farmers. Two types of close-ended questionnaires were constructed and used in data collection. The collected data were coded, fed to the computer, and statistically analyzed using the Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS), discussed and interpreted using percentage, frequency distribution, and the F Test. The results showed that the FFS approach is the suitable one for Sudan conditions among the selected approaches operating in the country. From the present study, it can be concluded that the FFS approach is a superior approach in the majority variables of the study and with minor improvements FFS approach can be more appropriate for Sudan conditions.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 827-841 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.3.56

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Comparison between Agricultural Biogas Systems in Relation to Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Mona Maze, Omar Hijazi, Bianca Zerhusen and Mathias Effenberger

ABSTRACT: The utilization of the different renewable energy sources in Germany has expanded in the last twenty years, where the renewable share in gross power consumption has gone from 5% to 35%. The construction of biogas plants has increased almost 10 times since 2000 to 2018 that the installed electrical power reached close to 5 GW. This paper presents an evaluation of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of four biogas plants in different soil climate regions in Bavaria. The article discusses the different utilization, management and share of feedstocks (manure and energy crops) in the biogas plants and their influence on the electricity generation and the GHG emissions, whereas the biogas plant with higher share of energy crops and maize silage, in particular, showed higher GHG emissions and generated more electricity than the biogas plants with higher share of manure. The produced GHG emissions as a result of the electricity and heat supply from the biogas plants have been compared with the emissions that are created from the German grid mix and the different fossil fuels for generating electricity and heat. The results could be further employed to select the best agricultural biogas system with minimum GHG emissions in Egypt.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 842-851 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.3.57

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Pedological features of some Western Delta soils, Egypt and their relationships with different taxonomic systems

Zayed A.M.A., Al-Toukhy A.A. and El-Tapey H.M.A.

ABSTRACT: Soil Western Delta under consideration is situated between latitudes 30o 10` 00`` and 30o 37` 30`` North and longitudes 30o 05` 00`` and 30o 47` 30`` East and comprises an area of about 274,540.9 feddans. The pedological features and soil properties were studied according to delineation of physiographic units using remote sensing techniques. There are two main physiographic units as follows : 1) River terraces which includes two sub-units, i.e., the oldest river terraces, and river terraces of deltaic stage, these sub-units soil represent about 28.82 and 24.15 % of the total area, respectively. 2) Wadi El-Natrun complex which includes five sub-units, i.e., transition soils, gullies soils, windblown soils (soils of sand dunes), isolated plateau, and water body (lake depression ), these soils occupy about 21.30, 14.11, 5.81, 1.90 and 3.90 % of the total area . The current study were carried out by three classification systems, i.e., USDA, (2014), FAO ( 2006 ) and FAO ( 2015) and discussed some relationships between the previous classification systems which reflects the importance of applying both FAO and USDA systems to cover most of soil properties. We belief that both systems are in complementary.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 852-865 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.3.58

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Climatic changes and their effects on physiological and nutritional status of crop plants: importance and Strategies. A review

Abou Seeda M.A., Abou El-Nour E.A.A., Yassen A.A., and Sahar M. Zaghlou l

ABSTRACT: Climate change represents one of the greatest research challenges currently faced by plant biologists, agronomists and conservation biologists. Greenhouse gas emissions set to continue to rise for the near future. Impact of elevated atmospheric eCO2 and associated shifts in temperature and precipitation are all expected to impact plant ecophysiology, distribution and interactions with other organisms. Climate change such as drought, flood, high temperature, storm etc. are increased dramatically. Climate change has both direct and indirect impacts on agricultural production systems. Direct impacts include effects caused by a modification of physical characteristics e.g. temperature levels and rainfall distribution on specific agricultural production systems. Indirect impacts are those that affect production through changes on other species such as pollinators, pests, disease vectors and invasive species. These indirect effects can play a major role. They are much more difficult to assess and project given the high number of interacting parameters and links, many of which are still unknown. Climate change influences food security in a very complicated manner, it hampers the agricultural yield directly by means of disturbing the agro-ecological environment and indirectly by putting pressure on growth and circulation of income and consequently, increased the necessity of agricultural products. Impacts of climate change on food security have been calculated in several ways. Consequently, due to climate changes, many regions of cultivated land may become unsuitable for cultivation, and other tropical regions may produce more crops. Temperature instability will also provide more favorable environmental conditions for insect, pests of crops to boost their capacity to stay alive in cold temperatures and then emerge in outbreaks in spring. It is very crucial to observe that in case of food accessibility, all recent calculations for food security and safety have concentrated mainly on the effects of climate change in ways that did not measure the probability of substantial alteration in the rate of climate extremes on crop productivity. The atmospheric eCO2 levels have been progressing from the 280 ppm, preindustrial reference levels to current global levels exceed now above 400 ppm. Although the increasing concentration of atmospheric eCO2 is the main driver of harmful anthropogenic. Climate change, it can also improve crop performance by increasing rates of photosynthesis and water use efficiency (WUE), particularly in C3 plants. The putative positive effect in agriculture is in fact denoted to as the “CO2 fertilization effect” This effect has already been observed in crop plants and vegetables. However, longer treatments with eCO2 might lead to photosynthetic acclimation, due to increased soluble sugars leading to an imbalanced C: N ratio, accelerated leaf senescence and/or limited growth rate.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 866-936 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.3.59

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The Important Roles of Parks and Gardens in the Quality of Life. A Review

Suad K. Ahmed and Mahmood E. Yagi

ABSTRACT: Parks are considered as one of the important land usage, especially after the steady increase in population number that followed by vertical and horizontal expansion in housing, and the industrial growth which result in environmental pollution that negatively affect human health, productivity and the national income. Thus Parks are being one of the spaces that combine the activities of psychological comfort, pleasure, sports and aesthetic in addition to the economical, environmental, social and health benefits, which enhance individual, family and community wellbeing. In Sudan which is not exception from the other societies and due to civilization and social developments, barks gain greater popularity.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 937-944 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.3.60

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Functional and Numerical Responses of Cydnoseius negevi (Swirskii & Amitai) on Aceria melongenus (Zaher & Abou-Awad) (Acari: Phytoseiidae: Eriophyidae) Infesting Eggplant

B. A. Abou-Awad, B. M. Farahat, D. M. Hassan and S.I. Afia

ABSTRACT: Life table parameters, functional and numerical responses of the phytoseiid predator Cydnoseius negevi (Swirski & Amitai) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on densities of its prey Aceria melongenus (Zaher & Abou- Awad) (Acari: Eriophyidae) were studied under controlled temperature (31 ˚C), relative humidity (45%) and photoperiod (16:8 L & D). Prey is one of the major species of pest mites on the eggplant cultivations in Egypt. This study evaluated the predatory abilities fed on moving stages of eriophyid prey at densities 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 individuals. The results declared that the prey significantly affected development, female longevity, sex ratio, fecundity and predatory efficiency of C. negevi. At densities 60 and 80 individuals of prey, higher fecundities were reported (2.58 and 2.62 eggs/daily rate, respectively). At the same conditions, population of the predator could multiply 35.33 and 35.93, (Ro=35.33 and 35.93) in a generation time of 17.01 and 17.04 days (T= 17.01 and 17.04) when the predator fed on the prey, respectively. The attack rate (a)/the handing time (Th) or (a/Th) values indicate that C. negevi was effective against eriophyid prey. Prey as well, is a better diet for the predator in terms rm, erm, GRR, DT and ARI. Therefore, we consider that the potential of C. negevi could confirmed as a biological control agent of the harmful eriophyid prey A. melongenus on eggplant cultivars.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 945-953 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.3.61

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Evaluating the Yield Advantage of Using Rhizobium Inoculant in Improved Varieties of Soybean and Beans

Otim Godfrey Anyoni, Obong Samson, Otim Bosco, Abdoulaye Fofana Fall, Komakech Alfred, Akuru Grace and Laban F. Turyagyenda

ABSTRACT: The on-farm average yield of soybean (Glycine max) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) are 1t/ha and 0.8t/ha respectively. This is nearly a third of the potential yield, which is attributed to a number of factors including poor nodulation with the native rhizobia available in the soil. This study was done to assess the yield advantage for inoculation of selected improved soybean and bean varieties with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv phaseoli respectively, on-station in lira and at five on-farm sites for two seasons. The study sites were located in the districts of Agago, Omoro, Kitgum, Amuru and Lamwo. The mother baby trial methodology was used to conduct participatory adaptive research. A randomized complete Block design was used for on-station trials. The trials included evaluating response of three improved inoculated and uninnoculated soybean and bean varieties in each commodity against a local check. Results showed significant differences (p < 0.05) for both inoculated improved soybean and bean varieties. Inoculation of improved bean varieties significantly (p < 0.05) increased nodule numbers per plant, but was not significant for number of pods per plant. Also inoculation of improved soybean varieties significantly increased nodule numbers per plant, but was insignificant for number of pods per plant. Grain yield was also significantly (p < 0.05) higher in inoculated plots as compared to un-inoculated plots. Inoculation significantly increased yield in selected improved varieties in soybean and beans on average by 22.3% and 15%, respectively. In soybean MAKSOY 1N, MAKSOY 5N, MAKSOY 3N and LOCAL varieties were respectively improved by 14.13%, 23.33%, 64.40% and 42.8% compared to the non-inoculated controls. In beans NARO BEAN1, NARO BEAN2, NABE4 and LOCAL were respectively improved by 19.71%, 14.50%, 7.84% and 16.27% compared to the non-inoculated controls. It can be concluded that MAKBIO- FIXER inoculum containing Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv phaseoli as an efficient approach for improving the nodulation process and increasing grain legume yield for selected improved varieties in soybean and beans respectively. Therefore, the use of these inoculum to enhance yield in these varieties can be recommended.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 954-963 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.3.62

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A Model for Study of Some Soils Properties Adjacent to El Kharga - Baris Road, Egypt

Moamen M. El Kady

ABSTRACT: Egypt targets to increase agricultural production by 30% in 2024 and, that will lead to enhancement of income of small farmers, whilst increasing exports. Hence, the Egyptian government is constantly striving to find out new land resources for agriculture. The study area, covering an area of 1000 fed., was chosen as a model for investigating and evaluating some soils adjacent to the west of El Kharga - Baris road, New Valley Governorate. Also, for generalizing results of the study to other soils that have the same pedological characteristics. Therefore, this paper aimed to (i) understand soil properties, (ii) characterize of soil types and their spatial distribution based on a semi-detailed grid sampling technique, and (iii) appraise of the investigated land resources for agriculture. The research area is situated between 30°32'35.4 to 30°33'45.3"E and 25°00'27.4" to 25°01'49.3"N. The soils are could be divided to, (1) deep coarse-textured soils which covered 2.89% of the studied area, (2) deep moderately-fine textured soils with a sandy surface; 47.38%, (3) deep to moderately deep moderately-fine textured soils with gypsum hardpan and sandy surface; 39.77%, and (4) shallow coarse-textured soils; 6%. The soils could be evaluated based on capability into classes II, III, and VI represented 3.55, 86.58, and 6%, respectively. The results referred that, 90.13% of the studied area is suitable for agriculture with moderate to special conservation practices. Thus, the proposed practices are concern with in establishing featured systems of subsurface drainage and irrigation that can alleviate the constraints of agricultural production and enhance the prolificacy.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 964-981 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.3.63

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Effect of Roller Ginning on Fiber and Yarn Properties of Some Egyptian cotton Varieties

Ahmed H.S.A., W.M.B. Yehia, M.A. Al-Ameer, A.A. Hassan and A.E. Saad-Allah

ABSTRACT: Since 1965 the rotary knife gin stand replaced gradually the reciprocating knife one and this objective drew the attention of a considerable group of investigators. So, this investigation was carried out in Cotton Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt, during the season of 2020. By randomized complete block design and factorial design expiate by four replicate. The aim of this study to investigate the effect of long staple, Extra-long staple and extra-long extra fine of Egyptian cotton varieties (Gossypium barbadense L.) and their interaction with ginning wheels, also effect of ginning on fiber properties, yarns strength, yarn evenness and neps count at the ring spinning system 40 and 60 s carded count yarns at 3.6 and 4 (T.M.) for tests of yarn properties. In this investigation used their varieties belong to extra-long extra fine i.e. Giza 45, Giza 87 and Giza 93, where Giza 88, Giza 92 and Giza 96, belong to extra-long staple Giza 86, Giza 90 ,Giza 94, Giza 95, Giza 97 and the promising cross ((Giza 83 x Giza 80) x Giza 89 ) x A107) belong to long staple. The fiber parameters were tested with HVI test equipment. The data for yield, fiber and ginning traits were analyzed by package M. Stat program for tested results. Lint percentage, fiber length and short fiber index is also very important parameter which influences ginned. The obtained results showed that the ginning parameters were affected significantly by the cotton variety. While, the lint cotton was insignificantly affected. The all studied traits measured by HVI were significantly differences by cotton variety, except the upper half mean length, short fiber content were differences insignificantly. While, the upper half mean length and short fiber index were significantly affected. The interaction among the three studied factors i.e.: ginning area, ginning methods and cotton varieties was significant for fiber uniformity index, yarns strength, yarn evenness and neps count. This study exerts out to do treatment and evaluate gin type and recommendation the superior type one staple for different Egyptian cotton varieties.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 982-995 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.3.64

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Integration Effect of Enterobacter cloacae and Paenibacillus polymyxa with Mineral Fertilizers on Nutrients Uptake, Productivity and Soil Borne Pathogens of Maize and Wheat Plants

El-Saied R.M., Ehsan M. Rashad and Alaa F. AlBakry

ABSTRACT: Two experiments were carried out; the first one was conducted in vitro to assay antifungal activity of Enterobacter cloacae strain LC07192 and Paenibacillus polymyxa against Fusarium verticillioides, the ear rot pathogen of maize plants and Bipolaris sorokiniana, the black point pathogen of wheat. The second experiment was conducted in the field at the private farm in Al-Dakahlia governorate to evaluate too the effect of previous mentioned bacterial strains as phosphate and potassium solubilizing bacteria in utilizing fertilizers either chemical ″super phosphate, potassium sulfate″ or natural alternative minerals ″rock phosphate, feldspar″ on growth, diseases incidence, yield characters and chemical composition of maize and wheat grown in a sequence seasons during 2019-2020. In addition, the available of nutrients post-harvest of maize and wheat. Results showed that in vitro, two bacterial strains showed a pronounced reduction of mycelial growth of both pathogens. Under field condition, the significant increase in growth and yield of maize were presented by the combination between two bacterial strains with classical soluble fertilizers. Also, the greatest NPK uptake and protein content of grains recorded with the same treatment. What worth to be mentioned for later crop (wheat), combined between bacterial strains and alternative natural minerals gave significant enhance in the different parameters. On other hand, two bacterial strains had high potential to be used as biocontrol agents, because dual inoculation whether with chemical or with natural mineral fertilizers reduces both ear rot disease incidence and severity of maize plants and the same pronounced decrease of black point index, black point grains and black point seed/spike disease characters of wheat. It worth to be mentioned that when treating soil with rocks combined bacterial strains increased available P and K in the soil postharvest of maize and enhanced P and K availability post-harvest of wheat.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 996-1013 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.3.65

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Effect of Coating and Wrapping on Postharvest Quality of Manfalouty Pomegranate Fruits under Cold Storage

Masoud A.A.B., Fatma Alzhraa M. Hamdy, Mohamed. M. EL-Akkad, Rashad A. Ibrahim and Eman A.A. Abou-Zaid

ABSTRACT: The study was performed to evaluate the influence of coating and wrapping treatments used singly or in combination on improving postharvest quality of Manfalouty pomegranate cultivar during 2019 and 2020 seasons. Fruits were coated with any of turmeric oil or ginger oil at 10% and wrapped with waxed paper then stored under cold conditions at (7°C) with R.H 85-90% and analyzed at 2-week intervals to study the changes in physical and chemical quality of fruits. The obtained results revealed that by prolong storage period all the studied fruit properties (fruit weight loss %, fruit decay %, total soluble solids % and reducing sugar %) were increased significantly. However, total acidity % was decreased. All tested treatments had a significant effect on reducing changes in the above mentioned quality parameters but the coating with essential oils, when combined with waxed paper surpassed other treatments in controlling weight and decay. Also, the highest content of total acidity and the lowest percentage of total soluble solids and reducing sugar were recorded in fruits treated with essential oils when combined with waxed paper. Therefore, it could be recommended to use turmeric and ginger essential oils coating in combination with the waxed paper wrapping for improving quality and prolong the storage life of pomegranate fruits. Moreover, the previous treatments can provide a safe and healthy product as they are an alternative to harmful chemical applications

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1014-1025 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.3.66

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Economic Importance of Human Development in Egypt

Fatima A. Shafiq, Nagwa M. El-Agroudy, Soheir Mokhtar and Yehia M.M. Khalil

ABSTRACT: The study conspicuously aimed to identify the concept of human development and how to manage human resources, as well as to monitor the most important objectives of modern human resources management and its functions and the effects of human resources management on competitive advantage. This is in addition to the basic issues that confront management in the field of human management in order to transform the population increase from being a burden on the shoulders of the state into an economic resource that is more important than other material resources. Besides, the study dealt with the importance of human resource development, as well as the difficulties encountered in resource development, and the challenges facing human development, especially in developing countries. It also pushes the development train and the need to benefit from the experiences of international institutions in the educational, economic and social sectors in Egypt, as well as the following: 1- Paying attention to small industries and their financing and conducting workshops to increase their efficiency. 2- Paying attention to human resources management, especially government agencies. 3- Determining work needs to reduce disguised unemployment. 4- Paying attention to education and curricula since the early stages, with interest in building the child's personality, identifying his tendencies and trying to develop them. 5- Paying attention to giving training courses to the workers and seeking help of the experienced to train the youth. Focusing on the importance and role of human resources as a powerful competitive weapon in light of the fierce global competition has made leaders, managers and business owners change their view of human resources in organizations from mere users to partners, and view them as strategic and important assets that are more valuable than other capital assets in business organizations.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1026-1030 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.3.67

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Potassium Sources and Its Effect on the Yield and Quality of Maize Crop under Fertigation in Sandy Soil

Reda E. Essa, Soad M. El-Ashry, Foukia E. Mouafi and Manal F. Mohammed

ABSTRACT: Improving the production and quality of maize crops is the fundamental objective of farmers. A during the two seasons 2018 and 2019 field tests were directed to study the impact of potassium fertilizers on the development and productivity of fertigated maize variety (Giza 10) in sandy soil in Wadi El- Natroun, El-Behaira governorate, Egypt. The design of the trial was a split split-plot design in a randomized full-block concurrence with three replications. The results showed that the addition of potassium sources significantly increased the growth parameters, yield, and chemical constituents of the maize variety under fertigation in sandy soil conditions. There was a critical yield contrast between potassium sulphate and potassium chloride treatments. By and large, the maximum mean values of all parameters in the prose of study were acquired from the maize variety when the plants were fertilized by 75 kg/fed potassium sulphate. It could be concluded that at long last, to improve the yield and quality of maize under irrigation water sandy soil adding potassium sulphate 75 kg/fed with 2-weeks pattern and it has been powerful to realize some new innovations to improve the productivity of maize in sandy soil.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1031-1039 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.3.68

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Analytical Study Demand for Poultry Meat in Egypt (A Case Study in Qaloubia Governorate)

Yehia M.M. Khalil, Mahmoud Alaa Abd alaziz, Sabry B. Abd Elmoty Dabbous

ABSTRACT: The change in food consumption considered as one of the most prominent problems facing Egypt in the last 20 year. Change in the food pattern led to an increase in consumption from some food groups at rates higher than domestic production. This led to the widening of the food gap in some food groups. The problem of the study is the rise in the prices of production requirements for poultry as a result of the high exchange rate and consequently the consumer price was affected until he became unable to buy the poultry commodity that works to reduce the gap in animal protein for individuals in rural and urban areas. A cross-sectional survey to find out whether the food is a necessary commodity or a luxury commodity for the income groups in urban and rural areas. 200 questionnaire forms were collected for the income groups (less than 2000 pounds) (2000-6000 pounds) (more than 6000 pounds) using Google for text from. A study of the equations of the general time trend of the consumed quantity of poultry during the period (2005-2020) revealed that there is a statistically significant annual increase representing 4.1% of the average poultry production of about 1113 thousand tons, while the annual growth rate in poultry consumption represents about 4.96% of the average Of the domestic consumption of about 1518 thousand tons, while the annual rate of increase per person represents about 3.03% of the average per person per year of 14 kilograms. As for self-sufficiency, the annual rate decreases by about 0.92% of the average self-sufficiency rate of 95% for the average period. It was found from the results of the price elasticity’s of demand that it is negative, that is, it reflects the inverse relationship between the quantity of poultry consumed and its price, and that it is greater than the correct one for the first category (individual income is less than 2000 Egyptian pounds), which means that the relative change in price is greater than the relative change in quantity, while it was found that the elasticity of demand The price per capita consumption of poultry for the second and third categories of individual income (2000-6000 EGP), (more than 6000 EGP) Less than the correct one, which indicates that the demand for the consumed quantity of poultry is inelastic. While the internal elasticity of demand for poultry shows that it is less than one, which means that demand is inelastic and that poultry is a necessary commodity for all groups in the urban and rural areas of the sample and that the sign is positive and this means that the poultry commodity is a normal commodity. As for the cross elasticity, which is the relationship between the change in quantity Consumed poultry and the change in the price of red meat The study recommends the provision of animal protein at prices suitable for the income of the Egyptian consumer. Attention should be paid to providing the requirements of the poultry industry locally, while upgrading the establishment of farms with modern technologies and capacity effluents that reduce production costs and work on overflowing and improving the marketing property, which positively affects the ability of individuals to provide cheap and good animal protein

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1040-1044 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.3.69

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