July-Sept 2020


Improving of phosphorus use efficiency in Plant-Soil-System. A review

Abou Seeda M.A., Yassen A.A., Abou El-Nour E.A. A. and Sahar M. Zaghloul

ABSTRACT: Phosphorus is an essential nutrient that is required for all major developmental processes and reproduction in plants. It is also a major constituent of the fertilizers required to sustain high-yield agriculture. Phosphorus form that can be assimilated by plants are suboptimal in most natural and agricultural ecosystems, and when phosphate is applied as fertilizer in soils, it is rapidly immobilized owing to fixation and microbial activity. Thus, cultivated plants can consumed approximately 20–30% of the applied phosphate fertilizers, and the rest is lost, eventually causing water eutrophication. Recent advances in the understanding of mechanisms by which wild and cultivated species adapt to lowphosphate stress and the implementation of alternative bacterial pathways for phosphorus metabolism have started to mallow the design of more effective breeding and genetic engineering strategies to produce highly phosphate-efficient crops, optimize fertilizer use, and reach agricultural sustainability with a lower environmental cost. Phosphorus dynamics in the soil plant system is a function of the integrative effects of Phosphorus transformation, availability, utilization caused by soil, rhizosphere, and plant processes. In this review, we outline the current advances in research on the complex network of plant responses to low-phosphorus stress and discuss some strategies used to manipulate genes involved in phosphate uptake, remobilization, and metabolism to develop low-phosphate-tolerant crops, which could help in designing crops that are more efficient.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 491-514 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.3.39


Effects of late wilt disease on infection development of ear rot disease, phenolic compounds, trypsin and α-amylase inhibitors of some maize hybrids grains and quality characteristics of fortified cookies

Gamal A. Farahat, Ekram H. Barakat and M.A. El-Bana

ABSTRACT: Under Sakha Res. Farm field conditions, ears of infected maize plants by late wilt disease more infected by ears rot disease than free ones were observed, so this study was done. Positive relation between two fungal diseases of late wilt and ears rot was subjected in the two tested successive seasons, wherever infection by the first disease led to significant increase of infection and efficiency percentages of the second disease of most tested maize hybrids, as well as, by Fusarium verticillioides fungus in compassion of healthy free one from late wilt disease. This positive relation resulted in significantly decrease of ears yield, length and 100 kernels weight of most tested hybrids. The infection by late wilt disease resulted in increasing of asymptomatic infection efficiency by major ears rot causal fungus of F. verticillioides and SCs166 and 128 were the highest and the lowest ones, respectively, in compassion of healthy ones in the two tested seasons. Climatic conditions were suitable for ears and kernels rot disease in the two tested seasons. F. verticillioides fungus was the most kernels deteriorative one followed by Aspergillus niger, while A. flavus was the lowest one. Moisture, crude protein, ether extract, ash, crude fiber and total carbohydrates were significantly affected by hybrids and infection status. Antifungal compounds of total phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, trypsin and α-amylase inhibitors were recorded in high amount of healthy and resistant maize hybrids grains, especially in SC173 than healthy and infected ones of susceptible hybrids grains, especially in SC131and may have a role in resistance to late wilt disease and ears rot infection. Chemical composition of defatted maize germ flour (DMGF) is very rich in protein (23.60%), ash and fiber compared with wheat germ flour and wheat flour (72%). The cookies supplemented with defatted maize germ was considered more nutritive compared with that of control (wheat flour cookies) since it has higher contents of protein, ash and crude fiber. From the results of sensory evaluation, it should be noted that, fortification of DMGF until 20% is acceptable for the sensory evaluation of cookies.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 515-532 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.3.40


Wild and Marine Plant Extracts, Safe and Alternative System to Reduce Damage of Mineral Fertilizers and Stress Cases in Vegetable Crops. A review

Fathel F. R. Ibraheem

ABSTRACT: At the present time the population of the globe has exceeded 7 billion people and this increase in population has been accompanied by an increase in the demand for food, and the population's need for food can be met by raising productivity by increasing the rates of added chemical fertilizers, especially when planting vegetable crops compared to other crops due to the short growth period of vegetable crops, therefore, the focus was largely on increasing productivity regardless of the quality and safety of the food product of vegetable crops. Statistics have shown in many studies that the high consumption of fruits, leaves, stems, tubers and roots of vegetable crops treated with chemical fertilizers exacerbate the harmful effect on public health and increased pollution of the environment and soil by increasing the amount of nitrates and harmful chemicals in the parts that are eaten by the plant, so the recent trend in agriculture has been focused on the use of wild plant extract and seaweed extracts, they are substances
that encourage growth of plants with few concentrations, as they contain more than one group of substances that encourage growth, such as axins, gibberelins, and cytokines, some small and major nutrients, in addition to containing some amino acids, adding it to the soil improves its physical, chemical and biological properties, increases the ability to retain moisture, increases the activity of microorganisms, increases the growth of the root and vegetative complex and yields, resists vital stresses, increases the efficiency of nutrient absorption from the soil, increases photosynthesis, as well as its function as antioxidants through its role in increasing activity Some enzymes.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 533-538 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.3.41


An Economic Study of the Demand Function for Wheat Imports in Egypt

Nagwa M. El-Agroudy, Fatima A. Shafiq, Soheir Mokhtar and, Monia B. El-Din Hassan

ABSTRACT: The wheat crop is one of the most important strategic food grain crops in Egypt. Besides, it is considered the main food for all classes of the Egyptian people, especially those with limited income. It is used in the bread loaf industry in addition to the dependence of many food industries on wheat and its flour. The problem is that the local production of wheat crop is unable to meet local consumption. The ratio of its self-sufficiency reached 42%. In order to fill this gap, the country resorts to import from abroad by about 2432 million dollars in 2018. Moreover, the study aims to show the development of the productive situation of the wheat crop, the development of the food gap of the wheat crop and some factors affecting it in Egypt. This is in addition to estimating the self-sufficiency ratio, the quantity, and value of imports during the period and studying the demand function for wheat imports and the food security factor of wheat. Besides, the study used both descriptive and quantitative analysis to study the previous factors .Consequently, the study showed an increase in the total production, total consumption and average per capita with a statistically significant increase of about 160.2, 507.57 thousand tons, 1,41 kg, respectively. This is in addition to the increase in the size of the gap, the amount of imports and the stock size with a statistically significant increase estimated at 316.72, 402.43, 222.97 thousand tons annually, respectively. Moreover, the value of imports increased with a statistically significant increase during the study period by about 134.93 million dollars. By estimating the function of the demand for imports of wheat using the logarithmic state, it became obviously clear that the most important determinants of the quantities imported from wheat are the population, the amount of consumption, and the amount of production. It is important to mention in this context that it has been proven that there is a direct relationship between the population and the quantity of imports and an inverse relationship between the quantity of production and both consumption and production. Besides, by estimating the food security coefficient of wheat, it turned out to be about - 0.051. This indicates that the value of the food security coefficient is less than zero, which reflects the food insecurity situation of wheat. Therefore, it is necessary to work with the relevant state agencies to increase the food security factor of wheat. This can be done by expanding its cultivation and working to raise its productivity. This is in addition to find a fair price for farmers to encourage its cultivation and supply to the state and attention to rationalizing consumption and finding appropriate alternatives, in order to create an accumulation in the strategic stock that is sufficient for local consumption to achieve food security of wheat in Egypt.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 539-544 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.3.42


Evaluation of Pies Containing Licorice Roots (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) Extracts

Ghada A. Alfauomy, Hinar A. Seleem and Mona M.A. Ali

ABSTRACT: Licorice roots (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) are an important medicinal plant, and have numerous uses. Two extractors (water and ethanol) were used to extract the phytochemicals from licorice roots. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of such extracts were evaluated. Three different concentrations (100, 250 and 500μg/ml) of water and ethanolic extracts were used to investigate inhibition zone and properties against some bacteria strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli) and fungi (Asperigllus flavus, Asperigllus niger and Penicillum chrysogenu). The present results indicated that ethanolic extract exhibited the highest antioxidant activity (AOA) at 600μg/ml. The AOA (IC50) for water and ethanolic extracts was 110
and 212 μg/ml, respectively. Total phenols of water and ethanolic extracts was 21.01 and 45.24 mgGAE/gDW, respectively. The results of HPLC analysis fractionations showed that both water and ethanolic extracts contained a high level of pyrogallol, coumarin and catechin. The exist major flavonoids were hisperdin and quercetrin. It was revealed that the antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic extract was higher than of the water extract. Three levels of ethanolic licorice extract were used in pie preparing. The effect of addition licorice ethanolic extract (100, 200 and 300 mg/100g wheat flour) in preparing pies were evaluated and the results cleared that, specific volume was slightly increased at 200 and 300 mg/100g compared with control. Taste, volume and crumb color of pies were improved at 200 and 300 mg licorice extract. Addition of ethanolic licorice extract at 200 and 300 mg successfully extended the microbiological shelf life up to 12 days compared with 6 days for control.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 545-557 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.3.43


Maximization of Nutrient Use Efficiency and Crop Production Through Fertigation Technologies: An overview

Abou Seeda M.A., A. Khater, S.A. Hammad, E.A.A. Abou El-Nour and A.A. Yassen

ABSTRACT: The importance of fertigation in increasing productivity with efficient and reduced consumption of water and nutrients with practically, no pollution is emphasized. In modern farming systems, fertigation is widely practiced as a cost effective and convenient method for applying soluble fertilizers to crops. Along with efficiency and adequacy, uniformity is an important fertigation performance evaluation criterion. Fertigation uniformity is defined here as a composite parameter consisting of irrigation and fertilizer application uniformity indicators. The use of fertigation, coupled with micro-irrigation, has continued to increase since it was first introduced in horticultural cropping systems. This combination provides a technical solution whereby nutrients and water can be supplied to the crop with high precision in terms of time and space, allowing high nutrient use efficiency. However, the correct estimation of crop nutrient and water needs is fundamental to obtaining precise plant nutrition and high nutrient use efficiency in fertigated cropping systems. Increasing food demand and decreasing water resources have composed a kind of pressure to find new technologies for efficient use of water and fertilizers in agriculture. Such technology can be able to save irrigation water from 30% up to 50%, as compared with surface irrigation, furthermore increasing crop yields and crop quality. Highest benefits of drip irrigation, some soil data such as, infiltration rate, soil texture and soil structure, crop characteristics and water resources properties ,water quality, surface as will as well water, must be considered in system design, management and operation. Fertigation is an agricultural technique and application together with water and fertilizer to soil and/or plants, stimulates yield and fertilizer use efficiency as well; therefore, and under this technique leaching of nutrients is completely prevented. In order to utilize fertigation successfully, the four main factors must be considered: (a) the consumption rate of water and nutrients throughout the growth season that result in optimal yields, (b) response in uptake of different crops to nutrient concentration in the soil, (c) monitoring for total soil water potential, nutrients concentration in soil and percentage of elements in plants as a function of time, (d) root mass and distribution due to irrigation regimes as well as soil types.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 558-585 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.3.44


Influence of Organic and Biofertilizers on Some Soil Chemical Properties, Wheat Productivity and Infestation Levels of Some Piercing-Sucking Pests in Saline Soil

Hala H. Alakhdar, Kh. A. Shaban, M. A. Esmaeil, A. K. Abdel Fattah

ABSTRACT: A field experiment was conducted at Port Said agricultural research station, Port Said Governorate, Egypt, during two successive winter seasons 2018/2019 and 2019/2020 to study the effect of humic acid, biofertilizer (Azospirillium braselence) and their combination on some soil chemical properties, wheat (Masr 1) productivity and natural field infestation under saline soil conditions, compared to control (mineral fertilization only). The studied treatments were arranged within the experimental units in a complete randomized block design in three replicates. Results indicated that all treatments had improved soil chemical properties. There was a significant decrease in EC values in all treatments as compared to control. The best treatment was (humic acid + biofertilizer). Also, all treatments induced a significant increase in soil content of organic matter, while there was a slight decrease in pH values. Available macronutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium) and micronutrients (iron, manganese, and zinc) were significantly increased in the soil by using all treatments. The highest increase was achieved with the combined treatment (humic acid + biofertilizer) followed by biofertilizer then humic acid. There was also a significant increase in the wheat content of macro and micronutrients as affected by all treatments. Also, the added treatments caused a significant increase in grains and straw yields as compared to control. The best addition was humic acid + biofertilizer, it increased the grains and straw yields to 2.06 and 2.20 ton/fed., respectively. The most abundant pest families collected were aphids, Rhopalosiphum padi Linnaeus (Aphididae), it was the common species followed by Schizaphis graminum Rondani; mites, Oligonychus pratensis Banks (Tetranychidae) and Thrips, Thrips tabaci Linderman (Thripidae).

[ FULL TEXT PDF 586-598 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.3.45


Influence of Information and Communication Technology Tools on the Teaching and Learning of Office Technology in Polytechnics in South – East Nigeria

Chinakwe, P.C.

ABSTRACT: The study was carried out to examine the Influence of Information and Communication Technology Tools on Students’ Acquisition of Office Technology Skills in Polytechnics in South-East Nigeria. Specifically, the study ascertained the influence of computer technology on; extent to which printer technology influences students’ acquisition of Office Technology Skills in Polytechnics in South-East Nigeria; and gender differential on the extent internet technology influences students’ acquisition of office technology skills in Polytechnics in South-East Nigeria. Data were collected with the aid of questionnaire from 347 final year HND students of Office Technology and Management (OTM) proportionately selected from 1389 OTM students in six Polytechnics located in the South-East Nigeria. Mean score analysis and Z-test were used to achieve the objectives of the study. The result indicated that out of the 19 computer skill areas understudied, 17 had significant influence on students’ acquisition of Office Technology Skills with the exception of formatting cells in office documents (M= 1.95) and creating a worksheet database by themselves (M = 1.89). The result also revealed that all forms of use of printer technology influenced office technology skills acquisition. The Z-test of gender difference in the influence of computers for the acquisition of office technology skills revealed that no significant difference existed in the mean responses of male and female students on the extent of usage of computers for influencing the acquisition of office technology skills.The study concludes that student’s use of Information and Communication technology tools influenced their office technology skills acquisition. Hence, it is recommended that Tertiary institutions should make ICT tools very significant unit of the course content in Office Technology and Management.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 599-604 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.3.46


Diversity of Plant Parasitic Nematodes of Tree Tomato (Solanum Betaceum Cav.) in Kiambu and Embu Counties, Kenya

Waswa Stanlous Juma, Waceke J.W and Nchore S.B.

ABSTRACT: Surveys were conducted in five areas representing different agro-ecological zones (AEZs) in Kiambu and Embu counties in Kenya during January to April 2019 cropping season to determine population density, genera diversity and distribution of plant parasitic nematodes associated with tree tomato farming systems. Nematodes were extracted from 200cc of soil or 5g of roots using modified Baermann technique. The nematode diversity and evenness in the study areas were determined using Shannon and Simpson’s indices respectively. Soil nutrients were determined using Mehlich double acid digestion. A structured questionnaire was used to get information on farming practices from sampled farmers. Meloidogyne spp. was the most dominant genera followed by Pratylenchus spp. and Helicotylenchus spp. in both soil and root samples. Githunguri recorded significantly high mean number of 15.92 and 4.29 nematodes in soil and root samples respectively. Kiambaa had the highest diversity index of 1.59 and 0.86 in soil and roots respectively while genera richness was highest in Kiambaa with 13 nematode genera in soil. Simpson’s index of evenness was highest in Kiambaa with 0.69 and 0.47 in soil and root samples respectively. Githunguri had the high egg mass index of 2.00. Soil texture and elements of C, P, K and N together with farming practices may have contributed to the nematode community structure in the study areas.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 605-616 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.3.47


Isolation and purification of Alfalfa mosaic virus-infecting potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Beheira governorate

Khalil, A.M., S.I. Behiry, A. Abdelkhalek and H.A. Younes

ABSTRACT: Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) was obtained from naturally infected potato plants, showing bright yellow (Calico) symptoms, grown in Al Nubaria region, El Behaira governorate. The identification was based on the symptoms developed on diagnostic hosts and serological reactions. AMV isolate was transmitted by Aphis faba and Aphis nerii in non-persistent manner. The purified virus had an ultraviolet absorption spectrum typical of a nucleoprotein and yield of purified virus was 1.8 mg/100g infected leaf tissues. Specific antiserum was prepared and found to have a titer of 1:6400 as determined by indirect ELISA.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 617-623 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.3.48


Effect of Olive mill Wastewater and Biochar under Different NPK Rates on Sandy Soil Properties and Peanut productivity

Doaa M. Khalifa and Ibrahim, M. Elareny

ABSTRACT: The field experiment was conducted two successive summer seasons of 2018 and 2019 at Ismailia Agricultural Research Station, Egypt to evaluate the effect of Olive mill wastewater (OMW), Biochar and NPK fertilizers rates on some sandy soil properties and peanut (Arachish ypogaea) productivity in sandy soil. A randomized complete block design was used. The results indicated that soil pH and EC was not significantly affected in the soil treated with Olive mill wastewater (OMW) and biochar. There are positive significant effects on nutrient availability (NPK) in both seasons by using biochar and olive mill wastewater in soil as well as their content in peanut plants. The application of OMW can improve soil quality indices (nutrients (N, P, and K), organic matter, pH, total porosity, bulk density and plant growth performance. The Olive mill wastewater (OMW) and Biochar application increased plant height, No. of branches, No. of pods, protein (%), seed oil (%) and seed yield (ton fed- 1) as well as NPK content in peanut plant.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 624-635 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.3.49


Stimulation of Growth and Productivity of Onion Plants by Selenium and Growth Active Substances

El-Bassiony, A. M., S. H. Mahmoud, S. M. El-Sawy and Shaymaa I Shedeed

ABSTRACT: Under Egyptian conditions great efforts are devoted to research for stimulating and safe nontraditional growth materials (chemical and biological technologies in agriculture) that has a noticeable effect on plant growth characteristics, which reflects an increase in plant production. The experiments were conducted under newly reclaimed sandy soil conditions during two successive growing seasons of 2017-2018 and 2018-2019 at the Experimental and Production Station of National Research Centre, El-Noubaria region, Beheira Governorate, Egypt. A randomized complete block design with 3 replicates was used to study the effect of chitosan, seaweed, amino acid and selenium (mineral and nanoparticles) as foliar applications on vegetative growth, yield and quality as well as some chemical composition of onion plants. The results showed that spraying amino acids and mineral selenium (Se) had significant effects on plant length, number of leaves, fresh weight of leaves and bulbs, dry weight of leaves and bulbs, bulb diameter and total yield per feddan. Onion plants which received Se in the both forms; mineral and nanoparticles and amino acids produced the highest significant values of N and K %. Whereas, no significant differences were observed among the studied treatments for P % in the onion leaves and bulbs in the two growing seasons. Selenium was found only in the leaves and bulbs of onion plants which treated by mineral and Nano selenium, while selenium was not detected in control, chitosan, seaweed and amino acid treatments in the both studied seasons.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 636-644 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.3.50


Integration of Some Bio Compounds with Compost Tea to Produce Sweet Corn without Mineral Fertilizers

Saad Abou-El-Hassan and Heba S. El-Batran

ABSTRACT: A field experiment was designed at the Dokki site for Protected Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Giza, Egypt, during two successive seasons of 2017 and 2018. This experiment aims to improve the efficiency of compost tea by adding some bio compounds for producing sweet corn (Meilan F1 Hybrid) without mineral fertilizers. The treatments of compost tea only, compost tea enriched with extracts of algae, azolla or yeast were compared to recommended mineral fertilizers. Applying compost tea enriched with yeast extract gave the highest vegetative growth, yield and ear properties of sweet corn with no significant differences compared to use mineral fertilizers. The application of compost tea enriched with extracts of algae or azolla reduced growth, yield and ear characteristics of sweet corn compared to mineral fertilizer. The treatments of compost tea enriched with extracts of algae, azolla or yeast were superior to non enriched compost tea in all studied traits. This study illustrated the possibility of utilizing algae, azolla and yeast extracts to improve the efficiency of compost tea to produce a good yield and quality of sweet corn without mineral fertilizers.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 645-652 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2020.9.3.51