Jan-March, 2021


Heavy Metals in Edible Fruits: A Review

Igwe P.U., and Ezekwesili J.O

ABSTRACT: Heavy metals are among the major contaminants of edible fruits and pose a potential health risk to both humans and animals. This paper, therefore, reviewed existing literature on the impact of heavy metals on edible fruits. The method used is a review of academic journal/articles, conference papers, internet materials, textbooks and publicly available materials on some heavy metals in edible fruits. The results of this study indicated that previous authors whose works were reviewed have a convergent view that food safety and security, and human health are inextricably linked and that polluted water, and bad practice in post harvesting handling of the fruit products with disregard to the food safety guidelines, and the physical market environments in these locations surrounded by a heavy urban pollution deposition exacerbate contamination levels of fruit samples and also that crops grown in polluted and degraded environmental conditions in the peri-urban (or urban fringe) zone are subjected to further pollution from vehicles and industries during marketing. Recommendations of this study include: (1) the public should be enlightened on the need for fruits to be properly washed before consumption; (2) government and other responsible food agencies should conduct a yearly monitoring program for heavy metals in foodstuffs in order to prevent their contamination and ensure human safety; and (3) food vendors should be educated on the need to properly cover their goods to avoid being contaminated.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-14 ] DOI: 10.36632/ije/2021.10.1.1


Cultivation and Production of Pleurotus Mushroom on Non-Traditional Growing Media

Ibrahim M. Gomaa, Mahmoud I. Y. and Afifi M. M. I.

ABSTRACT: The study was carried out to evaluation different substrate as growing media for two different species of pleurotus (Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus cystidiosu) on growth and yield of spawn and their contents from elements. Three substrates mixed with agar were used potato dextrose agar, vermicompost tea agar and compost tea agar for spawn production. The same substrates without agar (broth) in addition to, wheat seeds were used as control media for propagation of spawn on rice straw as traditional media for mushroom production. The results indicated that various substrate formulas gave significant differences in weight of spawn, growth speed rate, total yield on rice straw and its content of nourishes. Vermicompost tea as growing media was more efficient in spawn weights than other growing media with the both types of pleurotus. The highest yield w a s
o b t a i n e d when its spawn grown on rice straw ( 9.95 and 7.5 Kg) with both Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus cystidiosus respectively. Total carbohydrates and energy were very high when Pleurotus ostreatus has grown on wheat seed (55.3 and 312.9 kcal/100 g respectively). Percentages of total protein, fat and ash were also high when it has grown on vermicompost tea (27.3, 2.3 and 6.8 5 respectively).Vermicompost tea achieved the greatest productivity and biological efficiency (156.25) and Pleurotus ostreatushas higher total yield and biological efficiency than Pleurotus cystidiosus.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 15-24 ] DOI: 10.36632/ije/2021.10.1.2


Effect of Spraying Some Amino Acids, Vitamin B and Boron on Yield and Berry Quality of Superior Grapevines

Farouk H. Abdelaziz, Faissal F. Ahmed, Ahmed M.K. Abdel Aal Alaa A.B. Masoud and Safwat-Manar M.

ABSTRACT: The effect of single and combined application of one of the three amino acids namely (glutamic, glycine and aspartic acid) at 250 ppm from each, vitamin B complex (B 1 + B 2 + B 6 + B 12 ) at 100 ppm and boric acid at 0.05 % on yield and berry quality of Superior grape cultivar were investigated during 2017 and 2018 seasons. Results showed that, single and combined applications of one of three amino acids as well as vitamin B complex and boric acid were very effective on improving yield per vine, bunch characteristics, shot berries % berry quality of Superior grapevines comparing with untreated vines. The application of amino acids was more effective than the application of vitamin B and boric acid in this respect. The best results gave which the heaves it yield and best berry quality of Superior grapevines were treating the vines three times (at growth start, just after berry setting and one month later) with a mixture containing 250 ppm glutamic acid plus 100 ppm vitamin B complex and 0.05% boric acid.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 25-32 ] DOI: 10.36632/ije/2021.10.1.3


Chemical, Physical and Sensory Evaluation of Low Fat Beef Burger with Carboxymethyl Cellulose Produced From Rice and Wheat Bran

A. M. Sorour, M. A. Salem, S.G. Arafa and M.A. El-Bana

ABSTRACT: This investigation was carried out to study the possibility of produce of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) from rice and wheat bran and used as fat replacers in preparing low fat beef burger was added by substitution of fat at levels of 1.0,1.5 and 2.0%. Characterizations of CMC were analyzing by the spectra of FTIR, Degree of substitution (DS), water holding capacity, oil holding capacity and swelling capacity. Furthermore, gross chemical composition, physical properties, cooking characteristics of beef burger were determined. Results indicated that, Rice bran had significantly the highest content of crude protein , ether extract and cellulose content compared with wheat bran on contrast, wheat bran had a significantly higher percentage of ash , total carbohydrate and hemicellulose ( 11.91, 60.48and 49.85% , respectively) than that of rice bran. The CMC%, Degree of substitution (DS), water holding capacity, oil holding capacity and swelling capacity of CMC produced from rice bran are significantly higher than that of wheat bran. addition to, CMC increase the amount of moisture, carbohydrates and crude fiber and decrease the amount of fat in compare with control beef burger sample. Statistical analysis for physical properties indicated that there were a significant differences in both shrinkage and diameter reduction, while no differences were observed in Texture Profile Analysis( TPA) for beef burger formulas prepared with CMC compared with control beef burger. So this research suggests that CMC is effective in improving physical, chemical and functional properties of beef burger.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 33-46 ] DOI: 10.36632/ije/2021.10.1.4


Comparative Study on the Effect of Organic, Bio, Chemical Fertilization and Natural Extracts On Hymenocallis Speciosa Response to Salinity Tolerance

Magdy Azmy Barsoom

ABSTRACT: This experiment aimed to study the positive effect of different types of fertilization on reducing the harmful effect of salinity stress on growth and chemical constituents under study. The planted bulbs received irrigation treatments of the different salinity levels (0, 1000, 2000 and 4000 ppm) and different fertilization treatments (Chicken manure, yeast, moringa extracts and kristalon) the main results could be briefed as follows: Salinity treatments caused inhibitor effect of all plant traits in most cases. On the other side, the different fertilizer treatments considerably differed in their effect on the different morphological parameters and to some extent on chemical constituents of the newly formed plants. So, and from the aforementioned results it could be recommended that in the case of cultivation under the conditions of salinity at the rate of 1000 ppm, it is preferable to add Kristalon or the Moringa extract in the second category in this respect.

[ [ FULL TEXT PDF 47-65 ] DOI: 10.36632/ije/2021.10.1.5


New techniques to induce flowering and produce seeds of foreign cabbage varieties as a main step for a superior hybrids production

A. A. S. A. EL-Eslamboly and H. H. Hamed

ABSTRACT: This study amid to reach a successful protocol for pushing the hard-flowered cabbage variety (Brunswick) under conditions of unavailability of cold needs and the number of hours of lighting in Egypt, it can be introduced into breeding programs to obtain Egyptian varieties and hybrids compatible with the Egyptian climatic conditions. This protocol allows seed production regardless of location or season. This study was carried out at Kaha Vegetable Research Farm (Kaluobia Governorate, Egypt). Two genotypes, Balady cv. (a local cabbage cultivar which highly susceptible to bolting) and Brunswick cv. (a foreign cabbage cultivar – which highly resistant to bolting) was used. This study was conducted in three separate experiments as follows: Experiment 1. Induction and generation of flowering in cabbage plants by seed vernalization and gibberellic acid treatment. Experiment 2. Induction and generation of flowering in cabbage plants by grafting and gibberellic acid treatment. Experiment 3. Induction and generation of flowering in cabbage plants by drought shock loading and gibberellic acid treatment. Averages of traits related to bolting, flowering and seed yield had been recorded. It could be concluded that the observed responses to flowering inducement treatments for pushing the hard- flowered cabbage varieties (Brunswick) - under conditions of unavailability of cold needs and the number of hours of lighting in Egypt – recorded good results for traits that measure flowering state and seed production. The best number (This is in keeping with this study) of days from planting to bolting with visible flower buds, height of flowering stalk, Percentage of flowering plants, Days to beginning of seed harvesting, number of Seed yield per plant, Weight of Seed yield per plant, Seed germination percentage (183, 103.41, 91.62, 244.56, 2761.33, 12.33 and 89.31) was found respectively in the treatment that received drought shocked loading with 300 ppm GA3 of Brunswick cabbage cultivar. Based on the results obtained, three practical protocols were proposed that correspond to the Egyptian climatic conditions in terms of the length of the day and the temperature prevailing during the months of the year. These three protocols are presented in the form of schematic diagrams.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 66-82 ] DOI: 10.36632/ije/2021.10.1.6