What Are The Characteristics of Agri-Food Marketing in Bottom of The Pyramid- Subsistence Markets In Developing Economies?


  • Martin Hilmi Governance Consultant, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, Rome, Italy.


marketing, agricultural marketing, food marketing, agri-food marketing, bottom of the pyramid, subsistence markets, developing economies


The main aim of the research was to identify agri-food marketing characteristics in bottom of the pyramid-subsistence markets in developing economies. The research was based on previous studies conducted on the subject matter by the author and was further augmented by an in-depth literature and sources of secondary data and information research and review, an online feedback meeting on the research findings and an online meeting to also further discuss the findings. The outcome of the research provided for 93 identified characteristics of agri-food marketing in such contexts as well as other pertinent factors to consider that were derived and highlighted from the online meeting. The 93 identified characteristics were provided to have a good degree of confidence, and hence could be of use to both practice and theory, but considerations need to be taken of the heterogeneity of BOP-SM contexts and hence agri-food marketing not only has to be adaptable, but also flexible, versatile, variable, agile and innovative. Interestingly in this regard, what also emerged was that agri-food marketing seemingly needs to take a ‘BOP-SM perspective’ and not an adaptive perspective. This calling for considering agri-food marketing from a new perspective both in terms of theory and practice. Clearly as a result of this, further research should be conducted on identifying other agrifood marketing characteristics, but also further research should be conducted on agri-food marketing from a specific BOP-SM perspective in terms of both theory and practice.