Nutritional Evaluation of Watermelon and Gurmamelon Seeds Powder and Quality Characteristics of Fortified Biscuits
Keywords:Watermelon seeds, Gurmamelon seeds, Minerals, Fatty acids, Amino acid, biscuits
This study was carried out to investigate the utilization of watermelon seed powder (WMSP) and gurmamelon seed powder (GMSP) as replacements for wheat flour at different levels (5.0, 10.0, 15.0, and 20.0%) to prepare biscuits rich in protein and minerals. The obtained results revealed that WMSP and GMSP are very rich in protein, ash, and fiber compared with wheat flour, (72%). Furthermore, the total phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of WMSP and GMSP showed a higher significant effect than wheat flour 72%. Wheat flour (72%) contains lower values of all determining elements except for sodium and potassium compared to WMSP and GMSP. In addition, WMSP and GMSP had higher values of phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, manganese, and iron. The total amino acids of WMSP and GMSP were 51.40 percent and 58.08 percent, respectively. Furthermore, GMSP was richer in essential and non-essential amino acids than WMSP. The total saturated fatty acid of gurmamelon seed oil was higher (25.58%) than that of watermelon seed oil (18.06%). In contrast, crude protein, ether extract, ash, and crude fiber content increased in biscuit products. Moisture and carbohydrate value decreased gradually as the substitution levels of WMSP and GMSP increased. From the results of sensory evaluation, it should be noted that fortification of weat flour with WMSP and GMSP until 15% is acceptable for the sensory evaluation of biscuits. Based on the obtained results, the new product of biscuits containing WMSP and GMSP can be used to cover the protein and mineral nutritional needs of schoolchildren in developing countries and could be recommended as food aid in institutional feeding
programs for pupils in different school stages.
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