Impacts of climatic changes on agronomically and physiological processes in plants: A review
Keywords:Environmental factors, higher temperature, drought stress, elevated carbon dioxide, roots vascular cambium hydraulic conductivity, wood anatomy, nutrient uptake
Climate change is threatening crop productivity worldwide and new solutions should urgently adapted the crops to these environmental changes. High temperatures always affect the developmental and physiological plant processes that, ultimately, influence crop yield and quality. Xylem and phloem consider as plant vascular tissues, affected by the climatic changes. Their formation are critical for the transpiration phenomena, besides photosynthesis, however impacts on the transpiration stream are well studied, interactive effects of multiple stress factors are underrepresented. Climate changes will result in plants experiencing multiple co-occurring environmental stress factors, which require further studies. Due to drought stress will gradually influenced the diameter and density of xylem vessels or tracheid’s. All of these factors are expected to increase vascular cell wall thickness, due to increasing carbon allocation to these tissues. Roots are responsible for uptake both water and nutrients by plants. However changing in soil temperatures will alter the mechanisms that caused limiting crop growth. Variable climatic forecast will affect the development of root efficient system to better adapt the changing soil and environmental conditions for enhancing crop productivity. Studies of improving root for facing high temperatures are important to obtain more adapted suitable crop varieties. This review, will summarize the current knowledge about the effect of increasing temperatures on root growth and their impact on crop yield. The coordinated physiological and metabolic changes will be considered in roots and aerial parts that response of the plant to increased temperatures. The main regulatory mechanisms controlling root adaptation to warmer soils, including the activation of heat and oxidative pathways to prevent damage of root cells and disruption their growth as well as the interplay between hormonal regulatory pathways and the climatic changes on gene expression and protein homeostasis. Considering also that increasing temperatures are usually associated with other abiotic and biotic stresses such as drought, salinity, nutrient deficiencies, and pathogen infections as well. We will present recent advances on how the ability of root system to integrate and respond to complex and different stimuli in order to adapt to an increasingly changing environment as well as the initiation of vascular of both xylem and phloem , the transpiration stream through them , and photosynthesis. Finally, we will discuss the new prospects and challenges in this field as well as the more promising pathways for future research.
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