April-June, 2021


Impact of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza on Uptake, Growth, Yield and Water Relations of Vegetable Plants Subjected To Drought Stress: A Review

El-Tohamy W.A., M.A. Badr and S.D. Abou-Hussein

ABSTRACT: The need of cultivation expansion in the new reclaimed lands in desert areas requires application of certain practices that could be sustainable for such arid regions. Vegetable plants, in general, are seriously affected by severe drought or even a slight shortage of irrigation water and subsequently their growth, productivity and quality are markedly reduced. Most of vegetable plants can be considered as a host for arbuscular mycorrhizal. As a result of mycorrhizal inoculation, the beneficial effects on vegetables include improving absorption of water and nutrients and enhance tolerance of various environmental stresses including drought. However, this article will focus on the effects of arbuscular mycorrhiza (A mycorrzia) on growth, productivity, uptake and water relations of vegetable plants under drought stress conditions.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 83-87 ] DOI: 10.36632/ije/2021.10.2.7


The Environmental Impacts of Fish Cages on Water Quality in Rosetta Branch

Mohammed Abdelmawla, Taha M. A. Razek and Nabil A. Abdullah

ABSTRACT: Water is the source of life to human, plants, animals and aquatic life. The main water supply in Egypt is River Nile and it undergoes many types of pollution one of them is Fish cages. This work studies the impacts of fish cages on freshwater quality of WTPs intakes located in Rosetta branch from River Nile and the environmental risks associated with it. Water samples were collected in June 2015 and December 2015 from WTPs located in Rosetta branch and additional samples upstream from fish cages. Ammonia levels increased from 0.16 ppm into 2.2 ppm due to mixing with the agriculture drains and increased significantly up to 14.2 ppm due to fish cages causing deterioration of water quality. The dissolved oxygen decreased as a result of ammonia elevation coming from fish cages. Depleted oxygen caused death of fish. COD and BOD should be less than 10 and 6 ppm respectively according to fresh water national standards. The results showed exceeded values of COD and BOD due to the presence of biodegradable substances, which consume oxygen. Finally, urgent actions should be taken from the concerned authorities. Actions should include awareness of the necessity of protecting the River Nile and call the sacredness of Nile from the historical legacy at Egyptian citizens. As officials should remove the fish cages to implement the law and to deter offenders and fined. It is possible to apply unconventional technologies to deal with the current state till improving the situation.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 88-94 ] DOI: 10.36632/ije/2021.10.2.8


Germination and Initial Growth Performance of Aphanamixis polystachya (Wall) Parker -A Threatened Medicinal Tree Species in Bangladesh

Soma Dey, Mohammed Kamal Hossain and Md. Danesh Miah

ABSTRACT: The study was investigated to inspect the effect of different pre-sowing treatments on germination and initial growth performance of Aphanamixis polystachya seeds at the nursery of Chittagong University, Bangladesh. Seeds were treated to six pre-sowing treatments e.g., Control (T0) , seeds immersed in normal water for 48 hours (T1) , seeds immersed in normal water for 24 hours (T2) , seeds immersed in hot water for 1 minute (T3) , seeds sown in propagator house (T4) , seeds sown in an open nursery
(T5) . Germination percentage, Germination index, Germination value, shoot length and leaf number were assessed for 2- and 3-months old seedlings in the nursery. Highest germination percentage (85.71%), germination energy (33.33 %), and germination value (1.188) were found in T4 treatment (seed sown in propagator house) and significantly (P< 0.05) different from other treatments. Maximum germination index (0.2690), germination uniformity (0.0113), and minimum germination start time (16 days) observed in T4 treatment. After 3 months of the last germination, maximum shoot height (21.94 cm) and leaf number (8.2) revealed highest in T2 (seeds immersed in normal water for 24 hours) treatment. Finally, seeds sown in propagator house (sand media) were revealed comparatively better germination behavior than other treatments. Seeds treated with normal water for 24 hours were found suitable for vigor seedlings production for Aphanamixis polystachya.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 95-102 ] DOI: 10.36632/ije/2021.10.2.9


Detection of Biofilm formation among Staphylococcus aureus isolated from hospitaladmitted patients' wounds and their relationship with antibiotic resistance

Abu baker H. Abduelrhman

ABSTRACT: Background: Biofilm is known to be formed by microorganisms. The biofilms are commonly found in chronic wound infections, surgical site infections, implants, and other places. They can cause recalcitrant infections and are known to have high antibiotic resistance. The aim of this research was to prevalence and compare the in vitro biofilm-forming ability of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from wounds of hospitalized patients', as well as their association with antibiotic resistance. Materials and methods: Using standard microbiological techniques, 57 clinical isolates of S. aureus were obtained from 128 wounds samples. S. aureus was identified by VITEK2 system. Tissue culture plate (TCP) analysis was used to detect biofilm formation in these isolates. The modified Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method was used to test antibiotic sensitivity in accordance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. The modified Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method was used to test antibiotic sensitivity in accordance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results: S. aureus was identified by VITEK2 system The Biochemical characteristics and antibiotics resistance by VITEK2 system with excellent probability 99%. Biofilm formation occurs in 26 (31, 32%) of S. aureus isolates using the TCP method. When compared to biofilm nonproducers, biofilmproducing S. aureus had a higher incidence of antimicrobial resistance (P˂0.05). Conclusion: An in vitro method revealed that S. aureus isolated from hospitalized patients' wound infections has a high degree of biofilm-forming ability. Antibiotic resistance is highly prevalent in biofilm-producing strains.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 103-108 ] DOI: 10.36632/ije/2021.10.2.10