Oct-Dec, 2021


Using ASTER Remote Sensing Data Set for Geological Mapping around Wadi Umm Ashira and Wadi Tilal Al-Qulieb, Northwestern Part of Wadi Allaqi, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

Nehal M.A. Soliman, Hatem M. El-Desoky, Mohamed A. Heikal and Ahmed M.Abdel-Rahman

ABSTRACT: This study is an attempt to apply ASTER (VNIR & SWIR) data and fieldwork to identifying variations in rock units and structural elements. The study area is located in the northwestern segment of the Wadi Allaqi, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Color Ratio Composites, band math, false color composites and principal component analysis techniques are used to refine the different ithologic units in the area. These methods showed the discrimination of different types of metamorphic and igneous rocks as well as dykes. The False color band combinations (b4, b5, b3) in RGB, Color Ratio Composites (4/1, 6/2, 8/2) and (4/7, 3/4, 2/1 respectively) for RGB are showing a good composite which separated between the different rock types in the study area especially, serpentinites, talc carbonate and marble. The Principal Component Analysis technique of ASTER (PC3, PC1, PC4 in RGB respectively), (PC2, PC3, PC1 in RGB respectively) and (PC4, PC2, PC1 in RGB respectively) enhances the main structural trends affecting the area under investigation. These images are considered good for lithologic and structural edge enhancements for both visual interpretation and field mapping. FCC image 4, 5, 3 in RGB is showing a large open fold as well as the major left-strike slip fault and restraining (augen) shape as a result of being affected by the Allaqi Heiani shear zone. The axial plane of an anticlinal fold-oriented NW-SE and is plunging with a moderate angle to the SE. The major strike- slip fault is wadi Um Arka sinistral fault that runs subparallel to Um Ashira major fault that led to lateral movement of metasediment and the marble bands horizontal displacements of about 100 m to 747 m. Restraining bend structure (sigmoidal=augen shape) formed a result of a sinistral fault. The final map according to field study and remote sensing methodology showing the lithological composition and structure localities.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 485-504 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.4.42


Comparing the Effect of Pouring Time and Disinfection Protocols using Autoclave and Ozone on Dimensional Stability of Polyvinyl Impression Material: In vitro study

Zeinab S. Al Shamy, Ahmed Hassanien, Rana Sherif and Basma Mostafa

ABSTRACT: Background: Infection control in dental offices and laboratories is an essential concern due to the high risk of cross infection with diseases. The aim of this study is to assess and compare the effect of autoclave and ozone disinfection protocols on the dimensional stability of polyvinyl siloxane (VPS) impression material after immediate and delayed pouring. Standardized stainless steel master model was fabricated to simulate a fixed partial prosthesis with one pontic and two crowns at the posterior area. Special trays were also constructed to formulate the impressions. 66 impressions were taken and divided into 3 equal groups. Group A (GA): (n=22) impressions which were disinfected using steam autoclave, Group B (GB): (n=22) impressions which were disinfected by ozonated water and Group C (GC): (n=22) impressions which were considered the control group with no disinfection procedures. Each group was further subdivided into two equal subgroups n=11, subgroup (I) in which the impressions were immediately poured and the subgroup (II) in which the impressions were poured after 24 hours (delayed pouring). All impressions were poured with type IV extra hard dental stone. Different dimensions were measured on the casts. Results: there was a statistically significant difference in mean values between (GC and GB), and (GC and GA) while there was a high statistically significant difference in the mean values between (GB and GA). Ozone and autoclave are considered as effective disinfection methods not adversely affecting the impressions' dimensional stability if the impression was poured immediately in case of ozone disinfection or delayed after 24 hours in case of using autoclave. Conclusion: VPS impression materials are dimensionally stable and produce accurate impressions with minimal distortion with the ability to retain these properties even after the disinfection procedures either with autoclaving or ozone disinfection with no effect on its dimensional

[ FULL TEXT PDF 505-515 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.4.43


Influence of Using Date Pits and Stevia Leaves Powder on Rats Suffering from Diabetic

Mona S. Halaby and Mena M. Hanna

ABSTRACT: The present work was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding diabetic rats on different levels of Date pits powder (DPP) and Stevia leaves powder (SLP) on the chemical constituents, the nutritional value and blood parameters in experimental rats through biological evaluation. Thirty five male albino rats were divided into five groups (7 rats of each) and fed on diets for 8 weeks. The first group was fed on basal diet as a (negative control group). The second group was injected with alloxan to induce hyperglycemia (positive control group) then feed on basal diet. The other three groups after being injected with alloxan were received basal diets fortified with (5% Date pits powder + 0.7% Stevia or 10% Date pits powder + 0.7% Stevia and 15% Date pits powder + 0.7% Stevia) respectively. At the end of the experimental period rats were sacrificed, blood samples were collected from the aorta hen separate serum to determine glucose, insulin, HbA1c, total cholesterol and other lipid, and also to determine each of liver and kidney functions. Our results showed significant reduction in the glucose, HbA1c, TC, TG, LDL-C and VLDL-C, as well as reducing hazards on liver and kidney functions compared with positive control group. So SLP and DPP fortified diet is recommended to gain healthy benefit to decrease the risk of diabetic disease.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 516-527 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.4.44


Evaluation of Stream Sediments in Wadi Abu Furad Area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

Hani Hasan Ali

ABSTRACT: Abu Furad area lies in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt, shows a significant widespread Precambrian outcrops including metasediments, metavolcanics, metagabbros, quartz diorite, tonalite, granodiorite and syenogranite. The stream sediments of the Wadi constitute valuable minerals categorized as radioactive minerals (uranothorite), radioactive-bearing minerals (monazite, allanite and zircon) and non-radioactive minerals (magnetite, hematite, ilmenite, leucoxene, titanite, garnet, rutile, and molybdenite) as well as green silicates. The tonnage of total economic minerals in the studied area is about 313800 ton, which is distributed as follows: about 61800 ton magnetite, about 15000 ton hematite, about 25200 ton ilmenite, about 17400 ton leucoxene, about 4800 ton garnet, about 10200 ton rutile, about 8400 ton titanite, about 18000 ton zircon, about 600 ton monazite and about 152400 ton green silicates. Mineralogical investigation integrated with statics of minerals separated from Wadi Abu Furad stream sediments show economic potentiality of these minerals which might be suitable for future exploitation. Applying typologic classification and corresponding geothermometer on the examined zircons suggest granitic origin varying from calcalkaline series granites (Older granitoids) to sub-alkaline series granites (Younger granites and/or felsic dykes). While the plotting on the plutonic distribution diagram is mostly matching the monzonites, granodiorites, and monzogranites origin imprint. Significantly, the estimated results coincide with the main granitic exposures encountered in the study area.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 528-542 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.4.45


Assessment of Nutritional Status in Egyptian Patients with Parkinson’s disease

Ola M. Elbeshlawy, Thanaa A. Elkholy and Shaimaa S. Mohammed

ABSTRACT: Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease. It mainly affects the elderly and is characterized by a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the brain cells, which leads to an imbalance between the excitation and inhibition pathways of the basal ganglia, which leads to impairment in voluntary movement control. Nutrition plays an important role in the management of chronic diseases, including PD. Aim of study: We aim to describe the nutritional status of PD patients. Low nutritional status is useful in early detection of Parkinson's disease. We also try to determine the nutritional factors associated with a significant deterioration in the clinical features of Parkinson's disease, and to what extent these symptoms were a risk factor for malnutrition and the development of nutritional intervention. Patients and Methods: This study was conducted on 70 patients with PD of both sexes. They were recruited from the Neurology Department at Cairo University Hospital. We used anthropometric measurements and the Socioeconomic Status Scale for Health Research in Egypt, the Mini Nutritional Assessment- Questionnaire (MNA), the 24-h recall questionnaire, the food frequency papers, the Hoehn and Yahr (HY) scale, the serum albumin level, and the impaired swallowing index. (DHI) as a valid and reliable tool to describe the clinical and nutritional status of patients, then Pearson's correlation was used to linearly determine the extent to which the variables were correlated. Results: Our Results revealed that 71.4% of participants were males and 28.6% of them were females, with mean age (61.8±9.94) years, 78.5% of them had a very low socioeconomic status, 57.2% of them had a very low educational level, 98.6% of them don't use special tools to help them to eat, mean of (MNA)- score was (10.23±1.53) which means that our patients were at a risk of malnutrition which was associated with increasing duration of illness, 65.7% of them had a moderate loss of appetite, 20% of them lose 2-3 kg of their weight during the last 3 months, about 84.3% of them had constipation, 44.3% of them had slight swallowing difficulty, Also, all symptoms appear in the majority of patients, and tremors were more prevalent among the participants by 97.1%, and the majority of participants were in the second stage of the disease according to the Hohen-Yahr scale. Serum Albumin Level was at normal range (4.41±0.50). There were a positive correlation between increased energy consumption and increase the mobility deterioration which associated with PD, and a negative correlation between decreased the mean daily intake of protein, fat, fiber, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, iron, magnesium, zinc, copper, vitamin-C, thiamin, riboflavin and decreased of Hoehn and Yahr scale- score. Conclusion: decreased nutrients intakes, unhealthy eating habits, socioeconomic status in PD-patients are associated with increased mobility deterioration and the risk of malnutrition.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 543-555 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.4.46


Effect of Nitrogen and Potassium Fertilization Rates on Vegetative Growth and Cladodes Nutrients Content of Cactus Pear

Amro S. M. Salama, Sahar A. Farid and Osama H.M. El Gammal

ABSTRACT: This study was conducted during two consecutive seasons of 2018 and 2019 at cactus pear orchard located on Abu Ghaleb area, "Cairo-Alexandria desert" road about 50km from Cairo, Egypt. The effects of nitrogen fertilization rate i.e. 120, 140 and 160g/plant/year and potassium fertilization rates i.e. 100, 120 and 140g/plant/year as well as their interactions on vegetative growth and cladodes nutrients content of El-shamia cactus pear plants were studied. Fertilization with nitrogen and potassium as well as their interaction improved plant height, plant canopy volume, number of cladodes per plant, cladode length, cladode width, cladode area and content of N, P, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu and B of cladodes.While, nitrogen rates had no significant effect on cladodes K content in first season and nitrogen at 160 and or 140 gave similar and high values of cladodes Fe content in both seasons. Moreover, potassium rates had no significant effect on cladodes K content in first season and cladodes Zn content in both seasons. The interaction between nitrogen at 160g/plant combined with potassium at 140g/plant proved to be the most efficient treatment in enhancing growth, nutrients content of cladodes and fruit yield of El-shamia cactus pear plants.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 556-568 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.4.47


Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among students of the Higher Institute of Technical Sciences, Msallata, Libya

Abu baker H. Abduelrhman

ABSTRACT: Objective: Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection among undergraduate students at Higher Institute of Science and Technology, Msallata. Methods: A total of 150 serum samples were collected from students of the Higher Institute of Science and Technology in Msallata, with 100 L of each sterile serum transferred to a sample of H. pylori antigens kit (H. pylori Antigen Kit- Clinotech, USA). After 10 minutes, two distinct red lines in the group's control and test regions indicate a positive reaction. The isolated H.pylori from clinical blood was identified according to their morphological, cultural characteristics and consumption of broth manual some biochemical tests and confirmed by VITIK2 system. Results: A total of 63 (42.66%) of the 150 students tested positive for the virus. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was found to be related to age in a study of H. pylori seroprevalence. Infection rates were 45.5 percent among students aged 18-20, 85.7 percent among adults aged 31-40, 66.7 percent among those aged 41-50, and 28.6 percent among those aged 51 and up. Gender, age, and type of infection (symptomatic or asymptomatic seropositive infection) (P˂0.05) all showed statistically significant differences (using Chi-square). The Biochemical characteristics of H. pylori was confirmed with excellent probability 99% after full Biochemical identification by VITIK2 system as well as the susceptibility information. Conclusions: This microorganism should be recognized as a possible cause of illness in children by community health personnel. Furthermore, the mode of transmission and possible methods of controlling the bacterial infection among students or in a community are public health concerns that need to be investigated further.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 569-574 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.4.48


Impact of Socioeconomic Status and Dietary Habits on Seizure Control between People with Epilepsy

Arwa M. El-Ashry, Thanaa A. El-Kholy, Asmaa M. Ebraheim, and Samah A. El- Hashash

ABSTRACT: Background: All over the world, increasing interest was directed to epilepsy as one of the most prevalent neurological chronic diseases. Socioeconomic status (SES) and dietary habits play a pivotal role in epilepsy prevalence and management. Aim of study was to highlight the relationship between SES and dietary habits of patients with epilepsy and its frequency and/or control. Methods: Acrosssectional descriptive study involved 123 patients recruited by convenience from the Epilepsy Clinic of the Neurology Department at Kasr Al-Ainy Hospital, Cairo University, Egypt. The sample consisted of patients of both genders (80 males and 43 females) aged ≥ 18 years, who had been diagnosed with epilepsy for at least one year. The studied variables included socio-demographic characteristics and dietary habits. Results: Results shows that two thirds of all patients (65%) were male. Patients were aged between 18 and 65 years (mean: 30.3, SD: 10.45) and revealed statistically significant differences between subjects with controlled and uncontrolled epilepsy in both education which (65%) They had secondary education or above in the control group and total socioeconomic levels where more than half of them (57.8%) were low socioeconomic levels in uncontrol group. As for dietary habits shows revealed statistically significant differences between subjects with controlled and uncontrolled epilepsy in Presence of unhealthy food at home (95%) in uncontrol group and Appetite (30%) good appetite in control group (P-values = 0.007 and 0.043 respectively), and a reverse statistically significant correlation was found between the frequency of seizures and appetite, frequency of salad eating and a number of glasses of water/day (P-values = 0.001,=0.001 and 0.002 respectively) . In contrast, frequency of seizure attacks was positively correlated with eating unhealthy food, frequency of fast food eating and consumption of sugar (P-values = 0.001) for all. According to these findings, increasing socioeconomic status level and dietary behavior modification are recommended in order to improve the health status of hospitalized patients with epilepsy.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 575-584 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.4.49


Effect of nitrogen and potassium fertilization rates on yield, fruit quality, net profit and investment ratio of El-shamia cactus pear

Amro S.M. Salama, Sahar A. Farid and Osama H.M. El Gammal

ABSTRACT: A field experiment study was carried out during two successive seasons during 2018 and 2019 in Elshamia cactus pear orchard about eight years old grown in sandy soil under drip irrigation system from well at Abu Ghaleb area, "Cairo-Alexandria desert" road about 50km from Cairo, Egypt. The study was a factorial experiment with two factors i.e. the first factor consisted of 3 rates of nitrogen (120, 140 and 160g/plant/year) and the second one involved 3 rates of potassium (100, 120 and 140 g/plant/year) arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replicates for each treatment and each replicate was represented by one plant. Obtained results showed that nitrogen fertilization rates and potassium fertilization rates and their interactions improved yield and fruit quality traits. Obtained results indicate that nitrogen and potassium fertilization rates and their combinations had no effect on juice volume per fruit. Generally, nitrogen fertilizer at 160g/plant combined with potassium at 140g /plant proved to be the most efficient treatment in enhancing the previously mentioned studied traits. However, nitrogen fertilization rates and potassium fertilization rates as well as their combination had a significant effect on net profit and investment ratio. Shortly, 160g/plant combined with potassium at 140g/plant attained the highest value of total revenue per feddan, net profit per feddan and investment ratio. Besides, this treatment is raising the net income farmer under this condition

[ FULL TEXT PDF 585-598 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.4.50


Ionic Ratios as Tracers to Assess Seawater Intrusion and To Identify Salinity Sources in Ras Sudr Coastal Aquifer, South West Sinai, Egypt

Reda G.M. Ibrahim, Mohamed E.A. Ali, Yasmeen M. Abdel Satar, Magdy Sabaa and Hend Ezzat

ABSTRACT: Ras Sudr area located at the eastern side of the Gulf of Suez, southwest of Sinai Peninsula, Egypt where groundwater is exploited mainly from the Quaternary aquifer. The matrix of this aquifer is composed of alluvium deposits made up of gravel intercalated with clay and calcareous sandstone. The groundwater of the Quaternary aquifer is mainly brackish to saline (TDS= 2038 to 24383 mg/l) and this aquifer is recharged mainly from rainfall and surface runoff due to the occasional flash floods. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the main hydrogeochemical factors (especially the seawater intrusion) which affect the groundwater quality by the integration between the hydrogeochemical tools and multivariate statistical analysis. The current study proves that ionic ratios are important tools in the assessment of the seawater intrusion process. The cluster analysis shows that the wells included in cluster (CI) and cluster (CII) which located north of the mapped area are strongly affected by seawater intrusion. Wells of cluster (CIII) at the middle part of the study area (Wadi Sudr and its northern extension) are moderately affected by seawater intrusion, while wells of this cluster at the southern part (i.e., Wadi Wardan) are less affected by this process. The results of seawater fractions match well with the cluster analysis since the seawater fraction percents are high, medium and low at the northern, middle and southern parts of the study area, respectively. The other processes affecting groundwater quality of the Quaternary aquifer include ion exchange and waterrock interactions. The integration between the conventional geochemical and multivariate statistical tools in this study can applied for similar coastal aquifers worldwide.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 599-622 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.4.51


Sitagliptin ameliorates the insulin sensitivity in Skeletal Muscles of Metabolic Syndrome Rat Model

Yossra Ahmed, Mona A. Mohamed, Laila A. Rashed and Zeinab Y. Ali

ABSTRACT: This study aims to test the hypothesis that sitagliptin can effectively ameliorate the insulin sensitivity in the skeletal muscles of metabolic syndrome rat model. Rats were fed either standard diet (Control group) or high fat diet (HFD) and 20% fructose (w/v) in the drinking water (HFFD). After 12 weeks, a group of HFFD animals received a daily oral dose of 10 mg/kg b.w. of sitagliptin for another 4 weeks. Sitagliptin improved the hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and insulin sensitivity of the skeletal muscle. Also improved the protein levels of insulin receptor (IR) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4).

[ FULL TEXT PDF 623-626 ] 10.36632/csi/2021.10.4.52


Sedimentological and Geochemical Studies on the Phosphorite Rocks (Campanian Duwi Formation) in Wadi El-Shaghab, El-Sibaiya East Area, Nile Valley, Egypt

Mohamed A. Khalifa, Ibrahim H. Zidan and Zakaria M. Abdelhakim

ABSTRACT: Phosphorite deposits of the late Cretaceous (Campanian) age belonging to Duwi Formation. This Formation can be classified into lower phosphorite, middle shale and upper phosphorite members. The lower phosphorite member of the Duwi Formation, in Wadi El-Shaghab, El-Sibaiya east area, Nile Valley, is important rock unit for its relatively high enrichment of P2O5 content and U content. Lithostratigraphically, three lithostratigraphic sections (El-Shaghab, Um-Tundab and Um-Hagara) of Wadi El-Shaghab area were studied to know the geological setting. The lower phosphorite member of Duwi Formation is classified from base to top as A-B and C beds. Petrographically, the petrographic characteristics in six samples are determined using Polarizing Microscopy. The studied phosphatic grains are composed of phosphatic particles (Peloids, Bioclasts and Coprolites) and non -phosphatic particles (cementing materials). Phosphorites formed under shallow marine environment by the influence of upwelling under an oxic continental shelf environment during a subsequent transgression, forming the phosphorite of the lower member. Mineralogically, the unknown minerals were examined in eight samples. The main mineralogical composition of the investigated bulk samples has been determined using the X-ray diffraction technique (XRD). The mineral constitutes of the studied phosphorites are composed mainly of apatite (francolite and hydroxyl apatite); while the nonphosphatic minerals are composed of calcite, quartz and iron oxides. Geochemically, thirty phosphatic samples were collected and analysis to know the distribution of the major and trace elements in the rocks. Rare Earth Elements and Radioactivity (Uranium, Radium and thorium contents) in all samples were determined by multi-channel analyzer gamma ray spectrometer. Uranium content in all samples was calorimetrically determined using LABOMED spectrophotometer using Arenaso III method. The studied phosphorites in Wadi El-Shaghab area have high P2O5 and Uc contents. Generally, could suitable for mining operation and provide economic value for production of phosphatic fertilizers, phosphoric acid and extracted of U as by-product.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 627-643 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.4.53


Molecular Characterization of Sugarcane Mosaic Virus and its Influence on Sugarcane Yield and Juice Quality

Hala A. Amin, Mohamed A.M. Osman and Samah A. Mokbel

ABSTRACT: In 2018, mosaic symptoms were observed on sugarcane plantations of the commercial variety G.T. 54-9 that grown at Qena governorate, Egypt. The initial serological diagnosis confirmed that the Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) was the causative agent of mosaic disease on sugarcane. Mosaic correlation with the altered photosynthetic activity caused a significant reduction for chlorophyll content by 56%, and 40% through the tested experimental seasons 2018/2019 and 2019/2020, respectively. The decrease in chlorophyll content led to a reduction in various growth parameters in sugarcane variety G.T. 54-9, such as stalk length and diameter, the number of internodes per plant, cane yield, and cane stalk juice quality through both experimental seasons. Concerning the reducing sugars (Rs), the concentration increased in infected sugarcane plants with SCMV in both tested seasons by 9.7% and 4.7%, respectively. Leaves from Sugarcane plants tested positive in a reverse transcription-PCR using SCMV-specific primers for coat protein gene. All tested plants are from vegetative cuttings of the original infected plant which show mosaic symptoms with different severity. All samples showed an expected band at about 900 bp. The PCR amplicon of the CP gene was analyzed by nucleotide sequence analysis. The coat protein sequence comparison revealed that the current SCMV isolate (HaF isolate) shared the highest nucleotide identity (97.9-100%) with the Egyptian isolate EGY7-1 and with all Iranian GenBank reference isolates. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the HaF isolate grouped in a clade with the EGY7-1 and KhuzM isolates and it closely related to KhuzM isolate from Iran. The coat protein core region (CP-CR) of the Egyptian SCMV (HaF) isolate shared 98% sequence homology with SCMV-E serotype strain from the USA and the current HaF Egyptian isolate contains a conserved DAG motif in its N-terminal region in CP sequence which is associated with aphid transmissibility. An SCMV-infected Sugarcane crop could pose a threat to established crops of Sorghum, Maize, and many susceptible sugarcane varieties in Upper Egypt since the virus can spread non-persistently by aphid species as well as by planting infected cane cuttings.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 644-657 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.4.54


Assessment of Some Trace Elements Levels and Their Relation to Land Uses by Multivariate Analysis and GIS - Burg El Arab – Egypt

Doaa Eissa and Taher M. H. Yossif

ABSTRACT: In the present study, the environmental quality evaluation of Burg El Arab district of Alex Governorate has been done by assessment of some trace elements levels, such as Ag, Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Si, Sr, V and Zn in soils and plants. Some trace metal risk indices, such as the Top Enrichment Factor (TEF), the Enrichment Factor (EF), geoaccumulation Index (Igeo), Contamination Factor (CF), and Soil Pollution Index (SPI) have been estimated. The results reveal that the mean values of TEF for studied metals are more than 1, except for the Al, B and Mn. The maximum values of the EF were observed with Cd and Pb, respectively, compared with the other associated elements. The mean values of Igeo for elements remained in class "0", except for the Cd. So, the studied area is considered within the uncontaminated category. The mean of all CF values was less than 1, except that for Cd that was 11.74. So, CF for Cd indicated very high degree of contamination. The mean value of SPI for some elements concentrations was less than 1, except that for Sr was 1.52. Multivariate analysis (principal component analysis method) and GIS techniques were applied to identify the sources of some elements and to analyze the relationships between elements contents and soil properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) classified the elements into six groups, in terms of the human influence (different land uses) and calcareous sediments (lithogenic origins) and interaction between them. The concentrations of Pb in different plant species were investigated according to the bioaccumulation (BAC). The highest BAC (7.95) occurred in Maize and the lowest one (0.04) occurred in Pepper.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 658-675 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.4.55


Using Whole Exome Sequencing, a Case of Autosomal Recessive Spastic Paraplegia 50 caused by a splicing mutation in AP4M1 gene

Rabab Khairat, Engy A. Ashaat, Nirvana S. AbdelHakim, Mona O. El Ruby and Samira Ismail

ABSTRACT: Background: Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders. AP-4 HSPs is an early onset progressive group of HSPs and caused by pathogenic mutations in encoding genes of AP-4 complex. It is characterized by a number of clinical features like seizers, microcephly, impaired global development and intellectual disability. Patients and methods: In the current study, we report two sibs Egyptian female infants who were born to consanguineous first cousin parents, presented with severe motor and mental developmental delay. By clinical examination they were microcephalic, with speech delay, and they couldn't walk unsupported. By neurological examination they showed hypertonia and hyper-reflexia of deep tendon reflexes. Précised diagnosis is of utmost important because of prenatal diagnosis and genetic counceling. Therefore Whole exome sequencing (WES) was mandatory in such case. WES was done for the older female and followed by variants confirmation in both sibs. Parental segregation was done using Sanger sequencing to evaluate the phase of the detected variants. Results: WES revealed homozygous splicing mutation in AP4M1 gene (NM_004722.3:c.607-2A>G). Biallelic AP4M1 variant is the main cause for Spastic paraplegia 50. Segregation study and clinical presentation suggest the variant in AP4M1 gene as the causing disease variant. Conclusion: Molecular studying of two sibs suggested the diagnosis of rare form of HSPs (SPG50) with sever motor and mental which was confirmed by segregation study.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 676-682 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.4.56


Kinetics investigation of uranium sorption from alkaline solutions of Calcareous Shale, Um Bogma formation, G. Allouga, Southwestern Sinai, Egypt by Lewatit resin in batch system

M. Demerdash

ABSTRACT: Experimental and theoretical studies of the sorption kinetics of uranium carbonate anion from its alkaline solution obtained from um Bogma dissolute liquor on the strong base anion exchange Lewatit Mono Plus M500 (LMP) sorbent was achieved using batch technique. The experimental results using the latter technique were fitted well with pseudo second-order kinetics model. The dependence of the sorption kinetic parameters on the temperature of the solution has been investigated. The pH of solution and agitation speed have dramatic effects on the uptake of uranium carbonate anion by LMP. It was found that pH range from 8.5–9.5 and agitation speed of 300 rpm. The proper conditions for uranium carbonate anion sorption at the present experimental. The fit of experimental data with the homogeneous diffusion model (HDM) equations demonstrated the possibility of using this model for adequate description of the uranium sorption kinetics on the LMP sorbent. Two stages of adsorption with different controlling processes were proposed. Liquid film diffusion controls the process at the early stage of the adsorption followed by matrix diffusion which controls the process in the final stage. Two different equations were used to express each stage.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 683-694 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.4.57


The impact of feeding practices, nutritional and socioeconomic status on caries experience in a group of Egyptian children

Rabab M. Abd Elhakam, Mohammed Abou el Yazid, Nayera E. Hassan, Nancy A. Fakhry and Tamer M. Abd Elwahab

ABSTRACT: Background: Feeding habits, particularly during the first year of life, involve numbers of simultaneous and interrelated behaviors, such as breastfeeding, bottle-feeding and the introduction of complementary food. The World Health Organization and the United Nations Children’s Fund recommend that mothers should breastfeed babies exclusively for the first 6 months and then continue breastfeeding along with other weaning foods for up to 2 years or later. Dental caries is an infectious, transmissible, bacterial disease affecting children and adults of all races, ethnicities and socioeconomic levels. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Cairo, Egypt. A total 670 Child were examined, they aged from 1 to 4 years. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of feeding practices on caries experience. Feeding practice data were collected from them through a face-to-face interview. Dental examination was done using the dmft index according to the WHO criteria. Nutritional assessment was performed by recording patient’s anthropometric measures (weight and height). Socioeconomic status assessment was performed using SES index that was designed for evaluation of the social status of families, to be used in health research in Egypt. Results: 83.6 % of the children were caries free; 64.3 % were breastfed, 13.6% were bottle fed and 22.1% were on combination. While 16.4% experienced caries; 58.9% were breastfed, 30.7 % were on combination and 10.2% were bottle fed. A weak positive significant correlation between dmft & age (r= 0.31). A weak negative significant correlation between dmft & nutritional status (R= -0.16). 83.6% of the children were caries free; 49.7% were high SES, 41.7% were medium SES and 8.5% were low SES. 16.4% of the children were experiencing caries; 64% were high SES, 28% were medium SES and 7.6% were low SES. Conclusion: Our study found out that Breast-fed children had experienced caries more than bottle-fed ones. There were a significant association between being breastfed for > 12 or 24 months and dental caries. The higher the socioeconomic status of a child, the more caries experience. Increased feeding frequency (feeding on need) may increase the risk of dental caries.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 695-704 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.4.58


Feeding Practices, Nutritional and Socioeconomic Status Impact on Caries Experience among Group of Sudanese Children

Rabab M. Abd Elhakam, Mohammed Abou el Yazid, Nayera E. Hassan, Nancy A. Fakhry and Tamer M. Abd Elwahab

ABSTRACT: Background: According to the WHO, "breastfeeding is the normal way of providing young infants with the nutrients they need for healthy growth and development. Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended up to 6 months of age, with continued breastfeeding along with appropriate complementary foods up to two years of age or beyond". However, several studies have reported prolonged and unrestricted breastfeeding as a potential risk factor for primary tooth caries. Understa nding the role that breast feeding and bottle-feeding play in the development of dental caries during childhood is essential in helping dentists and parents and care providers prevent the disease, and also for the development of effective public health policies. However, the issue is not yet fully understood. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Sudanese nurseries and schools in Cairo, Egypt. A total 320 Child were examined, they aged from 1 to 4 years. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of feeding practices, nutritional status and socioeconomic status on caries experience. Feeding practice data were collected from them through a face-to-face interview. Dental examination was done using the dmft index according to the WHO criteria. Nutritional assessment was assessed by recording patient’s anthropometric measures (weight and height). Socioeconomic status assessment was done using Fahmy modified index that was designed for evaluation of the social status of families, to be used in health research in Egypt. Results: Breastfed children had experienced caries more than bottle fed ones. 91.8% of the children who experienced caries were fed on need (irregular feeding). A moderate positive significant correlation was found between dmft and age(r= 0.41); the older the child the more caries occurrence. We found out a weak negative significant correlation between dmft & nutritional status (r= -0.28), a weak positive significant correlation between dmft & socioeconomic status (r=0.31) as most of the children who experienced caries were high and medium SES. Conclusion: breastfed children experienced caries more than other feeding practices. Children who experienced caries were weaned at age of 2 years. The higher the socioeconomic status of a child, the more caries experience. Increased frequency of feeding practice may increase the risk of dental caries.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 705-714 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.4.59


Characterization of the Metamorphosed Rocks in the Moqah Area, SW Yemen. Field Observations and Petrographic Investigations

Abdul-Hamid Malek and Abdul-Aleam Ahmed Al-Qadhi

ABSTRACT: In the present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the metamorphosed rocks and their characteristics in the Moqah area, Taiz region of Yemen, based on the field observations and petrographic investigation. The metamorphosed rocks constitute a part of Southwestern Block (SWB) with clearly developed NNE-SSW trending foliation, dipping due SE and NW at low to moderate angles. These rocks are divided into two main groups viz, gneisses and migmatites. The gneisses group is also subdivided into five units: biotite gneisses, hornblende biotite gneisses, quartzofeldspathic gneisses, amphibolites and calc silicate gneisses. Different types of migmatites were distinguished in terms of their migmatite structures including stromatic, phlebitic, schollen, agmatitic and ptygmatic migmatites. The gneisses and migmatites groups are originated from sedimentary and igneous protoliths. These groups contain prograde metamorphic minerals such as quartz, plagioclase, biotite (bt1), K-feldspar, garnet, sillimanite and hornblende and also display retrograde metamorphic minerals like cordierite, biotite (bt2) muscovite, epidote and chlorite. The prograde metamorphic minerals indicate a peak metamorphism of upper amphibolite to granulite facies conditions while after peak metamorphism minerals and reactions indicate down retrograde into lower amphibolite and greenschist facies.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 715-728 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.4.60


Comparative study of anatomical characteristics and chemical composition of essential oils of Deverra tortuosa (Desf.) DC. grown under different environmental conditions

Taghried M. El-Lamey, Elsayed A. Elmeleigy and Abd El - Monem A. El-Henawy

ABSTRACT: Environmental conditions are known to cause many physiological and biochemical changes in plant. This study aimed to investigate the variations in the anatomical features, phytohormones and volatile components, obtained by headspace gas of the aerial parts of Deverra tortuosa under the influence of different environmental conditions. The extracted phytohormones were analyzed by HPLC and the essential oils of plant samples were analyzed by using headspace gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The concentration of growth promoting hormones, gibberellic, indole acetic acid and zeatin reached the maximum values of (6.75, 2.57 and 3.13 μg/g, respectively) in Sidi Barrani sample. The data of headspace GC-MS analysis indicated that the chemical composition of the essential oils of Deverra tortuosa grown in different geographic locations has shown a wide variation in the main constituents and the percentage of the major component, sabinene. Its percentages were 59.22, 52.73 and 80.44 % in Sidi Barrani, El-Alamein and Al-Arish samples, respectively. The volatile oils of Sidi Barrani ecotype contained remarkable compounds, these compounds were hexane, 2, 4-dimethyl-, perilla alcohol and camphenol. Moreover, monoterpenes such as l-limonene and cis-sabinene hydrate were detected only in Al-Arish ecotype sample. Whereas El-Alamein ecotype was characterized by the presence of other 13 monoterpene compounds in fairly good amount. The presence of high concentration of phytotoxic monoterpene, α-pinene (28.88%), β- myrcene (9.49%) and o-cymene (7.13%) in the oil sample of Sidi Barrani, Al-Arish and El-Alamein, respectively, might be an adaptive response to the low level of soil nutrients to decrease the competition by other plants for soil nutrients. The results of the principal component analysis (PCA) with environmental data indicated a strong relationship among the concentrations of photosynthetic pigments, phytohormones, as well as the main constituents of the essential oils of three ecotypes of Deverra tortuosa and their geographical origin. The results of this study provided preliminary evidence of the presence of three chemotypes of Deverra tortuosa and clarified how far the environmental conditions could affect the anatomical feature and chemical composition of D. tortuosa and the quality of its essential oils.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 729-749 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.4.61


Suppressing Metastasis of MCF-7and PC3 Human Cell Line Carcinoma Compared with BJ1 Normal Cell by Irradiated Essential Oils

Sherif S. Saleh, Salwa M. El-Hallouty and Nahed S.A. El-Shayeb

ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anticancer effect of lemon basil, lemongrass and citronella essential oil on prostatic cell line (PC-3) and adenocarcinoma breast cancer cell lines (MCF- 7) of in vitro compared with normal skin cell BJ-1. To improve ability of oil to prevent cell cancer activation sonication at power 30 Hz for two time (2 min at room temperature RT and at 50 °C) and (4 min at room temperature RT and at 75 °C). Irradiation by gamma at 2.5, 5.0 and 10 KGy of the three essential oils. A qualitative, quantitative analysis of the essential oil in the various fractions by GCMS and UV-VIS analysis was carried out. The anticancer effect of each essential oil was determined by MTT assay. The results summarize that basil, citronella and lemongrass oil initiate the cancer cell death by decreasing cell proliferation and initiating apoptosis in PC-3 and MCF-7 cell lines with decrease oxidation stress in normal cell BJ-1. Only sonication for 2 min at room temperature (S2-RT) and 10 KGy irradiated essential oils (EOs) of Ocimum citrodorium; 10KGy, S2-RT and sonication for 2 min at 50 °C (S2-50 °C) for lemongrass and finally, 10 KGy, S2-50 °C and S4-75 °C for citronella gave lethal effect of cancer cells and good viability of normal cell. GC-MS of original and irradiated oil showed highest quantity of linalool, limonene, geranial, citronellal, neral, eugenol in lemongrass, lemon basil and citronella oil. Slightly increase in limonene 0.019, 0.67 and 2.02 ug/ml; linalool 43.5, 30.53 and 34.02 ug/ml; methyl chavicol 7.07, 7.05 and 8.12 ug/ml, and eugenol 19.68, 12.63 and 19.98 ug/ml for original, S2-RT and 10 KGy of basil, respectively. The present findings of this study clearly demonstrate the involvement of oxidative mechanism for the anti-proliferative effect in PC-3 and MCF-7 cell lines. PC-3 being chemosensitive showed good results (50.07 %) at lower concentrations of Ocimum citrodorium essential oil (IC50 24 h 100 μg/ml) and 60.1% for MCF-7, as compared to chemosensitive of both essential oil of Cymbopogaon nardus and Cymbopogaon Citratus on PC-3 and MCF-7 cells (IC50 24 h 500 μg/ml and IC50 24 h 100 μg/ml, respectively). Whereas basil oil exhibited better activity in both the cell lines. All the results suggest lemon basil, lemongrass and citronella essential oil could be considered as potent candidates for anticancer agents

[ FULL TEXT PDF 750-766 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.4.62


Co-Addition of Potassium Humate and Vinasse Enhances Growth and Yield In"Wonderful" Pomegranate Under Sandy Soil

Hassan A.M. Ali, E. Abd El-Razek, M.M.M. Abd El-Migeed and Fatma El-Zahraa M. Gouda

ABSTRACT: Although "Wonderful" pomegranate has recently been cultivated in large areas of sandy soil in Egypt, it produces a low yield and quality. Soil applications of potassium humate and vinasse could effectively be used in sandy soil to enhance soil nutrient status as well as to increase crops growth and productivity. "Wonderful" pomegranate trees at the Experimental Research Station of National Research Centre, El-Nubaria, Km 110 Cairo-Alex desert Road, El-Behera governorate, Egypt, were treated with soil application of potassium humate (10g, 20g, and 40 g per tree), vinasse (500 mL and 1000 mL) and their combinations to form 12 treatments including the control (water only) to study their effect on vegetative growth i.e. shoot length, leaf number, and leaf area, leaf (N, P, and K) nutrient content, perfect flower percentage, fruit set percentage, yield, fruit weight, aril/fruit percentage, T.S.S.%, and acidity%. Result shows that potassium humate & vinasse alone or together improved vegetative growth parameters i.e. shoot length, leaves number per shoot and leaf area due to their clear effect on increasing mineral leaf content that reflected also on improving yield and fruit quality compared to control. Potassium humate & vinasse alone or together have a great impact on improving not only the fruiting behavior viz perfect flower %, fruit set %, and productivity but also fruit quality for both fruit physical characteristics such as fruit weight, aril/fruit % and fruit chemical properties via TSS %. All abovementioned parameters were significantly higher in response to potassium humate and vinasse in combinations than individual application. All treatments resulted in significantly lower acidity compared to control. Among treatments, soil application of 40g potassium humate plus 1000 mL vinasse is recommended since, it has a great influence on improving growth, yield and fruit quality of "Wonderful" pomegranate under sandy soil conditions.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 767-777 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.4.63


Response of Sugar Beet Yield and Quality to Fertilization with Different Nitrogen Levels Combined With Compost

Hassouna B.A., A.A. Abo El-Soud and A.M.M. Biomy

ABSTRACT: Two field experiments were carried out at Mallawi Agriculture Research Station Farm, Minia governorate, Egypt, within two successive winter seasons of 2016/2017 and 2017/2018 to deduce the effect of nitrogen mineral fertilizer combined with compost treatments on yield and quality of sugar beet. Compost was prepared by utilizing a mixture of farm residues (Corn stalks and soybean straw) inoculated with special bio-decomposer strains of bacteria and fungi under aerobic conditions. The mixture received 10% rock-phosphate and 20% bentonit. After maturity the compost was amended with nitrogen fixing bacteria, phosphate dissolving bacteria and potassium dissolving bacteria. Four doses of nitrogen mineral fertilizer (0, 50, 75 and 100 kg N Fed-1) as ammonium nitrate 33.5% N per Fed were used. Four levels of compost (0, 2, 4 and 6 Ton Fed-1) were used. Generally, mineral fertilization with 75 kg nitrogen combined with 4 Ton Fed-1 compost gave the best values for root length, root weight, root weight and yield. Data of top sugar beet plant (fresh, dry weight and yield) reveals that there are significant difference among fertilized with 0, 50,75 and 100 kg N Fed-1 in the presence of 0, 2, 4 and 6 Ton Fed-1 compost. The best values of fresh, dry weight and top yield were recorded in the treatment received 75 kg N Fed-1 in the presence of 4 Ton Fed-1 compost. Significant differences in sucrose extractable, carotenoids, chlorophylls a+b, potassium and ∞-amino N (meq 100g-1) were observed according to fertilization treatment levels. These results suggest that sugar beet fertilization by 75% N RD (67.5 kg N) fed-1 of nitrogen combined with 4 Ton compost is highly recommended to obtain the highest yield of sugar beet.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 778-786 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.4.64


Improving of the Quality Properties of Cake Using Date Seed Powder

Nadra S. Y. Hassan

ABSTRACT: Fruit and vegetable wastes and their by-products are formed in great amounts during the industrial processes, which presents serious problems to the environment. Therefore, such materials should be managed or prepared to be utilized. The aim of the present investigation is to determine the chemical composition and bioactive compounds of the date seed powder and estimate the possibility of using date seeds powder (DSP) in preparing cake by partially substituted of wheat flour at different levels (10,20,30 and 40%). The effect of the date seeds powder on the physicochemical, sensory properties and shelf life of the cakes was investigated. Results showed that DSP had a high content of fibers and fats. It was, also rich in Ca, Mg, K and Na contents. Potassium was the most abundant mineral in DSP .Seventeen phenol compounds and nine flavonoids were identified by a HPLC device. Results showed that the fiber content of the prepared cakes was increased by increasing the substitution levels of DSP. Substitutions by date seeds powder, significantly improved the cake volume. Results of textural analysis showed that the date seeds powder decreased all the parameters. The sensory evaluation showed that cakes prepared with DSP had high mean scores for overall acceptability except in case of 40% substitution level. The study also, showed that substitution with high levels of 20% and 30% of date seeds powder affected the sensory evaluation, especially the color, as the color became dark chocolate with the same smell, which made it distinguished from the control. All DSP cake samples exhibited a lower microbiological count than control at zero time and during storage periods. So, the substitution with DSP in cakes processing is recommended to prolong the shelf life of cake compared with control sample with respect to microbiological assay.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 787-796 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.4.65


Effect of Vermicompost and NPK-Nano Fertilizer on Jojoba Plant under degraded Soil Condition

Nahla A. Hemdan, Mohamed M. Hussein, Soad El-Ashry and M.A. Abul-Soud

ABSTRACT: Urban sprawl on the alluvial land of the River Nile and delta is one of the main problems that threaten the limited fertile land in Egypt. A pot experiment was carried out in the greenhouse of the National Research Centre; soil was collected from the agricultural soils affected by urban sprawl in Giza government to evaluate the effect of vermicompost and Nano nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) fertilizer on some soil properties and NPK uptake of jojoba. Results showed that growth parameters of jojoba increased with Nano fertilizer as foliar application compared to none Nano fertilizer treatment, incorporating vermicompost in the soil with and without Nano fertilizer led to a decrement in bulk density and increments in total porosity of soil, water holding pores and hence soil water retention, hydraulic conductivity and mean diameter of soil pore, also obviously increased NPK uptake and all growth parameters of jojoba compared to none vermicompost treatment. It might be detected that jojoba as a biofuel crop and great salinity tolerant could be attained the financial income in such degraded soils using vermicompost as soil amendment and Nano fertilizer as foliar application on plant.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 797-808 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.4.66


Using Different Substrate Materials (Local and Imported) For Producing Eggplant on Rooftops
Neveen E. Metwally

ABSTRACT: Turning rooftops in Egypt to green cultivated tops full with vegetable crops can help in food security specially in big cities by increase the availability of fresh vegetables within cities and this can help in more stability in vegetable prices and reduce the extreme fluctuation in vegetable prices that happens in recent years. Furthermore, increase fresh vegetables help to secure food needs of citizens specially under the situation of continuous increase of Egyptian population. In this context, an experiment was carried out in the rooftop garden of Central Laboratory for Agricultural Climate (CLAC), Agriculture Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Dokki, Giza, Egypt during summer seasons of 2019 and 2020. The experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of using different substrate materials (local and imported) on the growth and production of eggplant cultivated in rooftop gardens. The tested growing media consisted of local substrates mixed together or with imported substrates available in the local market to reduce the cost of the growing media. 9 growing media have been tested in this study in relation to growth and yield of eggplant grown on rooftops and their description were as follow; sand : peat moss (1:1) v/v (SB1), sand : peat moss (2:1) v/v (SB2), sand : perlite (1:1) v/v (SPe1), sand : perlite (2:1) v/v (SPe2), sand : rice husks (1:1) v/v (SR1), sand : rice husks (2:1) v/v (SR2), sand : rice husks (1:2) v/v (SR3), crashed red bricks (CRb) and small gravel (Gr). Different measurements have been recorded during the experimental time such as; plant height, number of leaves, fresh and dry weights of aerial parts and roots, ratios between aerial parts and roots using both fresh and dry weights values, yield per m2, (N, P, K) % in leaves, and initial costs of growing media in comparison to yield. Results indicated that, from all 9 tested growing media mixtures SR1 recorded the highest values regarding plant growth and yield followed by SR2. Nevertheless, when we compare between the cost of the growing media and yield, data indicated that SR2 was the cheapest growing medium followed by SRI. The initial cost of the growing media was about 13.5 and 10.75 E.P for SR1 and SR2 respectively and average yield was about 12.68 and 10.96 kg/m2 for SR1 and SR2 respectively), while the most expensive growing media was SPe1 .The initial cost for SPe1 was about 92.5 E.P and average yield was about 6.60 kg/m2). From all of that, both SR1 and SR2 can be considered as the most suitable growing media consisted of local materials (sand and rice husks) for producing eggplants on rooftops.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 809-818 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.4.67