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July-September, 2021

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The Environmental Applicability of Vermicompost for Developing and composting organic wastes to control the risk of adverse impacts on the Environment

Abou Seeda M.A., Abou El-Nour E.A.A, Yassen A.A. and Sahar M. Zaghloul

ABSTRACT: Environmental contamination due to solid waste mismanagement is a global issue. Open dumping and open burning are the main implemented waste treatment and final disposal systems, mainly visible in low-income countries. The environmental impacts are pervasive worldwide: marine litter, air, soil and water contamination, and the direct interaction of waste pickers with hazardous waste are the most important issues. This narrative literature review assessed global issues due to different waste fractions showing how several sources of pollution are affecting the environment, population health, and sustainable development. Urbanization and industrialization resulted in rapid increase in volume of solid waste; its management has become one of the biggest problems today. Solid wastes can be disposed of by methods like land filling, incineration, conversion into biogas, recycling, and composting, but its overproduction has led to in appropriate disposal practices such as their indiscriminate and in appropriately timed application to agricultural fields that ultimately leads to water and soil pollution. However, organic wastes can be used for vermicomposting; it is an effective recycling technology that improves the quality of the products that is disinfected, detoxified, and highly nutritive. Because of non-thermophilic, boioxidative process that involves earthworms and associated microbes. This biological organic waste decomposition process yields the biofertilizer namely the vermicompost. It enhances soil biodiversity by promoting the beneficial microbes that in turn enhances plant growth directly by production of plant growth-regulating hormones and enzymes and indirectly by controlling plant pathogens, nematodes and other pests, thereby enhancing plant health and minimizing the yield loss. It is a low cost, eco-biotechnological process in which earthworms are used to cooperate with microorganisms in order to convert biodegradable wastes into organic fertilizer. Vermicompost is beneficial for sustainable organic agriculture and maintaining balanced ecosystem .

[ FULL TEXT PDF 109-172 ] DOI: 10.36632/ije/2021.10.3.11

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Magneto-Fluorescent Nanocomposite of Bentonite Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for the Adsorption of Contaminants in Wastewater

Yasser A.M. Abdulhady

ABSTRACT: The purpose of article is removing iron, manganese, some organic and inorganic contaminants by bentonite grafted iron oxide nanoparticles (bentonite/MIONP). Bentonite/MIONPs nanocomposite was prepared using co-precipitation method. The mean diameter of nanocomposite was 27.50 nm. The removal efficiency of Fe & Mn were 89.95% and 78.82% resp. and total nitrogen & total phosphorous were 84.65% and 84.40% resp. The reduction % of COD/BOD and TOC were 80.74%, 83.98% and 82.35% resp. Removal of pollutants was carried out at optimal conditions of nanocomposite dosage at 8 g/l; Contact time at 30 min.; and PH at 7.0.; temp. 50oC. Adsorption data were reproduced by the Langmuir isotherm, where the Mn and Fe adsorption saturation capacity was determined as 72.04 and 206.61 mg.g-1 respectively. The average adsorption free energy change was 2.880 kJ mol-1, which indicated the occurrence of ionic exchange. The thermodynamic parameters implied that Mn and Fe adsorption was endothermic.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 173-191 ] DOI: 10.36632/ije/2021.10.3.12

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