April-June 2021


Response of Egyptian cotton plants to the treatment with Azotobactr, Azospirillum and some Bacillus Spp. and their effect on yield and quality under calcareous soil

Ahmed H.S.A., Mona H. A. Hussein and Deshish EL-D. EL-D.

ABSTRACT: Two field experiments were conducted at Nubariya Agriculture Research Station, Cotton Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center during two seasons 2018 and 2019. These experiments were conducted to study the probability of using clean agriculture to produce organic cotton. A randomized complete block design with 4 replicates was used. The Egyptian cotton varieties i.e. Giza 86, Giza 94, Giza 95, Giza 97, Giza 92 and Giza 96. Cotton seeds were received from Cotton research institute, Egypt. Microorganisms i.e. Bacillus bolymixa, Bacillus megterm, Bacillus circulans, Azotobactr, Azospirillum and Mix fertilizer was provided by the Department of Microbiology, Institute of Soil and Water Research, Agricultural Research Centre, Giza, Egypt. The most important findings are as follows: the combined treatment (half dose of both the mineral and some bio-fertilizers) produced height values for yield, yield components, and fiber traits in all varieties, with one exception in the seed index parameter. Furthermore, the obtained results demonstrated that the use of bio- fertilization with all varieties was highly significant. The obtained results for the effect of bio-fertilization on cotton varieties yield and yield component parameters stated that using bio-fertilizer Azospirillum, Bacillus bolymixa, and a combination of all Bio-fertilizer gave the highest values for yield and yield component traits. In any case , all varieties of Egyptian cotton under study effected by using Bio-fertilizer the results cleared that highly significant mean performances for all the fiber traits by compared by control treatment and the highest mean was recorded by used Azotobacter, Azospirillum, Bacillus bolymixa and Mix of all bio- fertilizer. From the all results in conclusion we possible use bio-fertilization for Egyptian cotton varieties to using clean fertilizer and decrease the mineral fertilizer and decrease the pollution for soil and

[ FULL TEXT PDF 426-437 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.2.28


Effect of Water Stress on Some Egyptian Cotton Genotypes

Badr S.S.M., H.A.E. Elganayny and El-D. El-D. Deshish

ABSTRACT: Two field experiments were carried out in Sakha Agricultural Research Station, at Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt during the 2019 and 2020 seasons to study the effect of water stress on some Egyptian cotton genotypes and its effect on growth and yield and yield components. The experimental design was a split plot with four replications. The main plots involved two irrigation intervals (14 and 28 days) and the subplots included five Egyptian cotton genotypes (Giza 86, Giza 94, Giza 97, Giza 92 and Giza 96). The combined analysis between years was done. Obtained results revealed that: the significant seasonal effect was detected in boll weight, lint %, seed and lint cotton yields/ fed. where the second season gave the high values of seed and lint cotton yields/ fed. Irrigation intervals significantly affected plant height, number of fruiting branches/plant, boll weight, number of open bolls /plant, seed index, seed and lint cotton yields/ fed. in both seasons. Prolonging irrigation interval to 28 days significantly decreased the number of open bolls /plants, boll weight, seed index, seed and lint cotton yields/ fed. Egyptian cotton genotypes had a significant effect on growth characters and yield and yield components, where the Giza 94 genotype gave the high values of growth characters, while the Giza 97 genotype gave the high values of yield and yield components. The interaction between years and irrigation intervals had significant effects on plant height, boll weight, no. of fruiting branches/plant, no. of open bolls /plant and seed and lint cotton yields/fed., where irrigation every 14 days in the second season gave the highest values of in these properties. The interaction between irrigation interval and Egyptian cotton genotypes had a significant effect on growth characters and yield and yield components. Well watered plants every 14 days to Giza 97 gave the high values of no. of open bolls/ plant and seed and lint cotton yields/fed. The interaction between seasons and genotypes and the interaction among years, irrigation intervals and genotypes did not significantly affect growth characters, yield and yield components. The study concluded that the proper irrigation interval was 14 days to assure a high yield of different Egyptian cotton genotypes and avoid adverse effects during the seasons.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 438-446 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.2.29


Determination of Antibacterial and Antioxidant Potential of Some Medicinal Plants

Ahmed A. Aly and Inas M. Khamis

ABSTRACT: Myrtaceae family is one of the most famous plant families; we chose three plants which are Syzygium aromaticum, Myrtus communis and Psidium guajava, to clarify antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The results showed that, the highest percentage of total phenols and tannins in Syzygium aromaticum buds extract, and followed by Myrtus communis leaf extract and finally Psidium guajava leaf extract. The percentages of total flavonoids reached their maximum values in Syzygium aromaticum extract (10.4 %), followed by Psidium guajava leaves (5.5 %), and decreased to the lowest concentration in Myrtus communis leaves (4. 1%). The antioxidant study revealed that, Syzygium aromaticum, Myrtus communi and Psidium guajava plants have high antioxidant activity due to their ability to capture free radicals. The antimicrobial study demonstrated that, the three plant extract have antimicrobial effects against many pathogenic bacterial strains. Therefore, it is recommended to use the three plants under studied as antioxidant and antibacterial.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 447-452 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.2.30


The Green Food Value Chain Development Approach: Key Lessons Learnt

Martin Hilmi

ABSTRACT: The green food value chain development (GFVCD) approach has its foundations in the green, circular and low-carbon economies as well as within green growth. It was developed, mainly, with a ‘bottom- up’ approach focused on realism. The thrust of the process was and is to partner with bottom of the pyramid (BOP)/subsistence marketplaces (SM) stakeholders, for example agri-food value chain actors, and critically learn from stakeholders and their contexts to attempt to identify and better understand how, within agri-food value chains and markets, environmental challenges and impacts were tendered with, via, frugal, green and grass root innovations. Over the period 2012 to 2020, in developing the GFVCD approach and also in implementing such an approach, data and information, knowledge, know- how and experiences were gained from 23 countries. Within this background, the aim of this research was to ascertain, identify, analyze and diagnose key lessons learnt in developing and implementing the GFVCD approach over the past nine years. The research was based on a review of sources of data and information, both secondary and primary related directly and indirectly to the GFVCD approach. The research was further enhanced by an online meeting with subject matter specialists held with the main aim of reviewing, discussing and attempting to agree upon the key lessons learnt over the past nine years in terms of developing and implementing the GFVCD approach. The results of the research and the online meeting found 14 key lessons learnt in terms of developing and implementing the GFVCD approach. All the 14 key lessons were found to carry all the same ‘weight’ in terms of relevance to the GFVCD approach as well as being all interconnected. From the stocktaking, the 14 key lessons learnt can be considered as a set of ‘best practices’ for the GFVCD approach. These 14 reference points on‘best practice’ can be important and can be instrumental in not only developing the GFVCD approach further, but also and importantly in further implementing the approach at field level. The findings from this research indicate that effectively the GFVCD approach, both in terms of developing further and implementing such an approach, is dynamic and consequently needs to be considered as a flexible, adaptable and morphing approach that can be assimilated within the high diversity of BOP/SM contexts.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 453-471 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.2.31


Effect of Sowing Dates on Growth, Development and Pod Production of Snap Been (Phaseouls Vulgaris L.) Varieties during Summer Season

Magda A. F. Shalaby and Sohair K. Ibrahim

ABSTRACT: Two field experiments were carried out in the experimental farm of the faculty of Agriculture, Moshtohor, Benha University during two successive summer season; to study the effect of sowing dates March 1 st referred as early sowing date, April 1 st as medium sowing date and May 1 st as late sowing date. Four cultivars were tested in the experiment namely Paulista, Samantha, Narina and Bronco. The data for vegetative growth and chemical composition was taken at 50 days from sowing. Flower behavior as well as quantity and quality of green pods were determined. 1- All vegetative aspects i.e plant length, number of leaves and branches per plant as well as fresh weight of shoot were significantly increased with early sowing on the 1 st of March. Cv. Bronco reflected the highest value of these vegetative criteria. On the other hand, the dry matter percentage of the shoots was increased with delaying seed sowing from March 1 st to May 1 st . 2- Early sowing (1 st March) led to significant increases in all assayed photosynthetic pigments (chl. (a), (b) and carotenoids) as well as mineral constituent (N, P, K). Cv. Paulisa followed by cv. Bronco reflected the highest values. Early sowing (1 st march) exhibited the maximum increase in reducing, non-reducing and total sugars as well as nucleic acids (RNA& DNA). Cv. Paulista reflected the highest level for all these parameters. 3- Flowering behavior showed that early sowing date (1 st March) exhibited the highest values of both number of flowers, pods per plant and fruit set percentage. Plants of cv. Bronco Possessed the superiorly in this respect followed by cv. Paulista. 4- Sowing snap bean seed in early planting (1 st March) significantly increased green pod yield per plant as well as feddan followed by cv. Bronco, cv. Paulista then cv. Narina. Meanwhile cv. Samantha produced the lowest yield. Worth to be mentioning that cv. Paulista improved pod quality in all measured physical and chemical parameters of pods. It can be concluded that cv. Bronco can be recommended on the early sowing date (1 st March) to obtain high green pod yield. However, for better quality of pods cv. Paulista at early sowing (1 st March) could be recommended.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 472-482 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.2.32


Interaction effect of N fertilizer with foliar application of potassium on the growth, yield and yield attributes of Chinese garlic plant (Allium sativum L. ).

Shafeek M.R., Asmaa R. Mahmoud, Y.I. Helmy, Nadia M. Omar and Camilia Y.El- Dewiny

ABSTRACT: A field experiment was carried out on Chinese garlic (Allium sativum L.) with three replications and nine treatments in the experimental agriculture station of National Research Centre at Nobaria, Egypt to find out the efficacy of different combination of foliar application of potassium fertilizer (K 38%) at (0, 1 and 2 cm/l). with three levels of nitrogen fertilizers (100% N, 75%N+25% bio potassium and 50% N+ 50% bio potassium) in its growth, yield and yield attributes. Results strongly showed that the addition of the highest level of N fertilizers (100%) improved plant growth, fruit yield, physical and chemical characters of garlic plants. In the same respect, the highest level of foliar spry of potassium (2 cm/l) gave significantly the best growth characters, total bulbs yield, physical and chemical quality of garlic bulb. The interaction between foliar application of potassium and N fertilizers levels had no significant effect on all studied characters.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 483-492 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.2.33


Growth, Productivity and Quality of Certain Seedling Dry Date Palm in Comparison with Bartamuda cv. in Aswan, Egypt

O. A. Khalil and Manal A.M. Hassan

ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted during the 2019 and 2020 seasons with the aim of studying the performance of nine seedling strains of dry date palm and comparing them with Bartamuda cv. located in Banban village, Daraw City, Aswan Governorate. Data showed that ninth, fifth, and first strains were superiorin leaf length compared to other strains and Bartamuda. The tallest leaflets were recorded in Bartatmuda, followed by the first and fifth seedling strains. Bartatmuda, followed by the first strain, resulted in the best results for the yield/ palm compared to other date palm for both seasons. Bartamuda, followed by the fourth and eighth strains were the highest in total sugars % of fruits compared to other strains. However, the highest values of the fruit weight were noticed with the sixth, eighth, third, and first strains compared to Bartamuda in the first and second seasons, respectively. Bartamuda was superior in terms of productivity and quality as it attained the uppermost score units (90/100) compared to other seedy strains in the same region. It can be concluded that some of seedling strains surpass Bartamuda in some of the fruit quality traits such as the third, fourth, eighth, and the first strains.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 493-500 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.2.34


The Influence of Citrus Rootstocks and NPK Nutrition on the Growth, Leaf Chemical Components and Some Fruiting Aspects of Balady Lime Trees

Huda M.H. Ismaiel and Randa E.Y. Habasy

ABSTRACT: During the 2017-2018 and 2018-2019 experimental seasons Balady Lime trees budded on three citrus rootstocks namely Troyer citrange, Volkamer lemon and Macrophylla were subjected to three levels of N, P and K i.e., 500:250:250, 750:500:500 and 1000:750:750. The merit was to access the suitable Citrus rootstock and the optimum rate of NPK responsible for maximum yield and producing better fruit quality. Obtained data showed that the suitable N P and K nutrition was substantially dependent on the citrus rootstocks. It was 1000:750:750 for lime trees budded on Troyer citrange, 750:500:500 for lime trees budded on Volkamer lemon and 500:250:250 for trees budded on Macrophylla. The best citrus rootstock for Balady lime trees grown under sandy soil was Macrophylla followed by Volkamer lemon and Troyer citrange ranked the last position in this respect. The best result concerning yield and fruit quality of Balady lime trees grown under sandy soil were obtained when the trees were budded onto Macrophylla citrus rootstock and supplied with NPK at 500:250:250, respectively. Unsuitable citrus rootstock for Balady lime trees grown under sandy soil was Troyer citrange.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 501-507 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.2.35


Effect of Different Egyptian Planting Location and Irrigation Water Salinity Level on Gypsophilla Plants Tolerance

Magdy Azmy Barsoom, Georgina W. Rizk and Zakrya B. Mohamed

ABSTRACT: The experimental trial was consummated at three locations (Luxor, Giza and Alexandria) during 2015/2016 and 2016/2017 seasons to investigate the effect of the different planting locations in Egypt, combined with the effect of different salinity treatments on growth, flowering and chemical constituents of the newly formed plant of Gypsophila elegans in order to achieve higher productivity even under conditions of salinity stress to reduce the consumption of fresh water in a wide temperature range and different relative humidity. The results emphasized that Luxor location was the best for improving all plant parameters in both seasons. On the other hand, salinity treatments differed in their effects on plant traits, where the treatment of CaCl 2 1g/plant was the best for improving the morphological characters and chemical constituents of the plant in the two seasons. The opposite was right for the effect on proline content which gave the lowest level compared with that gained from the other treatments used in the two seasons. From the aforementioned results, it could be recommended to plant Gypsophila elegans under the condition of Luxor with the addition of CaCl 2 at 1g/plant.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 508-518 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.2.36


Role of Protein Profiling in Explaining Aggressiveness of Streptomyces Scabies toSolanum tuberosum

Omnia A. Abd El-Hafez and Hisham El Shishtawy

ABSTRACT: Scabby potato tubers with raised, netted and pitted lesions were collected from different places in Egypt. Sixteen isolates were recovered, checked for pathogenicity and identified as Streptomyces scabies. The isolates were similar in morphological, physiological and biochemical determination differing in disease propensities. In vitro studies the colony color was grey for all isolates and production of melanoid pigments was observed. The pathogenic potential of isolates was tentatively different in the developed grading system. Protein electrophoretic studies revealed high molecular weight bands in all isolates, though 6 isolates with low detected protein (60-70 kd) and disease index ranging between (92% -99 %) indicating their role in pathogenic potential . The study may conclude that SDS-PAGE needs greeter work with deeper depth for possible correlation between a distinct protein in the pathogen and severity of infection and scab lesions type on potato tubers.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 519-530 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.2.37


Peppermint productivity as affected by Vermicompost and calcium silicate under saline conditions

Elsawy A.M., Mona M. Aly, M.M. El-Dolify and T.M. Younis

ABSTRACT: Soil salinity is one of the most important a biotic stresses among the harmful environmental factors on the agricultural land sector. Field experiment was conducted at the Central laboratory for Agricultural Climate, Agricultural Research Center, Giza to study the effect of vermicompost fish fertilizer and calcium silicate treatments on mint grown under sandy soil during the two seasons of 2108 and 2019. Sandy soils were conducted from El Alamein, Western Sahara, worm fish fertilizer was added in a single dose; at rates of 0, 3.5, 4.5, and 7.5 ton/acre, it was incorporated into potted plants to a depth of 5-10 cm two weeks before the date of planting. Calcium silicate (CaSiO 3 ) treatments at 0, 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5 mlM were added in a single dose, it was incorporated into the soil at a depth of 5-10 cm two weeks before planting the seedlings. The vegetative growth parameters were recorded: plant length (cm), number of branches/plant, green yield and dry weight (g) / plant. Chemical parameters: essential oils, carbohydrates percentage, proline, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, and sodium was determined in dry leaves. Soil temperature was determined in10cm depth. the results suggest that using 4.5 ton/ acre vermicompost with Calcium silicates concentration was 4.5 mlM was the best treatment gave significant effect on plant length, number of branches/plant, green yield and dry weight, also gave highest total carbohydrates, nitrogen phosphorous, potassium and essential oil content. These results indicated that the vermicompost, reduce the effects of salinity by improving the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the soil. Calcium silicates which might directly enhance the plant's tolerance to deal with salt stress.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 531-538 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.2.38


Influence of Residual Allelopathic Effects of the Seed Powder of Watercress or Mustard on the Following Cowpea Plant and Its Associated Weeds

Mahmoud A. T. El-Dabaa, Salah El-Din A. Ahmed, Nadia K. Messiha, Ebrahim R. El- Desoki and Raafat R. El-Masry

ABSTRACT: Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) plants were sown in the same pots after the harvest of tomato plants which were previously treated with different rates (5, 10, 15, 30 and 45g/kg soil) of seed powder of two Brassicaceae plants, watercress (Eruca Sativa M.) or mustard (Sinapis alba L.) compared to those treated with Basamid herbicide at 0.2 g/pot. This work was done in the greenhouse of the Egyptian National Research Centre during the two successive summer seasons of 2017 and 2018. The obtained results indicated that all previous treatments used to tomato were significantly minimized the weight (fresh and dry) of grasses, broad-leaved and the total weeds associated with the following cowpea plants, at 45 and 85 days after sowing (DAS). Generally, all treatments with watercress were more effective than mustard in controlling both broad leaved weeds and grasses. Moreover, broad leaved weeds were more susceptible than grasses. The results also showed that all mentioned treatments had significant effect on cowpea plants, significantly increasing most growth parameters and yield and yield components. The results indicated that all tested treatments had no toxic effects on the following cowpea plants.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 539-547 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.2.39


Effect of Some Microelements and Bio-Stimulants and Their Interaction on Calendula Officinalis Plants in Sandy Soils

Taghreed E. Eissa and Alaa eldeen A. Shaheen

ABSTRACT: The present work was carried out at the Experimental farm in Ismailia Research Station, Agric. Res. Center, Egypt, during 2019 and 2020 seasons. The investigation aimed to improve plant quality and productivity of Calendula officinalis plants in sandy soil. Iron application at the rate of (0, 50 and 100 ppm) as foliar aqueous solution (Fe SO 4 ·3H 2 O) and copper application at the rate of (0, 25 and 50 ppm) as foliar aqueous solution (Cu SO 4 ·H 2 O) while, yeast and amino acids were applied at the rate of 2g/l. The treatments were applied three times, the first time at 30 days after sowing; the second is twenty days after the first application at stem elongation and the third before flowering stages. The results indicated that, the application of either microelement i.e. (Fe and Cu) treatments and bio-stimulants i.e. (yeast and amino acids) or coupled gave significant increased on vegetative growth and flowers parameters under study as compared with untreated plants in both seasons. The application of the treatment of 100 ppm of iron and 50 ppm copper coupled with amino acid at 2 g /l improved growth performance, flowering traits and chemical constituents (total chlorophyll in leaves, beta carotenoids, total flavonoids in dry ray flowers, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium percentage, iron, copper and zinc (ppm) in leaves) as compared with other treatments.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 548-562 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.2.40


Percent of Survival, Vegetative Growth and Hormonal Balance as Affected by Chip Budding of Flame Seedless cv. on Three Nematode Resistant Rootstocks

Abou Rayya M.S., Nabila E. K., A.S.E. Abd-Allah and R.A.M. Amal

ABSTRACT: The present study was carried out during two successive seasons of 2012 and 2013 in a private vineyard located at Sadat city, Menofia Governorate, Egypt The main target is the detection of the proper rootstock which achieve the highest compatibility (Congeniality) degree for the Flame seedless cv, with good survival % and healthy growth for the obtained grafts especially vegetative growth of scion and root system growth of the rootstock. The survival percentage varied significantly according to rootstock type. Freedom rootstock recorded the highest survival percentage (80.00 and 83.33 %) and F.C.C (2.41 and 2.53) in 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively. While, Harmony rootstock recorded the lowest survival percentage (60.00 and 66.67 %) and F.C.C (1.51 and 1.82) in both seasons, respectively. Meanwhile, difference in F.C.C. value between Freedom and Salt creek was insignificant in both seasons. Freedom rootstock recorded the maximum values of scion shoot length (93.55 and 95.86 cm) and leaf area (95.24 and 105.49 cm2) in 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively. While, Harmony rootstock achieved the minimum values of shoot length (67.43 and 71.67 cm) and leaf area (73.37 and 79.60 cm2) in the two studied seasons, respectively. However, differences in both shoot length and between Freedom and Slat creek rootstocks are insignificant in both seasons. Freedom rootstock recorded the maximum figures of the aerial portion fresh weight (7.65 and 8.89 g), fresh weight of root system (2.94 and 4.23 g), dry weight of the aerial portion (2.07 and 2.52 g) and dry weight of root system (1.7 and 2.4 g) in the two seasons, respectively. While, Harmony rootstock showed the minimum values of fresh weight of aerial portion (5.65 and 6.33 g), fresh weight of root system (2.30 and 2.91 g), dry weight of the aerial portion (1.65 and 1.81 g) and dry weight of root system (1.34 and 1.63 g) in the two studied seasons, respectively. Meanwhile, differences in fresh wt. and dry wt. of aerial portion between Freedom and Salt creek were insignificant in both seasons. The obtained results revealed that canes of Freedom rootstock exhibited the largest total indoles (0.29 and 0.30 mg/g F.W.), free indoles (0.25 and 0.26 mg/g F.W.). But they showed the lowest total phenols (0.17 and 0.15 mg/g F.W.) and free phenols (0.15 and 0.13 mg/g F.W.) in 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively. On the contrary, canes of Harmony rootstock exhibited the minimum values of total indoles (0.24 and 0.23 mg/g F.W.) and free indoles (0.19 and 0.20 mg/g F.W.) and the highest figures of total phenols (0.24 and 0.23 mg/g F.W.) and free phenols (0.20 and 0.18 mg/g F.W.) in both seasons, respectively. However, no significant differences were detected in total indoles and total phenols between Freedom and Slat creek rootstock in both seasons.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 563-568 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.2.41


Effect of growth regulators on delay blooming and productivity of Almond trees

Amro S.M. Salama, Soraya A. Mohamed and Ahmed A.H. Hegazy

ABSTRACT: This study was carried out during two successive seasons of 2018 and 2019 in a private rain-fed almond orchard at Marsa Matrouh Governorate, Egypt. Nine years old almond trees cv. "Umm al-Fahm" grafted onto Bitter almond rootstock planted at a spacing 7X7 m. to study the effect of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and salicylic acid (SA) treatments on delay blooming as well as their effects on vegetative growth and productivity. The experiment was performed in a randomized completely block design with four replications. Almond trees were subjected to five treatments as: control pure water, NAA as foliar sprays at 75 mg l -1 , NAA as foliar sprays at 150 mgl -1 , salicylic acid as foliar sprays at 75 mg l -1 , salicylic acid as foliar sprays at 150 mg l -1 . Foliar sprays were carried out at mid-September before flowering while foliage was still green during 2017 and 2018 seasons. The results indicated that the trees treated with NAA at 75 and 150 mg l -1 gave the same value in delayed blooming (7 days in first season and 5 days in second) as compared with the control treatment. Moreover, Salicylic acid at 150 mg l -1 treatment delayed blooming (6 days in first season and 4 days in second). Besides, NAA at 150 mg l -1 enhanced shoot length and number of leaves per shoots. Also, it improved kernel weight. NAA at 150 mg l -1 and salicylic acid at 150 mg l -1 treatments gave similar and high positive effect on fruit set percentage and yield of "Umm al-Fahm" almond trees. Application of NAA at 150 mg l -1 delay almond blooming moreover, that could be beneficial to avoid frost damage under such conditions. Delayed blooming in almonds under this condition needs more study.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 569-576 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.2.42


The Role of Nanotechnology in Plant Nutrition. A Review

El-Nasharty A.B., A.I. Rezk, S.S. El-Nwehy and O.A. Nofal

Abstract: Nanotechnology is a type of science that deals with a tiny volume of material ranged from 1 to 100 nanometers. Nanoscale materials (NSs) acquires new properties compared to the original form of the same material. These phenomena are attributed to a surface area dedicated to nanoparticles (NPs). Regarding this type of fertilizers, through which they are used as smart delivery systems, they are manufactured by chemical, physical or biological methods, for improving their properties and composition, which in turn improves crop productivity. Also, these nanometric fertilizers are superior than traditional fertilizers in the efficiency of their absorption (Nutrient Use Efficiency) and activation of the metabolic processes inside the plant due to the higher surface area of their molecules, use of less quantities with greater effectiveness and their supply to plants with their needs of nutrients for longer periods compared to the traditional forms of nutrients and positively improve the biochemical content of crop and its quality. Regarding the role of nano-fertilizers in the development of crops, several researchers have shown that the use of nano-fertilizers can deliver nutrients directly to the zone of roots by avoiding swift changes in the chemical composition of soil nutrients, thereby reducing loss of nutrients, and improving the efficiency of use. In addition, to preserving depression by reducing the loss of nutrients that cause pollution, but one must be careful in applying its rate. Based on the above, we may infer that nanotechnology has made a significant and effective contribution to plant nutrition, especially through the use of smart fertilizers such as NFs, which have been suggested to improve total nutrient usage efficiency (NUE) values by regulating and slowing nutrient release in order to help manage the long-term nutrient needs of crops.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 577-587 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.2.43


Effect of Nitrogen Mineral Fertilizer, Vermicompost and Biofertilizer on Lettuce Yield and Quality

Fatma Sayed Aboud and Hanaa A. Abd-Alrahman

ABSTRACT: Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) is one of the most consumed vegetable worldwide due to its richness in vitamins, minerals and fibers content. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of bio, nitrogen mineral and organic fertilizers and their interactions on the growth, mineral content of leaves, yield and quality of lettuce plants. Three treatments of nitrogen fixing microorganisms (Aztobacter chroococcum, Azospirillum brasilense and control). Four equations of nitrogen mineral and/or organic fertilizers were applied (100% mineral, 50% mineral+ 50% vermicompost, 25% mineral + 75% vermicompost and 100% vermicompost) of the recommended fertilizer unit. Results showed that Azotobacter chroococcum recorded the highest values of growth, total yield, leaves mineral content, i.e., N, P, K, Ca and nutritional value (carbohydrates and vitamin C) as well as lower nitrate content compared with control (without bio-fertilizers). Equation of 100% vermincompost of the recommended fertilizer unit exhibited the highest values of vegetative growth, leaves mineral content, yield, leaves nutritional value and lower values of nitrate content compared to the other treatments. The combined effect of Azotobacter chroococcum with 100% vermicompost of the recommended fertilizer units recorded the maximum values of the pre-mentioned parameters.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 588-603 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.2.44


What are the marketing practices of agricultural mechanization hire service enterprises in development contexts? A review

Martin Hilmi

ABSTRACT: The aim of the research was to attempt to ascertain and better understand the marketing practices of agricultural mechanization hire service enterprises (AMHSEs) in development contexts. The research approach taken was mainly qualitative and abductive. It took an exploratory, historical and descriptive approach and was based on two literature research and reviews and online key informant one-to-one in depth interviews. The analysis conducted on the findings was based on thematic analysis using a
theoretical framework, constructed and based on different types of marketing and their related characteristics. The results of the research provided that there was scant evidence in sources of secondary data and information on AMHSEs’ marketing practices and from the interviews very much the same also emerged. However, seven AMHSEs’ marketing practices were found from the research and these were: networking; ascertaining farmers’ and other agri-food value chain actors’ demand; booking services; pricing of services; distribution and promotion of services; contracting; and partnering. What also emerged clearly from the research was that the subject matter of AMHSEs’ marketing practices was novel in nature as seemingly little, if any, research had been conducted on the subject matter previously. Consequently much further research is needed within this unexplored realm of research.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 604-628 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.2.45


Effect of Foliar Application of Yeast (Saccharomyces Cescervisiae) on Controlling Downy Mildew Disease and Yield Production of Onion

Abd-Elbaky A.A., Yousef H. and Abd El-Maged M.S.

ABSTRACT: The efficiency of foliar application of Saccharomyces cescervisiae yeast extract at different concentrations was evaluated for controlling onion downy mildew disease and increasing onion bulb yield under natural infection conditions during two successive seasons (2017/2018 and 2018/2019). Treatment with yeast extracts showed a significant reduction of downy mildew severity, incidence and increased onion bulb yield when compared to untreated control during the two growing seasons as well. Concentrations of yeast extract were found to be directly proportional to disease severity and percentage of downy mildew. Moreover, plant length and fresh weight as well as bulb yield were also increased in comparison with control. The treatments increased the activity of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase, beside an increase in total carbohydrates and total phenolic contents especially at concentrations of 5 and 10 g/L. The tested concentrations of yeast extract had a direct effect on increasing the production of chlorophyll A and B as well as carotenoids compared with control during the two successive growing seasons.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 629-636 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.2.46


Biodegradable Mulch for Vegetable Production. A Review

Sami H. Mahmoud, A.M.M. EL-Tanahy and S.D. Abou-Hussein

ABSTRACT: From a crop production perspective, plastic mulches can increase yields. The use of plastic mulch in agriculture has increased dramatically in the last 10 years throughout the world. This increase is due to benefits such as increase in soil temperature, reduced weed pressure, moisture conservation, reduction of certain insect pests, higher crop yields, and more efficient use of soil nutrients. Also mulching with plastic mulch is used commonly on large scale it remains 15% - 20% moisture conservation because, mulching with plastic materials that cover the soil creates a physical barrier to soil water evaporation. Plastic pollution in agricultural soils, caused by the incomplete removal of polyethylene mulch after usage, is a growing environmental concern. Where, Current polyethylene plastic mulch film is not biodegradable and therefore cannot be plowed back into the soil. This causes irreparable harm to ecosystems and the habitats. However, disposing of used plastic films, which cause pollution, has led to development of photodegradable and biodegradable mulches (BDMs). There has therefore been increased interest in biodegradable plastic mulches as alternative to polyethylene mulch; completely soil-biodegradable plastics or compostable plastics offer an environmentally responsible end-of-life solution for plastic mulch film and plasticulture products. Using alternative biodegradable materials as covers has been of increasing interest in recent years. However, little is known about their impact on soil health. Here we review the use of plastic mulches in agriculture, with special reference to biodegradable mulches.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 637-653 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.2.47


Impact of in vitro propagation on chemical composition of Aloe vera plants

Amira K.G. Atteya, Elsayed A. Omer, Esmail A.E. Genaidy, Rasha Fouad and Shimaa A.F. A. Elnony

ABSTRACT: Commercial Aloes are obtained from wild as well as cultivated plants but there is a lack of production of Aloe leaf to meet the industry demand because it is a slow way of multiplication. So, the aim of this investigation is studying the effect of in vitro technique with using different concentrations of NAA, BAP and their combination treatments not only on reproductive of Aloe vera plant but also on its chemical composition. Two in vitro experiments of micropropagation and regeneration were performed to reproduce Aloe vera plant and to increase its chemical compounds using MS media and different concentrations of NAA and BAP. In the micropropagation experiment the effect of NAA (0.0, 0.1, 0.2 mg/L) and BAP (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 mg/L) as well as their possible combination treatments was studied. The number of plantlet per explant of Aloe vera plant increased with increasing NAA and BAP concentrations and the maximum number of plantlets was recorded with combination of 0.1 mg/L NAA plus 4 mg/L BAP. From the other hand, the medium concentrations of NAA and BAP gave the maximum plantlet length and leaf length of Aloe vera plant. Despite, the moderate concentrations of BAP improved rooting parameters of Aloe vera plantlets in this study, the maximum concentration of NAA gave the best rooting parameters of Aloe vera plantlets. In addition, most concentrations of NAA and BAP were able to improve chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids. The combination treatment of 0.1 mg/L NAA plus 3 mg/L BAP recorded the maximum significant values of total phenolics and flavonoids contents as well as antioxidant activity of Aloe vera plantlets. In the regeneration experiment, the effect of different concentrations of NAA (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 mg/L) in the present of BAP with concentration of 0.5 mg/l was studied. The highest number of plantlets was recorded with the concentration of 2 mg/L NAA in the present of 0.5 mg/L BAP. Using 3 mg/L NAA in the presence of 0.5 mg/L BAP had the maximum mean values of total phenolic and flavonoids contents as well as antioxidant activity of Aloe vera plantlets. Therefore, in vitro technique is suitable way to reproduce Aloe vera plant and to increase the production of its chemical compounds.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 654-673 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.2.48


Comparative economic study of the production and economic efficiency traditional and organic cultivation of chamomile and fennel

Yehia Mohamed Khalil, Karima Awd Mohamed, Enaam Abdel Fattah Mohamed and Amr Sayed Sofey El Sayed

ABSTRACT: Medicinal and aromatic plants are considered important non-traditional crops with multiple uses because they contain many aromatic compounds in addition to other materials such as carbohydrates, proteins, and vegetable fats. These aromatic compounds enter the manufacture of perfumes and cosmetic supplies. Traditional agriculture and about 78.4 thousand acres of vital cultivation and the cultivation of wormwood represents about 21% of the area of traditional crops, while the cultivated area of organic wormwood represents about 23%, Problem of the study the global demand tends to increase the consumption of organic products for the two crops of wormwood, chamomile, and fennel. Despite this, the productive and economic efficiency of the producers of the two crops is not clear organically and compared to what is traditionally produced. Objective of the Study he research aims to assess the productive and economic efficiency of the chamomile and fennel crops by identifying the most important factors affecting production through production functions and comparing biological agriculture with traditional in Egypt through a field sample with estimating the economic return of producers using the two methods of agriculture, The results of the production function show that the most important factors affecting the production of traditional wormwood are the human labor component, and the quantity of pesticides, whose quantity is estimated at 1.97 and 1.69, and the production is in a non-economic stage, and the economic efficiency of the two components has not been clear, while the component of the seedling quantity, the amount of compost and the amount of irrigation water have been found. They are the most important factors that affect the production of organic wormwood by about 0.385, 0.338, and 0.487. The efficiency of two components, compost and water component were confirmed, while it became clear that the traditional production of fennel was affected by the quantity of nitrogen, and the value of pesticides. The efficiency of the two elements was not clear, while the production of organic fennel was affected by the human labor component and the quantity component. Water, the efficiency of the water component was evident and the production was in an economic stage, and the economic efficiency of the organic fennel and fennel producers was confirmed, as the net return per feddan reached about 3,877, 2328 pounds compared to the traditional 2,777, 1062 pounds, as well as the net return of the water unit, which amounted to about 1.68, 1.01 for each of the wormwood and fennel. Organic versus traditional is about 1.14, 0.42 pounds, which confirms the interest in organic cultivation of medicinal and aromatic plants, chamomile and fennel in particular.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 674-682 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.2.49


Effectiveness and Fate Nitrogen in Plants Physiology, Molecular Approaches for Maximization and Improving Nitrogen Use Efficiency. A Review

Abou Seeda M.A., Yassen A.A., Abou El-Nour E.A.A. and Sahar M. Zaghloul

ABSTRACT: Nitrogen is the limiting nutrient element after carbon, hydrogen and oxygen for photosynthetic process, Phyto hormonal, proteomic changes and growth development of plants to complete its lifecycle. However excessive and inefficient use of N fertilizer results in enhanced crop production costs and atmospheric pollution. Atmospheric nitrogen (71%) in the molecular form is not available for the plants. For world’s sustainable food production and atmospheric benefits, there is an urgent need to up-grade nitrogen use efficiency in agricultural farming system. Nitrogen use efficiency is the product of nitrogen uptake efficiency and nitrogen utilization efficiency; varies from 30.2 to 53.2%. Nitrogen losses are too high, due to excess amount, low plant population, poor application methods etc., which can go up to 70% of total available nitrogen. Adopting improved agronomic approaches, losses can be minimized up to 15–30%, such as optimal dosage of nitrogen, application of N by using canopy sensors, maintaining plant population, drip fertigation and legume based intercropping. Recent developments and future prospects of improving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in crops using various complementary approaches. Including conventional breeding and molecular genetics, in addition to alternative farming techniques based on no-till continuous cover cropping cultures and/or organic nitrogen (N) nutrition. Whatever the mode of N fertilization, an increased knowledge of the mechanisms controlling plant N economy is essential for improving (NUE) and for reducing excessive input of fertilizers, while maintaining an acceptable yield and sufficient profit margin for the farmers. Using plants grown under agronomic conditions, with different tillage conditions, in pure or associated cultures, at low and high N mineral fertilizer input, or using organic fertilization, it is now possible to develop further whole plant agronomic and physiological studies. These can be combined with gene, protein and metabolite profiling to build up a comprehensive picture depicting the different steps of N uptake, assimilation and recycling to produce either biomass in vegetative organs or proteins in storage organs. Providing a critical overview as to how our understanding of the agro-eco physiological and molecular controls of N assimilation in crops, under varying environmental conditions, has been improved. Long-term sustainability may require a gradual transition from synthetic N inputs to legume-based crop rotation, including continuous cover cropping systems, where these may be possible in certain areas of the world, depending on climatic conditions. Current knowledge and prospects for future agronomic development and application for breeding crops adapted to lower mineral fertilizer input and to alternative farming techniques are explored, whilst taking into account the constraints of both the current world economic situation and the environment. Nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, glutamine synthetase, glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase and asparagine synthetase enzyme have a great role in nitrogen metabolism. However, further studies on carbon–nitrogen metabolism and molecular changes atomic levels are required by using “whole genome sequencing technology” to improve nitrogen use efficiency (NUE).

[ FULL TEXT PDF 683-770 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.2.50


Alternative Control by Natural Compounds to Powdery Mildew Disease on Sugar Beet With Supporting Investigation by Scanning Electron Microscopy and X- Ray

Nagwa H.H. Salama

ABSTRACT: Natural compounds such as sodium carbonate and bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, eugenol oil, micronized and elemental sulfurs were applied against sugar beet powdery mildew under field conditions during 2019/2020 and 2020/2021 seasons. The results showed real role of this substances in suppressed powdery mildew disease on sugar beet plants and exhibited non-phytotoxic, wherever sodium carbonate , micronized and elemental sulfur were the most effective ones in this respect , which caused reduction in disease severity and the highest enhancement of yield, total soluble solids (TSS) and sucrose contents followed by sodium bicarbonate and eugenol oil, while potassium bicarbonate was the lowest one compared to control treatment .Moreover, Topase fungicide was the superior treatment in reducing the disease severity and recorded the best yield, TSS and sucrose contents .Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) examination showed deformation of spores and mycelium of Erysiphe betae fungus resulting to natural compounds application of sugar beet leaves, SEM combined with Energy – Dispersive X- ray (EDX) analysis showed increasing of different elements ,ie. S, Ca, Mg, Si percentage than control, and all counter may be had chemical changes, that inhibit E. betae fungus infection . Consequently, application of natural compounds led to positive change of oxidative enzymes activity, wherever sodium carbonate and micronized S recorded the highest peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase enzymes values followed by sodium and potassium bicarbonates, while the reverse was true with elemental S. At all, most of tested substances led to enhancement of chlorophylls content and Topase was the best one.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 771-785 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.2.51


Impact of Substrate Growing Media and Duration Supplementary LED Light White Color on Development of Eggplant Seedlings

Fatma S. Moursy and M. A. M. El-Esaily

ABSTRACT: Grower are concern the importance of producing high quality seedlings to achieve a great yield and healthy plant. Our study was performed at nursery of Protected Cultivation Sector, Dokki, Giza, to determine using mushroom wastes and chopped rice straw as alternative substrates media, supplementary LED light white color i.e., (12 and 24) hours and their interaction compared to peat moss substrate and natural light in winter season through 2019 and 2020. Seeds of hybrid eggplant (Classic F1) were sowing in trays at 15th November in each season 2019 and 2020. Germination of seeds i.e., (rate, index) and vegetative growth of seedlings parameters such as (seedling height, number of leaves/seedling, chlorophyll reading in leaves, fresh and dry weights of seedling) were recorded. This study was conducted in a split plot design. Results indicated that sawing eggplant seeds in "PM + RS + MW" substrate enhanced seeds germination (rate, index) and increased growth tested parameters of seedlings more than other substrates growing media. In addition, applying duration supplementary LED light white color for 12h achieved greatest values of all tested parameters among other supplementary treatments. Moreover, "PM + RS + MW" plus supplementary light for 12h as combination had the positive impact and improved all studied seedlings parameters. While, the negatives impact were observed with RS substrate, supplementary light for 24h and their combination.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 786-802 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.2.52


Effect of Foliar Spray with Natural Extracts on Vegetative Growth and Chemical Composition of Murraya exotica (L.) Jack Plant

El-Fouly A.S. and Sayed A.W.

ABSTRACT: A pot experiment was carried out on Murraya exotica (L.) Jack plants grown in a semi shaded place at the nursery of Al-Zohriya Garden, Horticultural Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt during 2018 and 2019 seasons, to study the effect of foliar spray with natural extracts on vegetative growth and chemical composition of Murraya plant. The aim of the study is using natural extracts as an alternative for chemical fertilizers to reduce the pollution problems caused by these fertilizers to the environment, to reduce production costs, to determine the best fertilization treatments for hastening growth of Murraya plants with high-quality characteristics for local production and export. Therefore, two aqueous extracts of cabbage leaves and fenugreek seeds, were evaluated for their ability as bio-stimulants for the fertilization of Murraya plants with different concentrations (0, 25, 50 and 75%), for each. The obtained results indicated that the highest values were recorded for all vegetative and root growth traits (plant length, number of branches/plant, number of leaves/plant, root length, as well as vegetative and root growth fresh and dry weights) in plants were sprayed with fenugreek seeds extract at 50% concentration compared to the control plants in both seasons. While the highest values for all flowering traits (number of flowers/ inflorescence, flower diameter and flower fresh and dry weights) were recorded in plants sprayed with cabbage leaves extract at 50% concentration compared to the control plants in both seasons. The same trend was also observed with regard to the chemical components in the leaves, where the highest values for the leaf contents of photosynthetic pigments (total chlorophylls and carotenoids), the percentages of total carbohydrates, N and K, as well as total phenols and total flavonoids were recorded by plants sprayed with fenugreek seeds extract at 50% concentration , while the highest values of the percentage of P in the leaves were recorded by plants sprayed with the cabbage leaves extract at 50% concentration. Accordingly, foliar spraying of Murraya exotica plant with fenugreek seeds extract at 50% level, once every three weeks during the growing season, as an alternative to chemical fertilizers can be recommended to obtain the fastest growth and
high quality for local production and export.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 803-812 ] DOI: 10.36632/mejar/2021.10.2.53