Jan-March, 2021


A Cast Titanium Obturator Framework in Rehabilitation of Acquired Maxillary Defects

Emad Ahmed Awad, Magdy Mostafa M. Mostafa, Abdel Salam Kh. Ezzat, Khaled K. El-Din Amin and Hatem K. El-Din Amin.

ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to study the effect of using a cast titanium framework that retain maxillary obturators on the periodontal condition of remaining teeth. Twelve patients with post-surgical maxillary defects were selected, and according to the type of metal framework of the intended maxillary obturator, the patients were categorized into two groups, six patients each. In group 1, patients received obturators, the metal framework of which was made of cobalt chromium alloy, while in group 2, patients received titanium metal framework obturators. Clinical as well as radiographic evaluations were carried out as evaluation tools. The results obtained from this study revealed insignificant effect of using cast titanium obturator framework on the periodontal condition of the remaining condition when compared to the conventional cast cobalt-chromium obturator framework.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-7 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.1.1


Pharmacological Properties and Health Benefits of Flaxseed: A Review

Fatimah A. Al-Saeed and Atef M. Al-Attar

ABSTRACT: Since ancient times, medicinal plants are recognized for their therapeutic effects. Medicinal plants continue to be of paramount importance until the present day. Recently, medicinal plants are gaining much interest due to their utilize for treating different diseases. Experimental scientific investigations on therapeutic roles of many plants have led to the discovery of new valuable drugs. Historically, plant varieties were used for many objectives such as foods, cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. Flax is among the oldest crop plants cultivated for its seed oil and fiber. Flax has become a popular functional food due to its high omega-3 fatty acid content as well as its dietary lignans and fiber. Flaxseed oil is a rich source of nutritive and bioactive compounds. Currently, flaxseed constituents, especially its oil, have gained attention in the area of pharmacological and biomedical research due to its health benefits. In this review, the pharmacological and health benefits properties of flaxseed were demonstrated according to the previous scientific data. Previous literatures indicated the effective role of flaxseed and its chemical constituents for the treatment of many diseases, which makes it as one of the most promising natural products for maintaining the health and integrity of the body's functions.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 8-17 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.1.2


Using of Certain Biotic and Abiotic Inducers on Controlling Peanut Cercospora Leaf Spot

Mahmoud E.Y., Zeinab N. Hussien, Ibrahim M.M. and Heba Yousef

ABSTRACT: Cercospora leaf spot (CLS), early leaf spot (caused by Cercospora arachidicola) and late leaf spot (caused by Cercosporidium personatum) are the most important foliar diseases affecting peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) throughout the world. Although, fungicide applications considered one of the important management strategies for controlling of CLS however, it causes hazards to human and animal health and increase environmental pollution, which makes the urgent need to find fungicides alternatives. In try to take this approach, the effectiveness of biotic inducers (Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis) and abiotic inducers (chitosan at 1, 2 & 3 mM and bion at 2,4 & 8 mM), were tested in field trials on incidence of CLS compared to commercial fungicide as a check treatment. All tested inducers significantly reduced diseases severity of CLS compared to non-treated control in the two successive seasons 2018 and 2019. Generally, chitosan at 3mM and followed by chitosan at 2 mM and P. fluorescens gave the highest effect on reducing of CLS. While, bion at 2 mM gave the highest value of disease severity compared with control treatment in the two successive seasons. Increasing the concentration of chemical inducers (Abiotic treatments) caused increase in their reducing efficiency of diseases severity. This study indicated that, there is a correlation between induced resistance and some biochemical changes in peanut leaf tissues. Among these biochemical changes, the increase of phenol contents (free, conjugate & total phenols) and oxidative enzyme activity (peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase and catalase) as well as total free amino acids and percentage of crude protein. The obtained data clearly showed the ability of some inducers treatments to achieve efficacy close to the efficiency of commercial fungicide in reducing CLS in peanuts, which may encourage the use of these inducers as an alternative to fungicides.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 18-28 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.1.3


Modulatory Effects of Vitamin C in Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses in Male Albino Rats

Amin H.M.

ABSTRACT: This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of vitamin C in ameliorating the alterations in innate, adaptive, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses induced by luminal administration in rats. Eighty-four male albino rats (160-180 g) were divided into four equal groups. The first, the control group, was injected daily and intraperitoneally (i.p) with saline solution (0.9 % NaCl) for 21 days. The second group was given a daily i.p injection of luminal (50mg/kg). The third group was orally and daily administered with vitamin C (50mg/kg). The last group was treated the same way as the second group plus an oral administration of VC (50mg/kg) after half an hour of luminal injection. Determination of the alterations in different immunological parameters took place after the first, the second and third weeks of luminal and vitamin C administration. It was found that administration of luminal increased significantly the total leucocyte count, the percentage of lymphocytes and the chemokinetic index of leukocytes. Also, the concentration of total immunoglobulin increased significantly at the second and third weeks of luminal intake. While, marked decrease was noticed in the neutrophils percentage, phagocytic activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in vitro and immunoglobulin level at the first week of luminal intake. The chemotaxis activity of leucocytes towards luminal showed moderate response in all first week treated subgroups. The precipitation of antibodies against luminal antigen took place. The migration inhibition factor of leukocytes showed a marked decrease as a result of luminal intake at the third week. No significant changes were noticed in the current study concerning the percentages of monocytes, acidophils and basophils. Administration of vitamin C alone induced a mild increase in total leukocytes count, monocytes, neutrophils and basophils percentages and significant increase in phagocytic activity of leukocytes in vitro. On the other hand, the combined administration of vitamin C with luminal ameliorated some immunological alterations induced by luminal injection. Vitamin C apparently alleviated the total leukocyte count, the percentage of neutrophils, the values of phagocytic activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in vitro and total immunoglobulin concentration compared to the corresponding control subgroups. The chemotaxis activity showed moderate response in the third week of luminal & vitamin C subgroup. In all luminal & vitamin C subgroups, precipitation of antibodies against luminal antigen was recorded. At the third week, all luminal, vitamin C and luminal & vitamin C subgroups revealed significant decrease in the migration inhibition factor of leukocytes versus the control subgroups. Conclusion: the current study revealed that administration of vitamin C along with luminal exerted immunomodulatory effects against luminal-induced alterations in the immune system and that it could partially affect innate, adaptive, humoral and cell mediated immune responses in male albino rats.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 29-42 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.1.4


Effect of Alkaline Pre-Treatment of Some Straws as a Rapid Composting Process on Soil Properties and Crop Productivity

Abd Elghany S.H., Esmaeil M.A. and A.A. Arafat

ABSTRACT: Field experiments were conducted to determine the effect of composts prepared by base pretreatment for two types of straws (rice and corn straws) on some soil properties and sorghum crop yield (summer 2019) and their residual effect on barley crop (winter 2019/2020) at Bahtim Research Station, Agriculture Research Center, Kalubia Governorate. Both rice straw and corn straw incubated with 2% KOH for four weeks then at the end of incubation period each type of the incubated straw neutralized by sulphuric acid and citric acid separately to produced four different types of composts; composted rice straw neutralized by sulphuric acid (RS) composted rice straw neutralized by citric acid (RC), composted corn straw neutralized by sulphuric acid (CS) and composted corn straw neutralized by citric acid (CC). The four types of composts combined with soil in split plot design experiment under two nitrogen levels of (80 and 100 unit fed-1) to study their current and residual effects on each of soil properties, nutrient availability and yield of crops compared to control. The obtained results showed that a positive effect for all the different composted materials on soil chemical properties, nutrients availability and crops yield compared to control soil. The combination of different composted materials with soil decreased significantly the EC values followed the trend of (RC) > (CC) > (RS) > (CS) during the first season and with slight effect through the second season. Also, there was a slight decrease in pH values with (RC) which recorded the lowest one particularly during the first season. On the other hand, application of different types of compost to soil significantly increased the soil (OM %) during the both seasons compared to control. Moreover, available soil N, P and K increased significantly during the first season in the order (RC) > (CC) > (RS) > (CS) with slight impact during the second season compared to control. Compost of (RC) and (CC) gave the highest yield of Sorghum in the first season and Barley in the second season than each of (RS) and (CS) compared to control. Generally, the base pretreatment method for different rice straw contributed in decreasing incubation period of composting process and produced beneficial types of compost aid to increase soil productivity.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 43-57 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.1.5


Genetic Diversity of Egyptian Barley Using Agro–Physiological Traits, Grain Quality and Molecular Markers

Samah A. Mariey, Eman N. Mohamed, Zeinab E. Ghareeb and Engy S.M.R. Abo Zaher

ABSTRACT: Assessment of phenotypic and genotypic diversity is one of the principal and important steps in plant breeding programs. In this study, field screening analysis was carried out in Sakha Agricultural research station during two growing seasons 2018/ 2019 and 2019/ 2020 to investigate the phenotypic diversity among 15 Egyptian barley cultivars using physiological, grain quality, grain yield and yieldassociated traits and to assess the genetic diversity by using Sequence-Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP) marker analysis. Analysis of variance of the traits showed high variability among all cultivars under study with respect to all agronomic and grain quality characteristic studied traits. Cluster analysis classified the cultivars in four groups and showed that genetic variation based on the all studied traits among the barley cultivars. Ten SRAP combination primers was used, the average percentage of polymorphic loci of the 67.9 % and the average band number amplified from each pair of primers was 6.5% bands, of which included 9.0 % polymorphic bands. Highest (PIC), was related to primer me6+em5 was (0.94) indicating that this primer is highly informative. The dendrogram of SRAP markers had clustered all the Egyptian cultivars into four groups each group include the most closed cultivars. The results of the present study showed that there were high genetic information differences among Egyptian barley cultivars which offered new information about the genetics relationships between Egyptian barley cultivars which they are useful for cultivar identification and for their utilization in further barley programs for environments stress.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 58-71 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.1.6


Palynofacies analysis and organic geochemical characterization influence on the hydrocarbon generation of the subsurface Devonian rocks in Siwa Basin, north Western Desert, Egypt

Heba A. Abdelrazak, Atef M. Hosny, Ahmed A. Orabi and Tarek F. Mostafa

ABSTRACT: The Devonian sediments in the Western Desert of Egypt are promising source for hydrocarbons. Productive samples from the Devonian succession in Sifa-1 well were examined in this study. Distribution of the liptinite content of hydrogen rich organic matters from these sediments is investigated. Study of the liptinite depended on observations from both incident and transmitted light microscopical modes. There are a diverse and abundant liptinite macerals in the studied sediments that include both terrigenous and marine organic matters. The palynological investigations include statistical analysis of the miospores assemblages and palynofacies categories in addition to calculation of the sedimentation rates. These analyses signify four miospores biotopes and three palynofacies biotopes. These biotopes assess the ramps of paleoclimatological and paleoenvironmental changes during the sedimentation and used to define a model of the liptinite distribution in the Devonian. The model includes two phases that witnessed essential changes in the basinal dynamics in climate, sea level and sedimentation rates. The redox conditions were confirmed by inorganic geochemical analysis of trace elements. The high oxygen level affected both the quantity and quality of organic and greatly reduced the preservation of the amorphous organic matters. The quality of the organic matters ranges between kerogen type II/III and kerogen type III that are supported by organic elemental and pyrolysis gas chromatography analysis. The sediment generated hydrocarbons with consideration that the whole Devonian succession is in oil window as observed from the miospore thermal coloration index.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 72-88 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.1.7


Investigation of Microtextures on the Surface of Mesozoic Quartz Grains to Study the Prevailing Paleoenvironmenal Conditions on Silica Sand, Elwadi Elgedid, Western Desert, Egypt

Ramag Ahmed Osman

ABSTRACT: Microtextures recorded on quartz sand grain surfaces provide evidence of past environment. Environmental processes, such as transport by fluvial, eolian and mass wasting create unique microtextures on sand grain surfaces that can be observed under high magnification with a scanning electron microscope. These microtextures and their proportions infer to the environmental conditions which sediments have been exposed. Microtextural evidence also allows inferences about the history of sediments of unknown origin. This study determines the qualitative microtextural fingerprint of quartz sand grains deposited in Elwadi Elgedid, and compares that fingerprint to the fingerprints sediments of uncertain genesis, Aeolian, fluvial, mass-wasting, and other processes all create combinations of microtextures on quartz sand grain surfaces that are unique in the types. These combinations of microtextures record the paleoenvironmental history of the study area from which the grains were derived; the various forms of fractures and post-fracture surface alterations found on quartz sand grain surfaces should therefore provide useful evidence of climate and other environmental aspects of the sand grain’s history. Variations in quartz surface textures were detected due to the texture created by mechanical processes was predominating. Abundant abrasion features like V-shaped pits, and linear and curved grooves usually give evidence of transport in a fluvial medium. On levels with intensive reworking and redeposition preliminary relief of grains was smoothed and obliterated. The diagnostic dissolution features were more, where intercalation of dolomites and siliciclastic rocks is common. Possible chemical etching in quartz was observed and fluid effects were responsible for barite precipitation as inclusion in quartz grain. The variability helps to clarify the history of basin evolution and to distinguish different conditions in deposition.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 89-96 ] PDF DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.1.8


Development and Validation of Analytical Methodologies for the Determination of malachite green (MG), leucomalachite green (LMG), crystal violet (CV) and leucocrystal violet (LCV) residues in Fish by using LC-MSMS

Lamia Ryad

ABSTRACT: A sensitive method for the determination, confirmation and validation of the sum of malachite green (MG), leucomalachite green (LMG) and sum of crystal violet (CV) and leucocrystal violet in fish muscle has been developed. It is based on liquid–liquid extraction by acetonitrile followed by liquid chromatography– tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MSMS) with electrospray ion source (ESI) in positive mode for determination of (malachite green, leuco malachite green, crystal violet, and leuco crystal violet). The method is simple, fast and inexpensive for simultaneous analysis of selected compounds. Fish samples were homogenated with shaker in mixture of acetonitrile, Mcllvain buffer, TMPD and p-TSA then followed by centrifugation; the supernatant was evaporated then reconstituted by acetonitrile perchloric acid. Quantitation and confirmation of each compound was done by iquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) in positi ve -ion mode, the mass spectrometer was operated in multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode. Two different MRM are used for confirmation. In compliance with Decision 2002/657/EC, which lays down guidelines and procedures for validating methods, validation of the method was carried out. The following parameters were determined: limit of detection (CCa), detection capability (CCβ), linearity, precision, precision, selectivity, specificity and effect of the matrix. The decision limits (CCα) for MG, LMG, CV and LCV were 1.2μg/kg. The respective detection capabilities (CCβ) were 1.5, 1.4, 1.4 and 1.3μg/kg. Typical recoveries (intermediate precision) in fish samples, for MG, CV, LMG and LCV for 2.0 mg/kg level fortified samples using the optimized procedure were in the range 84%, 87%, 88% and 100%, respectively. The findings indicate the suitability of the method for detecting MG, CV and their metabolites (LMG and LCV) simultaneously in fish.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 97-103 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.1.9


Potential Inhibition of Methanolic Khella Seed Extract against Milk Borne Pathogenic Bacteria in Vitro

Nashwa Harb, Amira G. Sarhan, Khalid A. El Dougdoug and Hanaa H. Gomaa

ABSTRACT: Dairy products and milk are spoiled and refers to contain microbe or poison substances that make them unfit for consumption. The aim of the work extracted and identified an anti phyto chemical of Ammi visnaga as a novel antimicrobial activity against milk borne bacteria. Materials: The pathogenic bacteria were isolated from row milk and cottage cheeses on selective media. The isolated bacteria were identified by morphological, cultural characteristics, antibiotics sensitivity and biochemical tests according to (Bergey's manual, 2009). Methanolic Khella extract was derived from seeds (MKSE) and tested for its antimicrobial activity against isolated bacteria. The antimicrobial activity was determined by well diffusion assay and broth microdilution method using ELISA reader. Results : The analysis of Methanolic extract by GC-MS showed eight active gradient compounds, belonging to the fused hetero-cyclic , which contended pyrimidine or purine , The isolated bacteria were identified Bacillus cerise, Escherichia coli, Listeria sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella sp. and Staphylococcus aureus. The isolated bacteria showed different antibiotic susceptibilities with range to resistant, moderate and sensitivity. The methanolic extract (MKSE) showed high antimicrobial activity against B. cerise, E. coli, Listeria sp., P. aeruginosa, Salmonella sp. and Staph. aureus. Antivirulence activity of MKSE was reduced Biofilm formation of E. coli, Ps. aeruginosa, and Staph. aureus. The dialyzed MKSE had ability as microbialicidal agent against milk borne pathogens, Ps. aeruginosa and Staph. aureus due to 0-12 h time kill. SEM images observations confirmed the physical damage and considerable morphological alteration, empty, flaccid, stuck together and melted, giant cells, appendages on cell surface, Pseudomycellium like structures of Ps. aeruginosa and Staph. aureus treated with MKSE. Conclusions: Methanolic Khella seed extract to be one of the novel agents in anti- microbes and could be potential as bactericidal to be used food drug therapeutically.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 104-118 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.1.10


Determination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues in some Egyptian freshwater fish

Naglaa A. El-Senousi

ABSTRACT: Fish plays an important role as a food source for the Egyptian population. Contamination of soil and water resources with many contaminants is a global problem to aquatic organisms. Thus, the study aimed to assess the levels of organochlorine pesticide (OCPs) residues in tilapia and catfish collected from four sites: the River Nile (fisherman), Fish aquaculture in Al-Sirou, affiliated to the National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Kafr El-Sheikh aquaculture and local market of Giza governorate. The obtained results indicated that residue levels of OCPs were negligible, but fenpropathrin exhibited high levels (0.32757 and 0.03421 mg/kg) in tilapia fish of the River Nile and Giza market respectively. However, P, P'-DDT and P, P'-DDD exhibited the greatest levels (1.60097 and 0.11468 mg/kg) in catfish from Giza market respectively during winter. Heptachlor epoxide showed a mean value of 0.00965 mg/kg in catfish of Al- Sirou aquaculture, but endrin exhibited a mean value (0.00709 mg/kg) in catfish from the River Nile during summer. In water samples, heptachlor epoxide was significantly found at levels of 0.02659 and 0.06459 mg/L in samples from Al-Sirou and the River Nile during summer respectively. On the other hand, some treatments had been taken (different concentrations of acetic acid) to remove residues of pesticides in fish flesh. The treatments were very effective and 100% removal of residues from fish flesh was reached .From the results it could be noticed that OCPs are able to accumulate in fish tissue. More studies are needed to minimize their risk factors on human and environment.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 119-133 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.1.11


Implications of School Plant Utilization in State Universities in South East Geo- Political Zone of Nigeria

Okwara H. U., Ukozor F.I., Onye C.O. and Anyaogu R.

ABSTRACT: The study was carried out to analyze the implications of school plant utilization in State Universities in South East Geo-political zone of Nigeria. Specifically, the study examined the relationship between school plant inspection and environmental aesthetics of State Universities; ascertain the relationship between school plant safety measures and environmental aesthetics of State Universities; assess the relationship between n school plant safety measures and environmental aesthetics of State Universities. Data for the study were collected from 336 respondents from Abia State, Anambra State, Ebonyi State, Enugu State and Imo State using survey method. Pearson Product Moment Correlation PPMC was used to analyze the data collected. From the result, degree of freedom was 334 with a t-calculated value of 12.35, while the coefficient of relationship was 0.56 indicating the existence of a moderate and positive relationship between utilization of school plant and environmental aesthetics of State Universities. The degree of freedom is 334; the t-calculated value of 5.75, while the coefficient of correlation was 0.30. This index shows that there is a low but positive relationship between school plant safety measures and environmental aesthetics of State Universities. The result gave 334 degree of freedom; t-calculated value of 6.61 and coefficient of correlation of 0.34. This index shows that there is a low but positive relationship between school plant inspection and environmental aesthetics in State Universities. The study concludes that poor use of school plant in the study area influenced the study environment, which indirectly undermines the quality of teaching and learning in the area. Hence, the study recommends among other measures the establishment of school plant maintenance committee to ensure prompt repairs/replacement of school plant in the event of breakdown or dilapidation.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 134-139 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.1.12


Potential Oral Manifestations of COVID-19. A Review

Nahed A. Khalil

ABSTRACT: A new strain of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has been identified and reported as the pathogen causing the global COVID-19 pandemic. This virus proved to induce several clinical manifestations. Recently, It has been suggested that the oral cavity is a perfect habitat for SARS-CoV-2, since this virus has an invasive ability and a special affinity for cells having receptors for the angiotensin converted enzyme (ACE2). These receptors are present in the respiratory tract, oral mucosa, tongue and salivary glands
cells, hence, the virus can affect the function of the salivary glands, taste sensations, smell and integrity of the oral mucosa. In addition, this new coronavirus could alter the balance of the oral microbial ecology, which when associated with depressd immune system would allow opportunistic infections colonization. Although the clinical manifestations of this virus have been widely well described in many literatures, yet, the information about oral manifestations is still limited. Thus, this review aims to survey the current state of knowledge about the potential oral manifestations in the context of COVID-19 infection and the mechanism of their incidence as well as the predisposing factors. Consequently, this will highlight the significance of including the dentists in the intensive care unit multi-professional team to improve oral health in managing critical COVID-19 patients.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 140-147 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.1.13


Effect of Spraying Some Amino Acids, Vitamin B Complex and Boron on Growth and Vine Nutritional Status of Superior Grapevines

Farouk H. Abdelaziz, Faissal F. Ahmed , Ahmed M.K. Abdel Aal , Alaa A.B. Masoud and Safwat-Manar M

ABSTRACT: The effect of single and combined application of one of the three amino acids namely (glutamic, glycine and aspartic acid) at 250 ppm from each, vitamin B complex (B 1 + B 2 + B 6 + B 12 ) at 100 ppm and boric acid at 0.05 % on yield and berry quality of Superior grape cv. were investigated during 2017 and 2018 seasons. Results showed that, single and combined applications of one of three amino acids as well as vitamin B complex and boric acid were very effective on improving main shoot length, number of leaves/ shoot, leaf area, wood ripening coefficient, pruning wood weight / vine, cane thickness, chlorophyll A, chlorophyll B, total chlorophylls, total carotenoids, N, P, K, Mg, Zn, Fe and Mn of Superior grapevines comparing with untreated vines. The application of amino acids was more effective than the application of vitamin B and boric acid in this respect AT three sprays (at growth start, just after berry setting and one month later) with a mixture containing 250 ppm glutamic acid plus 100 ppm vitamin B complex and 0.05% boric acid proved to be very effective in enhancing growth and vine nutritional status of Superior grapevine.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 148-154 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.1.14


Early yield production of watermelon grown in Wadi El-Tor, South Sinai in solar powered farm

Salman S.R., N.M. Khattab, Neama M. Marzouk, M.M.H. Abd El-Baky and S.D. Abou-Hussein

Abstract: Two year field experiments were conducted at a privet farm, Wadi El-Tor, South Sinai governorate, Egypt during two successive seasons of 2017 and 2018. The experiments included two-watermelon hybrids (Giza1 and Aswan) and two organic fertilizer sources included fulvic acid and humic acid. Organic fertilizers were added at a rate of three levels of 1.5, 3 and 6g/L 1 of irrigation water. Total yield and fruit quality i.e. average fruit weight, cortex thickness, firmness, TSS, dry matter and sweetness of watermelon were recorded. Results indicated that increasing level of organic fertilizers increased the yield of watermelon and enhanced fruit quality. The highest yield of watermelon was recorded when humic acid was applied at level of 6g/l -1 followed by fulvic acid at the same rate and the lowest yield was recorded with control treatment.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 155-163 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.1.15


Effect of α-Tocopherol on Cytokines Production, Oxidative Stress, and Liver Injury Induced by Lipopolysaccharides in Male Albino Rats

Amin, H. M.

Abstract: Cytokines are secreted by specific cells of immune system and can mediate the balance between humoral and cell- mediated immune responses and they are involved in pathologic processes occurring in the liver. An imbalance of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines production influences their immunopathogenesis. The current study aimed to detect the ameliorative effect of α- Tocopherol on cytokines production, oxidative stress biomarkers, and liver injury in Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) intoxicated male albino rats. Adult rats were classified as, (Group I): administered with saline solution (0.9%NaCl) as intraperitoneal injection (i.p), (Group II): administered orally with α-Tocopherol (40 mg /kg b. w) twice a week for one month, (Group III): injected (i.p) with a single dose of LPS (1mg/kg b. w), (Group IV): administered orally with α- Tocopherol for a month, then, intoxicated with a single dose of LPS. Rats were scarified at 4 and 24 hours post the last injected doses. The results of the present study revealed that intoxication with LPS induced imbalance in production of cytokines as it caused significant increases in the production of pro- inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6) and anti- inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-10). Also, it increased liver lipid peroxide (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides, liver enzymes as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) compared with the control group. Conversely, intoxication with LPS significantly decreased liver antioxidant enzymes as catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) activity, and induced adverse histopathological changes in liver, including, increasing in number of active kuppfer cells and in leukocytes infiltration. Pre-treatment with α-Tocopherol significantly ameliorated the all previous studied parameters compared with LPS group, in particular, it decreased the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6) and increased the level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) and improved adverse histopathological changes in liver induced by LPS challenge, including, decrease in number of active kuppfer cells and reducing leukocytes infiltration in liver. Conclusion: we could conclude that α-Tocopherol has immunomodulatory effect demonstrated by ameliorating cytokines production and reducing active kuppfer cells and leukocytes infiltration in liver, anti-inflammatory effect as it increased the activity of the anti-inflammatory cytokine and decreased the level of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and its antioxidant effect was proven by alleviating lipid peroxidation through scavenging of free radicals, or by enhancing the activity of the antioxidants in liver. Moreover, improving the adverse histopathological changes in liver induced by LPS intoxication showed that it has hepato-protective effect and could attenuate liver injury.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 164-177 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.1.16


Impact of Tectonic Factors on The Emplacement of The Radioactive Mineralized Pegmatites of Wadi Abu Zawal Area, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

El Sundoly H.

ABSTRACT: Wadi Abu Zawal area, located at the North Eastern Desert of Egypt, is covered by gneissic tonalities - granodiorites, Dokhan volcanics, younger gabbros, younger granites and post granitic dykes. Numerous pegmatite bodies are hosted by Wadi Abu Zawal gneissic tonalites, which constituting part of the Late Neoproterozoic granites in the North Eastern Desert of Egypt. Most of these pegmatites contain accessory minerals such as zircon, monazite, thorite, uranothorite and allanite. Brittle tectonic analysis on gneissic tonalities - granodiorites of Wadi (W.) Abu Zawal has been carried out on 753 field measurements in 30 sites, using win tensor computer program. The analysis of fault slip data revealed that 215 faults (28.55 %) are of extensional (normal) faults, and 538 faults (71.45 %) belong to compressional strike slip faults systems and allowed computation of 94 paleostress tensors. These tensors are distinguished as 26 tensors corresponding to extensional faulting and 68 tensors corresponding to compressional faulting. The structural elements of gneissic tonalites granodiorites of W. Abu Zawal were statistically treated and stress analyses were carried out on theses structural data to delineate the paleostresses, which affected the gneissic tonalites granodiorites. These rocks are subjected to four compressional and seven extensional phases. The four compressional phases can be grouped into four main events as the following: E-W to WNW-ESE, NE-SW to ENE-WSW, NW-SE to NNW-SSE and N-S to NNE-SSW compressional events. While the seven extensional phases can be grouped into sex main events as the following: NW-SE to NNW-SSE, NE-SW to ENE-WSW, N-S to NNE-SSW, NW-SE to NNW-SSE, NE-SW to ENE-WSW, E-W to WNW-ESE and N-S to NNE-SSW extensional event.In the study area, several pegmatites bodies were recorded in the gneissic tonalite- granodiorites. Radiometric survey for most of these pegmatites gives normal background ranging from 100 to 200 cps. Only one of these pegmatites give abnormal measurements reaches to 19000 cps with U content reaches to 3500 ppm and thorium content reaches to 2500 ppm. This abnormality is due to the presence of radioactive minerals which were identified using the Scanning Electron Microscope; these are kasolite, uranophane, monazite, uranothorite and columbite. The structural studies at this anomaly indicated that the NE-SW to ENE-WSW and NW-SE to NNW-SSE extensional events are the main phases responsible for the generation of uranium mineralization in the investigated area.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 178-199 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.1.17


Regeneration of Nerve Injuries using Low Power Laser Irradiation

Hisham I. Othman

ABSTRACT: The experimental study of the effect of low power laser irradiation (LPLR) on nerve injury histologically and histochemically had been carried out. Ten dogs were used in this study and divided into two groups, control and experimental. Surgical exposure of their mental nerves was done for all in the same way. In the experimental group, the exposed nerve was subjected to laser irradiation for 5 minutes following the application chart of the device for neural disorders, and then the animals were scarified at 1, 3, 7, 14, 30 days intervals. The control group were followed the same regime but without laser radiation. Biopsies were taken for light microscopy study (H&E and silver impregnation stain), electron microscopy study and histochemical study (OTAN and Gomori’s acetyl thiocholine methods) was used. The obtained results were as follow: temporary mild degenerated traumatic changes occurred at the first, third- and seventh day following laser radiation. Regeneration started at 14 th day with complete regeneration at 30 th day. It can be concluded that laser therapy enhances recovery of injured irradiated nerve without any residual effects.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 200-208 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.1.18


Importance of palatal rugae in Prosthodontics as an aid an individual identification

Seham B. Tayel and Amal Mashali

ABSTRACT: Fingerprints and dental means represent the most scientifically reliable methods of identification. In general, the greater the degree of tissue destruction, the greater the importance of dental characteristics in affecting proper identification. Palatine rugae are permanent and unique to each person, and clinicians and scientists can use them to establish identity through discrimination. Marks such as imprints of palatal rugae on dentures can be of use in identification if previous records exist. One hundred and fifty casts were randomly selected for patients from the prosthodontics clinic, their ages ranged from 25 to 50 years. A primary maxillary alginate impression was made for every patient. The impression were poured in dental stones. All casts were photographed, studied and described. Comparing the photographs and matching them with their corresponding casts was done by medicolegal experts and dentists. A classification system was developed on the basis of the morphologic features of the palatal rugae. Three district types were noticed, namely parallel linens (50.66%), arborizations (24.67%) and irregular pattern (24.67%). The study showed that the palatal rugae pattern is sufficiently characteristic to discriminate between individuals. Palatal rugae plays a significant role in prosthodontic clinic.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 209-216 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.1.19


Early Retirement Phase and TMD

Amal H Moubarak B.D.S., M.Sc., Ph.D and Souna Saad El-Din B.D.S., M.Sc., Ph.D

ABSTRACT: Objectives: To evaluate the effect of retirement on Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) and to study the relation between retirement and TMD- psychological profile. Methods: Longitudinal study was done on 50 male retired volunteers. RDC/TMD tool which consists of axis I (physical assessment, 84-item questionnaire and clinical examination for TMJ and muscles) and axis II (psychosocial and pain-related disability assessments depending on symptom checklist 90 (SCL-90) was selected. Results: Axis I, the highest percentage of retirees suffering from muscle disorder (MD) before and after retirement. Axis II, Number of pain items (NPI) decreased after retirement when the number is between 0-3 and it increased after retirement when it is 4-5. Graded Chronic Pain Scale (GCPS) moderate pain grade III increased after retirement from 18% to 30%. Psychosomatic profile scores and percentages indicate moderate depression in contrast to severe depression before and after retirement. Conclusion: Percentage of retirees fallen into depression increased after retirement and suffering more from muscle disorders type of TMD. RDC-TMD is a valuable tool for diagnosing TMD with different subgrouping.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 217-225 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.1.20


Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Mananoligosaccharide and β-Glucan on the Performance and Feed Utilization of Nile Tilapia Fingerlings

Hanan A. Abo-State, M. M. El-Monairy, Y. A. Hammouda and H. M. A. Hassan

ABSTRACT: Background and Objective: Prebiotics feed additives can be used as functional feed and applied in aquaculture for improving growth performance and feed utilization. Feeding trail was performed to investigate the effect of different levels of commercial prebiotic (Aqua-Immuostim © ) contain Mananooligosaccharide (MOS) and β-glucan on the performance and feed utilization of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings. Methodology: Three hundred of Nile tilapia (4.12 g fish 1 ) were randomly allocated into 4 treatments. Treatments were performed in 12 aquaria (25 fish/ aquarium). Nile tilapia were fed basal diet (30.36% crude protein, 3879 kcal gross energy kg -1 diet) with different levels of prebiotic (0.0, 2, 4 and 6g kg -1 diet). Fish were fed diets twice daily for 56 days. Results: The best values of the final body weight, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and specific growth rate were obtained with all treatments supplemented with MOS and β-glucan compared with the control group. The best values of feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), Protein productive value (PPV) and Energy Retention (ER) were observed in groups fed on diets supplemented with MOS and β-glucan at 2 and 4g/kg, followed by diet supplemented with 6 g/kg, and the worst values of FCR, PER, PPV and ER were observed with the control group. No significant difference was detected among all treatments in body composition. Conclusion: Overall, this study revealed that MOS and β-glucan inclusion in Nile tilapia diets could be more beneficial effects on the growth and utilization of feed. In the current study, the optimal level of the commercial MOS and β- glucan in Nile tilapia fingerlings diets is 2 g/kg -1 .

[ FULL TEXT PDF 226-233 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.1.21