Oct-Dec, 2020


Preparation and Evaluation of Edible Films from Broken Rice Enrichment with Rice Straw Components for Maximizing the Benefit of Each other

Sanaa R.A. Rohaim

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to utilize of rice by-products by attempting produce a high value-added compounds. In the present work, cellulose was successfully isolated from rice straw and was chemically converted to hydroxyl propyl cellulose (HPC). At the same time, starch (s) was extracted from broken rice, then incorporated them into an edible film matrix by different ratios S/HPC: 4:1, 3.5:1.5, 3:2 and 2.5:2.5 and evaluate its properties physically, mechanically and microbiologically, afterwards these films used practically for coating different samples from apple slices, strawberry fruits and potato scrips to extend its shelf-life when stored at 4oC. Samples quality was evaluated by measuring weight loss, visible decay, microbiological quality and sensory evaluation. Also a varied concentration 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% of rosemary extract were studied as antimicrobial agent after adding in the formula of S/HPC edible film structure. Firstly, about S/HPC characterization, results revealed that, the presence of high HPC contents up to 40% (C-treated) had an excellent effect on the mechanical properties of S/HPC membrane which increased the percentage elongation at break (%E) and enhance the lightness, while decreased somewhat the tensile strength (TS) and WVP rate
proportionally to the HPC content in the blend. No significant difference was exhibited among films containing 50% HPC in the blend. A maximum zone of inhibition against E. coli (7.0 cm), S. aureus (10.0 cm) and B. subtilis (11.0 cm) were obtained with C-treated films incorporated with 2.0% rosemary extract. Secondly, about coated samples, results revealed that C-treated had a significant effect on reducing the weight loss and percentage of infected samples during the storage period if compared with uncoated samples. Moreover, C-treated with 2.0% rosemary extract exhibited clear antimicrobial activity against TMAB, Coliforms, E-coli 0157:H7, S.aureus and Yeasts & Molds in all samples during the storage period. Regarding, sensory evaluation, more acceptance was observed up to 28 days storage at 4oC for coated apple & potato and up to 21 days for strawberry fruits. With more recently studies to provide and economically boost from rice by-products and maximizing the benefit of it, which represent 50% of the harvest, this study can added the ability for production of active food packaging with good characterization beside a little cost and permit finding economically boost for production nations.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 547-556 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2020.9.4.48


Behavioral impairment in Egyptian children with cerebellar malformations: A logic model based on behavioral assessment

Ehab Mohamed Eid, Yasser Nassef, Ahmed Fathy, Walaa Hany Ali, Hasnaa M. Elbendary, Rasha Tolba Khattab and Wafaa Osman Ahmed

ABSTRACT: Background: The complex development of the cerebellum together with the high number of involved genes and the long embryonic development of the cerebellum make the cerebellum vulnerable to a broad spectrum of malformations and disruption. Neuroimaging represents a key in the diagnosis of posterior fossa malformations. Aim: Our scope was to determine to what extent cerebellar malformations affect behavior of children with cerebellar malformations and quality of life. Methods: a cross sectional explorative study enrolled a total of 60 patients with cerebellar abnormalities that were classified into five groups according to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) finding. Patients were underwent full history, clinical examination, followed by behavioral and quality of life assessment using child behavior checklist (CBCL) and quality of life short form questionnaire respectively. Results: Our finding highlighted that children with cerebellar malformations experience high prevalence of behavioral abnormality as well as a poor quality of life due to functional disabilities, except patients with Dandy Walker malformation (DWM); they showed favorable neurodevelopmental outcome but this didn't prevent them from experiencing a lower quality of life. Conclusion: cerebellar malformation is heavily connected to behavioral impairment. Recommendation: Significance and impact of study: Cerebellar malformations are lifelong devastating conditions, MRI and other new radiologic modalities facilitated their diagnosis, so there is an utmost need for implementing routine social behavioral for assessment of those children for better future rehabilitation and better quality of life.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 557-564 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2020.9.4.49


Xanthan Gum Production by Xanthomans compestris ATCC 13951 as a Food Thickening Agent

Nagwa M. Sidkey, Hemmat M. Abdelhady, Gihan F. Galal and Aya S. Abdel Aliem

ABSTRACT: Biological activity of Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 13951 was studied using shake flasks a batch culture. Garcia-Ochoa et al. (1992) medium was selected, from three media, as best medium for maximum bacterial growth and xanthan production after 120 hrs of fermentation period. This medium containing 2% sucrose recorded culture viscosity, xanthan dry weight concentration and xanthan productivity increased 1.97, 1.07 and 1.06 fold than that containing 2% glucose, respectively. On all tested nitrogen source media, Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 13951 grow exponentially during the first 12 hrs and recorded the highest culture viscosity at the end of fermentation period (120 hrs) on yeast extract medium followed by peptone and malt extract media being 2600, 2201 and 2080 cp, respectively. The same value of xanthan specific production rate (0.28 h-1) was attained in yeast extract, peptone and NH4NO3 media after 48 hrs of fermentation period. Significant factors affecting xanthan production were investigated using Placket-Burman Design. Based on the obtained results sucrose, yeast extract and temperature were assumed as significant factors. Xanthan concentration was optimized using Response Surface Methodology with three independent variables. The highest xanthan production concentration after 120 hrs under optimized condition was 16.35 gl01. The produced xanthan can be used in manufacture of food such as fig jam and mango juice drink with improving its quality up to level of and respectively.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 565-582 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2020.9.4.50


Quality Aspects for High Nutritional Value Pretzel

Sahar S. El-Gohery

The present study was carried out to improve the nutritional value of pretzels made from wheat or barely flour by adding chickpea or sweet lupine powder at different percent of replacement. Chemical composition of raw materials indicated that sweet lupine and chickpea powder contained higher amounts of protein, fat and crude fiber (28.45, 26.05% & 7.53, 8.08% & 7.57, 4.86%, respectively) compared with wheat and barley flour. Wheat and barley pretzels replaced by 40 % chickpea powder or 20 % sweet lupine powder indicated significant (P ≤ 0.05) improvement in different sensory characteristics. Control barley pretzel had higher total essential amino acids content (41.86 g/100 gm protein), followed by barley pretzel replaced by 20% sweet lupine powder (41.25 g/100 gm protein). The protein quality indicated increase of biological value (BV) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) for pretzel replaced wheat or barley flour by chickpea or sweet lupine powder. All pretzel samples replaced wheat or barley flour by chickpea or sweet lupine powder had higher content of minerals than control samples. Barley pretzel samples had higher content of magnesium, potassium, calcium, iron and zinc compared with wheat pretzel samples. Wheat and barley pretzel samples replaced by chickpea or sweet lupine caused an increase of total phenolic and total flavonoids contents. Antioxidant activity (DPPH%) showed that barley pretzels had the highest antioxidant activity, while wheat pretzels showed the lowest activity.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 583-593 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2020.9.4.51


Developmental toxicity of Metamitron and the Protective Effect of Olive Oil on Pregnant Female Rats and Their Offspring

Sanaa M. Abdulrhman and Rania A.H. Abd El-Aal

ABSTRACT: The present study was carried out to investigate the developmental toxicity of metamitron orally administered during organogenesis (from 6th to 15th day of gestation) on female albino rats and the possible protective effect of olive oilto ameliorate teratogenic effect of metamitron during gestation. The morphological examination of uterus and fetuses were assessed. The number of implantation sites, the number of resorption sites, the number of pre and post-implantation loss and the number of late resorption sites were examined. In addition, the fetuses were examined for skeletal and visceral examinations. Significant increase was shown in the number of corpora lutea per dam treated with olive oil plus low dose of metamitron. Significant elevation was recorded in late resorption sites in high group comparing with olive oil group and it disappeared in olive oil plus high dose of metamitron. Percent of post-implantation loss per dam was recorded significant elevation at low and high doses of metamitron comparing with olive oil group. External malformations observed in fetuses obtained from dams treated with metamitron. Wavy ribs, absence or incomplete ossification of some sternbrae and xiphosternum at low and high groups were recorded.In this study we could conduct that Olive oil could ameliorate the adverse effect of metamitron during organogenesis period.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 594-606 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2020.9.4.52


Impact of Using Eggshells Powder as a Natural Source of Calcium on Composition and Quality of Bio-Karish Cheese

Mehanna N.M., Nahed A.A. Elwahsh, Amany M. El-Deeb and A.A. Nasser

ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to utilize different concentrations (0.25, 0.50 and 0.75%) of eggshells powder (ESP) as a natural source of calcium and Bifidobactirum bifidum EMCC1334 as a probiotic bacteria with yoghurt starter culture to manufacture bio-Karish cheese rich in calcium. Effect of using ESP on composition, properties and quality of cheese was studied during cold storage period of 0, 7, 14 and 21 days. The yield of control fresh cheese was 26.5%, whereas the value increased to 27.2, 28.8 and 31.6 % when ESP was increased to 0.25% (T1), 0.50% (T2) and 0.75% (T3) respectively. Moisture content was not affected by the applied treatments, whereas protein, SN, pH and acidity of cheese were slightly affected. Ash content significantly increased in the treated samples, while calcium content increased from 121.0mg/100g (control fresh cheese) to 225, 297 and 348 mg/100g due to T1, T2, and T3 in order. This increase in calcium was accompanied with increase in Mg, Fe and Mn contents. The rheological analysis revealed decrease in hardness, gumminess and chewiness with increasing ESP and this decrease was significant in T3. Adhesiveness, cohesiveness and springiness were slightly (P>0.05) affected by the applied treatments. The microbiological analysis revealed that the counts of the probiotic bacteria used were higher than 6 Log (CFU/g) with only one exception in cheese of 21 days old made from T3. However, the applied treatments had no adverse impact on the organoleptic properties of cheese since the differences in the scores was almost insignificant.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 607-616 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2020.9.4.53


The Use of ICTS in the Teaching and Learning of Basic Science and Technology in Public Junior Secondary Schools in Owerri Educational Zone1

Onwunara C.C.

ABSTRACT: This study investigated the use of ICTs in teaching and learning of Basic Science and Technology in junior secondary schools in Owerri Educational Zone1. The specific objectives were to investigate the level of use of ICTs in schools in the area under study; Investigate the effectiveness of use of ICTs in teaching and learning of Basic Science and Technology; evaluate the competency level of male and female teachers in the use of ICTs in teaching of Basic Science and Technology; Identify the factors limiting the use of ICT in teaching and learning Basic Science and Technology. Four research questions and two hypotheses served as guide to the study. The population consists of 100 teachers and 200 students randomly selected from junior secondary schools within the area under study. Two well structured rating scales were used to collect data for the study. Data collected were analysed using Mean and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Results indicated that the use of ICTs was effective in improving teachers' performance in Basic Science and Technology. The competence level of Basic Science and Technology teachers' use of ICTs in teaching and learning was low. Among the factors that limit the use of ICTs in the teaching and learning are: Poor power supply, lack of competent teachers, poor maintenance of available ICT facilities, Teachers negative attitude towards ICT tools, lack of motivation by the government, high cost of ICT tools are the factors militating against the use of ICTs in teaching and learning. Hence, it was recommended that Government and cooperate bodies should invest and improve the use of ICTs in teaching and learning, in-service training courses should be offered to teachers who need to learn how to utilize ICT tools and resources, schools through ministry of education should seek technical partnership and collaborative funding with international and national organizations to provide and maintain more ICT facilities in the schools and remuneration of teachers should be subjected to upward review from time to time.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 617-624 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2020.9.4.54


Evaluation of rumen transfaunation after treatment of rumen acidosis in cows

S.A. Galbat and H.G. Keshta

ABSTRACT: Many cows suffer from indigestion and rumen acidosis, in which rumen acidity drops to less than 5, and leads to the death of the ruminal protozoa in the rumen, a sharp decline in animal productivity, stoop rumination , eating and impaction with acidity of blood, exposing the animal to death and expose the owners to great losses, Solving the problem of indigestion by traditional methods leads to a prolonged suffering and absence of ruminal protozoa from the rumen, which prolongs the period of poor production and great money losses to the owners. But if the protozoa are transfaunated from a healthy, animal to the animals with acidosis, after treatment of the original cause and clinical signs it leads to a faster recovery, improved digestion, and a return to normal production. Accordingly, the idea of these experiment was based, which is transfaunation from healthy animals that were recently slaughtered in the abatouar to the rumen of four cows suffering from indigestion at a rate of 3 liters from ruminal fluid and the condition of the animals was followed after that , eating, digestion and general health condition in addition to following up the count of protozoa in the rumen, Their multiplication and activity, as well as the productivity of the tranfaunated animals over the course of five weeks after recovery from acidosis , and the results were recorded consecutively, where there was a significant improvement in the condition of transfaunated animals and an increase in their productivity till reach to normal as Control group while that suffered from acidosis and treated by the traditional methods only without transfaunation take more time to back to normal in their milk production.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 625-632 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2020.9.4.55


Combined Application of Electrical Resistivity and GPR Techniques for Water Seepage Detection at New Cairo City, Egypt

Shokry A. Soliman, Hossam M. El-Sayed, T.F. Shazley and Abdellatif Younis

ABSTRACT: New Cairo City represents the eastern extension of the Greater Cairo, Egypt. In the study site, fracturing of the new residential buildings has been observed, in addition to the appearance of water seepage on the ground surface, which form some swamps. Geophysical surveys were carried out through two stages; electrical resistivity survey and GPR measurements. The interpretation results reveal the occurrence of four subsurface geoelectrical layers. The upper most two layers consist mainly of sands and clayey sands characterized by relatively low electrical resistivity values, with thickness reaching collectively to 4.3 m. These layers are saturated by water and lying above a thick clay layer, which acts as a barrier, preventing the water infiltration to percolate into the deeper layers and leads to the formation of swamps on the ground surface. GPR profiles were performed above the drinking, sewage and irrigation pipes. GPR results confirm the presence of a water-saturated layer; especially around the pipelines. Water leakage from the sewage and irrigation pipes was proved to be the main source of seepage water in the area, which is trapped above the impermeable clay layer, forming the observed swamps. Further, the clay minerals are more sensitive to the swelling process, which may cause cracks and fractures for buildings.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 633-640 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2020.9.4.56


Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization and Foliar Application of Amino Acid on Growth, Yield and Nutritional Value of Spinach Plants

Shafeek M.R., Asmaa R. Mahmoud, Y.I. Helmy, Nadia M. Omar and Heba M.A. Khater

ABSTRACT: A study was fulfill under sandy soil during the winter season of 2017 and 2018 at the empirical position of the National Research Centre at Nubaria area, (North Egypt) to discuss the effectiveness of nitrogen (N) fertilizing on growth, yield, and quality of spinach plant. Three N fertilizing average (0, 75 and 150 unit N /fed. as ammonium nitrate) with foliar sprinkle of three grade of amino acid (amino mix) (0, 1 and 2 cm/L) were utilized in a perfectly randomized styling with three replications. Eight weeks next planting, the spinach was harvested. The results specific that: 1- increasing N fertilization levels up to 150 units N /fed. improved plant growth expressed as ( plant length, number of leaves, fresh and dry plant weight as well as total chlorophyll) and total yield (ton/fed.). In addition, increment of N fertilization levels generally caused increasing content of N, protein, P, K and NO3 of spinach plants. 2-Foliar application of spinach plants through high levels of amino mix (2cm/L) significantly increased plant growth parameters, total yield and the contents of the percentage of N, protein, P, K and NO3. 3-The interaction through N fertilizer and foliar usage of amino mix produced no significant difference except plant fresh weight in both seasons and plant dry weight in the second season.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 641-648 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2020.9.4.57


Edible Oil Production in Egypt: An Overview

Mona El-Hamidi, Ferial A. Zaher, Atteia Shaaban

ABSTRACT: This article throws a light on the current situation of edible oil industrial sector in Egypt. The existing wide gap between the consumption rate of edible oil in Egypt and the rate of edible oil production from local oilseed is discussed. The type of edible oils imported annually to cover this gap and their quantities are reported. Processing steps for edible oil production from oilseed have been briefly illustrated. Important parameters for successful edible oil industry have been also reported and discussed. The companies already established in Egypt for oilseed extraction are outlined whether they belong to the public or private sectors as well as the companies which are still under construction. These companies have been identified according to their production capacity as well as the technology adopted in oilseed extraction.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 649-655 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2020.9.4.58


Assessment of the Effect of Nano Sulfur on Some Soil Properties and Maize Productivity in Saline Soil

Esmaeil M. A., S. H. Abd Elghany, A.K. Abdel Fattah and A.A. Arafat

ABSTRACT: A filed experiment was conducted at Sahl El-Hossinia agricultural research station, El-Sharkia Governorate, Egypt, during two summer seasons 2019 and 2020 to study the effect of nano sulfur on some soil chemical and physical properties and maize productivity in saline soil. The treatments consisted of: control (mineral sulfur 100kg/fed), three nano sulfur treatments (5, 10 and 15 kg/fed). In both seasons, the experiment was carried out in a complete randomized block design with three replicates. The results showed a slight decrease in soil pH, while there was a significant decrease in EC values in all the studied treatments as compared to control. Also, there was an improvement in some soil physical properties. Similarly, the values of hydraulic conductivity and total porosity had been increased significantly, while bulk density values were decreased significantly in the treated plots as compared to control. Soil content of available macronutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium) and micronutrients (iron, manganese and zinc) were significantly increased after application of the nano sulfur as compared to control. The treatment of nano S 15 kg/fed was the best one in increasing soil available content of macro and micronutrients. It increased the soil available content of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium by about 17, 29 and 20 % than control, respectively. The same treatment increased the soil content of available iron, manganese and zinc by about 24 , 27 and 29 % than control, respectively. Also, all treatments led to a significant increase in the maize seeds content of macro and micronutrients. The maize productivity (grains and straw yield) was also increased significantly as a result of improvement of soil chemical and physical properties and increase of soil content of available macro and micro nutrients. The best treatment was nano S 15 kg/fed, it increased the grains and straw yields by rates 38 and 34 %, respectively as compared to control. This may be attributed to that addition of the used amendment was oxidized to sulfate then sulfuric acid that reduced soil pH which caused nutrients to be more soluble hence more available for plant uptake.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 656-665 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2020.9.4.59


Using some natural sources to produce healthy Ketchup

Hanan G. Mohamed, Sahar A. Arafa and KH. M. Nematalla

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to produce a healthy ketchup by adding sumac water extract and pomegranate molasses to tomato ketchup formula instead of adding salt, vinegar, xanthan gum and modified starch at different concentrations (1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5%, respectively), to find the best level of addition to the ketchup formula without altering the characteristics of ketchup through studying the physicochemical parameters, chemical composition, sensory attributes and microbial activity of produced ketchup samples. It could be noticed that protein, ash, acidity, total and reducing sugars, total solids, water insoluble solids and total soluble solids contents of ketchup samples were significantly increased with the addition of sumac water extract and pomegranate molasses from 1% to 5% levels, respectively, while moisture content was significantly decreased compared with control sample. Ketchup sample made with sumac water extract at 2% level showed the lowest viscosity among other samples as a result of dilution, while viscosity was significantly increased with increasing sumac water extract and pomegranate molasses from 1% to 5% levels. Adding sumac water extract and pomegranate molasses to ketchup formula has resulted in changes in color parameters in the final product in relative to control sample. Samples formulated with sumac water extract and pomegranate molasses at 2% and 5% levels were considered of high quality from the viewpoints of color. It was found that sensory evaluated ketchup sample containing sumac water extract and pomegranate molasses at 4% level exhibited the highest overall acceptability score and was significantly different compared with other samples followed by samples containing 3% and 5% levels which were insignificantly differed compared with each other. It was observed that lower microbial activity was recorded in ketchup samples at zero time of storage, then total bacterial, and yeasts and molds counts were gradually increased in ketchup samples stored at 5°C from 0 to 12 weeks of storage. Also sumac water extract showed antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria. So, salt, vinegar, xanthan gum and modified starch could be replaced by sumac water extract and pomegranate molasses in ketchup formula to prepare an accepted ketchup product with satisfied quality attributes.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 666-676 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2020.9.4.60


Evaluation of Wheat Germination for Making Gluten-Free Bread

Amany M. Sakr

ABSTRACT: This study included the germination process of the soft wheat (Triticum aestivum Giza 171). Wheat grains were soaked, germinated for seven days (at 20±2oC).Also, protein fractions showed that the albumins and globulin increased until six days after that it decreased. As for the gluten, it decreased until sixth day after that it increased. The results from SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and extensogram confirmed these results. The results of chemical analysis reported that the wheat germination caused decrease in protein, wet and dry gluten, and total carbohydrates. However, ash, and crude fiber were increased after wheat germination for three and six days. Also, the mineral content of sodium, potassium, phosphorus, iron, and calcium increased after wheat germination for three and six days. Reduced-gluten wheat flour (after 6 days of germination) was used to prepare balady bread and was compared with bread made from raw wheat flour. Sensory evaluation, color measurements, and instrumental analyses of different bread were determined. Therefore, it is recommended to prepare bread from wheat germinated for six-day for celiac disease patients.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 677-689 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2020.9.4.61


Effect of Extraction Methods and Olive Oil Grades on Physio-Chemical Properties and Sensory Attributes of Olive Oil

Nahed M.M. Atta, Azza, A.A. Ahmed, Mounir M. Eid and Mohamed F. Al-Okaby

ABSTRACT: The present work aims to study the physio-chemical properties, sensory evaluation, overall quality index, fatty acids composition, oxidative stability and sterol fractions of olive oil extracted in the lab from Maraki, Coratina and Koroneiki olive verities (pressing method) and compared them with oil extracted from three-phase extraction method for the same varieties, as well as study the characteristics of extracted lampante olive oil. The results showed that extracted olive oil from the olive varieties by pressing method were better in the physio-chemical characteristics, and overall quality index than the other obtained oils by three-phase decanters. The results indicated that there were clear changes in percentages predominant saturated and unsaturated fatty acids between extracted oils by pressing technique and three-phase decanters, and they recorded a higher change compared with lampante oil. Analysis of sterols fractions of all olive oil verities revealed that the extracted oils by pressing technique contained a higher percentage of B-sitosterol compared to the oils extracted by three-phase system. On the other hand, the extracted oils by three-phase system and lampante olive oil contained a higher percentage of Δ-7 Avenasterol and Δ-5 Avenasterol compounds compared with extracted oils by pressing method. Also, the results observed that, Δ-7 stigmasterol fraction was detected in all olive oils obtained by three-phase system, and it was presented by closed percent in lampante olive oils, but was not detected in all extracted oils by pressing method. The extracted oils by pressing method from olive verities were classified as extra virgin olive oil. While, produced oils by three phase system were described as virgin olive oil.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 690-697 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2020.9.4.62


Conventional and Nano Fertilizers and Its Effect on Growth and Nutrient Status of Lupine Plants

Nahla A. Hemdan, Mohamed M. Hussein and Soad El-Ashry

ABSTRACT: A pot experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of the National Research Centre, Egypt to evaluate the effect of Nano and conventional fertilizer of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) on lupine plant grown in clay loam soil. Three treatments in five replicates were designed as completely randomized plot. Nano (2ml/litre) and Conventional mineral (3gm/litre) fertilizer of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were foliar applied on plant, while the third treatment was fertilized in the soil by recommended doses of lupine plant. Obtained results indicated that the growth parameters of lupine increased by foliar application either Nano or conventional NPK fertilizer compared to soil application of conventional NPK fertilizer, where the highest plants were obtained by foliar application conventional NPK fertilizer, but Nano NPK fertilizer was achieved the highest fresh and dry plant weight of lupine. However the lowest values of fresh and dry plant weight were recorded by soil application of conventional NPK fertilizer, NPK determinations were included. It could be detected that Nano fertilizers potentially influenced in crop growth enhancement and

[ FULL TEXT PDF 698-705 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2020.9.4.63