Impacts of Climatic Changes and Water Use Deficit on Contribution of Integrated Soil Fertility Management, Nutrients Gradient: A Review
Keywords:climate change, soil formation, elevated carbon dioxide, root adaptation, nutrient gradients, crop yield
Global climatic has been changed and will continue to change because of the activity of unreasonable controlled of human activities, which gradually increase the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Population is gradually increased at the same time and due to climate change, soil and water resources is threastened due to natural resource degradation. Many reports, by IPCC has clearly stated that warming of the climate system is unmistakable and it is very likely caused by natural and human activities. Climatic changes always affect hydrological cycle components, such as precipitation, evapotranspiration, temperature, stream flow, ground water and finally surface runoff, and may have stronger or weaker, permanent or periodical, favorable or unfavorable, harmful, direct or indirect impact on soil processes. Climatic changes will result in stimulated floods and drought, which will have significant impacts on the soil and the availability of water resource availability. Soils are linked to the climatic system through cycles of nitrogen, the carbon, and hydrologic. Because of climatic changes, soil processes and their characteristics will gradually be affected, by changing in temperature, that causing changes in global amounts of rainfall and their distribution patterns. Temperature and water are very important factors influencing the processes of soils, which causing changes in the soils throughout the world. Managements of water resources can affect on the counter balance of climatic changes on stream flow and water availability at certain level. This review studies the impacts of climate change on soil, water resources. Studies also dealing on hydrological responses to climate change, and possible adaptation options in the realm of climate change impacts on soil and water resources. Deficit of soil moisture affects crop productivity through its influence on the availability and transportation of nutrients which gradually increases vulnerability to nutrient losses from the rhizosphere soil by erosion. Nutrient elements are carried by soil moisture to the roots. Decreasing moisture in root zone resulted in decreasing nutrient diffusion and their availability, consequently decreasing mass flow of water-soluble nutrients such as nitrate, sulfate Ca, Mg and Si over longer distances. Roots extend their length, gradually increase their surface area and alter their architecture in an effort to capture less mobile nutrients such as phosphorus. Reduction of root under drought conditions reduces the nutrient acquisition capacity of root systems. Also reduce both carbon and oxygen fluxes, furthermore minimize the accumulation of nitrogen in root nodules particularly, in legume crops, furthermore, alters the composition and activity of soil microbial communities like the reduction of soil nitrifying bacteria.
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