July-September, 2020


Adsorption Of Heavy Metals From Groundwater Using Titanate Nanoparticles Doped With Cross-Linked Polyvinyl Alcohol. Bahr El-Baqar Drain Region, El- Husinia, East Delta-Egypt

Ahmed M. Desouky, Mohamed E.A. Ali and Ehab Zaghlool

ABSTRACT: A composite of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and titanate nanoparticles (TNTs) was cross-linked with epichlorohydrin (EP) following the inverse-suspension polymerization method. Controlling the ratio of EP:PVA as well as the crosslinking time produces spherical beads, which characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The factors affecting the maximum adsorption capacity of PVA/ TNTs against ferrous ion were investigated. The kinetic of the adsorption process were better fitted by the pseudo-second-order model than pseudo-first-order model. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed with isotherm models (Langmuir model, Freundlich model). The study showed that PVA/TNTs has high potential for removing iron ions from polluted water. In the present study, the removal of Fe+2 from aqueous solution by our resin was investigated. synthesized resin were investigated by SEM and IR. Initial pH also affected the removal process and the optimum initial pH was 5. The kinetic data were better described by the pseudo-secondorder model than by the pseudo-first-order model. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed with two isotherm models (Langmuir model, Freundlich model).

[ FULL TEXT PDF 148-158 ] DOI: 10.36632/ije/2020.9.3.9


Anaerobic Digestion of Food Wastes under Different Concentrations of Total Solids

El-Akshar Y.S. and Yasmin H.S. Faisal

ABSTRACT: Fourth different concentrations of total solids B1, B2, B3, and B4 were prepared using food wastes, calcium carbonate and starter in four digesters to biogas production. The data showed colonies of total coliform bacteria were not detected the 14th day. Fecal coliform bacteria were not detected through the 7th day. Meanwhile, counts of Salmonella and Shigella were rapidly decreased throughout the anaerobic digestion period to be completely undetected onthe 14th and 21st days for all fomenters. A digested slurry of B3 and B4 exhibited (the highest) records of volatile fatty acids compared to the digested slurry of B1 and B2, respectively. The pH values were favorable to biogas generation and methane production, this was observed at different fermentation periods in both B1 and B2. The toxicity of pH is more pronounced in the fermentors, especially in B3 and B4. Accumulation of ammonia during anaerobic fermentation was 385.52, 462.68, 870.24 and 925.88 ppm in B1, B2, B3, and B4, respectively where it was not reach to level of toxicity or even inhibitive of methanogenic bacteria. The digested slurry of B4 exhibited the highest recorded of volatile fatty acids compared to the digested slurry of other digestions .The Cumulative biogas and methane were higher in B2, B1 than B3, and B4. Biogas and methane production rates (L /Kg) volatile solids consumed were 958.79,755.76, 213.19 and 141.76 for biogas, meanwhile methane was 501.57, 367.82 , 25.36 and 13.41 in digesters B2, B1, B3 and B4, respectively.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 159-170 ] DOI: 10.36632/ije/2020.9.3.10


The Effect of Agricultural and Industrial Activities on the Groundwater Quality at the North-Eastern Part of El-Fayoum Depression, With the Possibility of Heavy Metals Removals Using Some Clay Minerals

Reda G. M. Ibrahim and Mohamed E. A. Ali

ABSTRACT: The aim of the current research is to study the possible effects of the agricultural and industrial activities on the composition of groundwater at Northeast of El Fayoum depression, Egypt using the conventional geochemical tools and the modern multivariate statistical analyses. The groundwater is extracted from the Quaternary aquifer which is composed of sand and high content of clay with lateral and vertical changes in lithology. The salinity of canals water range from 256 to 299 ppm indicating fresh water category, while the salinity of drains water vary between 1370 ppm and 4009 ppm reflecting brackish water category because drains continuously receive soluble salts from land washing and excess irrigation water. The salinity of the Quaternary groundwater ranges from 574 ppm to 8953 ppm indicating fresh to brackish water with only two saline samples (Nos. 24 and 26) located east of Sinores City. The high salinity of these water samples may be due to the over-pumping and/or closeness to Lake Qarun. The most dominant water type (Cl-Na) is represented by 44% of groundwater samples followed by HCO3-Na (28%) and SO4-Na water types. There is no pollution with some heavy metals (Ag, Cd, Cr, Mn, Mo, Ni, Zn) because their concentrations are less than the maximum permissible limits. Most surface and groundwater systems are polluted with iron. Water of most canals is not polluted with lead (Pb), while groundwater and half of drains are polluted with Pb. Utilizing kaolinite clay has a great deal of promise for removing copper (II) ions from real wastewater samples. The intensive agricultural and industrial activities have clear effect on surface and groundwater quality due to the application of fertilizers containing P and N as well as industrial effluents. The multivariate statistical analyses (including correlation and cluster analyses) show that the hydrogeochemical processes affecting groundwater composition are found to be sulfate dissolution, ion exchange and water-rock interactions.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 171-184 ] DOI: 10.36632/ije/2020.9.3.11