April-June 2021


Differential Expression of Polarization in Odontoblasts and Epithelial cells

Gamal Eldeen Zulhemma Elsharkawy

ABSTRACT: Cell polarity identifies the asymmetry of a cell. Various types of cells, including odontoblasts and epithelial cells, polarize to fulfill their destined functions. Odontoblast polarization is a prerequisite and fundamental step for tooth development and tubular dentin formation. Current knowledge of odontoblasts polarization, however, is very limited, which greatly impedes the development of novel approaches for regenerative endodontics. Compared to odontoblasts, epithelial cell polarization has been extensively studied over the last several decades. The knowledge obtained from epithelia polarization has been found applicable to other cell types, which is particularly useful considering the remarkable similarities of the morphological and compositional features between polarized odontoblasts and epithelia. In this review, we first discuss the characteristics, the key regulatory factors, and the process of epithelial polarity. Next, we compare the known facts of odontoblast polarization with epithelial cells. Lastly, we clarify knowledge gaps in odontoblast polarization and propose the directions for future research to fill the gaps, leading to the advancement of regenerative endodontics.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 234-241 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.2.22


Antifibrotic Effects of Quercetin and Adenosine Deaminase Inhibitor on Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Fibrosis Mediated By P53 and NF-Kβ Gene Expression

Marwa A. Magdy, Hossam El-Din M. Omar, Sary Kh. Abdel-Ghaffar 3 and Ahmed Th. Ibrahim

ABSTRACT: Potent hepatotoxic chemicals such as thioacetamide (TAA) are used to evaluate hepatoprotective agents. Here we investigate the antifibrotic potential of quercetin (QU) as antioxidant and Erythro-9- (2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine (EHNA) as adenosine deaminase inhibitor against thioacetamide- induced liver fibrosis in male rats. Fifty mature male rats divided into 5 groups: Group I: served as a control was intraperitoneally (IP) injected with Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) by 0.5 ml/rat. Group II: rats were injected IP with TAA (200 mg/kg) twice a week for 3 months. Group III: rats were injected IP with QU (100 mg/kg) 30 min before TAA injection Group IV: rats were injected IP with EHNA (150 μM/kg) 30 min before TAA injection. Group V: rats injected IP with QU (100 mg/kg) and EHNA (150 μM/kg) 30 min before TAA injection. TAA administration causes hepatic necrosis, increases in liver function enzymes, increases in hepatic lipid peroxidation, decrease in glutathione level and increase in the gene expression of tumor protein (P53) and Nuclear Factor-kappa Beta (NF-kβ). With administration of QU alone, EHNA alone or the combination of both significantly attenuated liver fibrosis induced by TAA through decrease of liver biomarkers, improving the redox state of the tissue as well as hindered the expression of inflammation and apoptosis-related genes. Finally, it can be concluded that QU alone, EHNA alone or the combination of both have protective effects against TAA-induced hepatic fibrosis.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 242-252 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.2.23


Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Alteration Characteristics of the Radioactive Granite at Wadi El Reddah Area, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

Ahmed Ali Abu Steet

ABSTRACT: Ground radiometric survey in Wadi El Reddah area, which represents the north eastern parts of Gabal Gattar batholith in the North Eastern Desert of Egypt, clearly distinguishes two anomalous bodies in the hydrothermally altered alkali feldspar granite. Localized uranium mineralization, formed predominantly of kasolite, is associated with zircon, fluorite, and cotunnite, accompanied by intense hematitization, desilicification, chloritization and K-metasomatism of the original host granite. The geochemical data showing that the mean U (174 ppm) in the mineralized domain is increased in abundances relative to the less altered granite. Mean Th (43 ppm), on the other hand, is relatively remains constant and mean Th/U ratios changes from 2.6 in the less altered granite to 0.27 in the mineralized zones. During mineralization processes, most of major and trace elements are mobilized to some extent where elements such as K, Rb, Zr, Zn and Pb are enriched, while Si, Sr and REE are depleted. The formation of secondary uranium mineralization are generally attributed to wet climatic episodes prevailed at the late Quaternary in Egypt.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 253-264 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.2.24


Assessment of Racial and Socioeconomic Status as Factors Affecting Emergence of Permanent Teeth among a Group of Egyptian and Sudanese Children

Eman Korayem, Nancy Ahmed Khattab, Mohammed Abou El-Yazeed, Nayera E Hassan and Tamer Mahmoud Abd El Wahab

ABSTRACT: Introduction: Tooth emergence is influenced by various factors, one of them is socioeconomic status (SES) and race. This study was aimed to assess the relationship between the number of permanent teeth emerged with socioeconomic status in 5-13 years old Egyptian and Sudanese Nubian children. Methods: this study was a cross sectional carried out on 2000 Egyptian and Sudanese Nubian children, The Socioeconomic status of the participants was determined using Fahmy modified index. This index was designed for evaluation of the social status of families, to be used in health research in Egypt. Results: A negative week correlation was found between socioeconomic status and emergence of permanent teeth in the whole studied sample r = -0.056 in Egyptian children and -0.101 in Sudanese Nubian children. Conclusion: There is a relationship between socioeconomic status and the number of permanent teeth emerged in Egyptian and Sudanese Nubian children aged 5-13 years old. The higher the socioeconomic status of a child, the less number of permanent teeth emerged. Sudanese Nubian children have earlier permanent teeth emergence than Egyptian children

[ FULL TEXT PDF 265-275 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.2.25


Substitution of Conventional Organic and Chemical Fertilization by Some Biostimulants and Their Effect on Growth, Flowering and Bulb Productivity ofNarcissus Tazetta Plant.

Ola Awad Amin, Magdy Azmy Barsoom and Zakaria Bastawy

ABSTRACT: A study was carried out at El-Mathana Agricultural Research Station, Luxor Governorate, Egypt in two seasons of 2017 and 2018 where plants of Narcissus tazetta were treated with NPK at 2 g/plant, salicylic acid at 100 and 200 ppm, garlic extract at 125 ml/plant, ascorbic acid at 100 and 200 ppm, citric acid at 100 and 200ppm and yeast at 3 and 5 g/plant. Results showed that plants treated with salicylic acid at 200 ppm (after transaction with NPK) achieved the highest value of all morphological characteristics of plants i.e. plant height, number of leaves per plant, flowering duration, number of bulblets per plant, bulb diameter, bulb fresh weight as well as fresh and dry weight of leaves beside chemical content of chlorophyll a,b and carotenoids in addition to the percentage of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compared to the control. Applying salicylic acid at 100 ppm (after transaction with NPK) had the highest stimulate effect on fresh, dry weight, diameter and longevity of cut flower, also, it had a strong effect in increasing fresh, dry and length of scape of flowers with raising chemical traits. This experiment clarified the importance of natural materials for increasing the efficiency of the vegetative and flower qualities of Narcissus tazetta.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 276-294 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.2.26


Nano Fertilizers, Their Role and Uses in Crop Productivity. A Review

A.I. Rezk, A.B. El-Nasharty, S.S. El-Nwehy and O.A. Nofal

ABSTRACT: Nano fertilizers (NFs) are an attractive alternative fertilizer in agriculture for improving growth parameters, yield, and quality of crops with increasing use efficiency of nutrients, minimizes fertilizers wastage and so the cultivation cost. The present paper aimed to supply an overview on the uses of nanofertilizers (NFs) in crops, highlighting their advantages and potential uses, and reviewing their effects under normal and environmental stress conditions. NFs are modified fertilizers which produced using nanotechnology by chemical, physical or biological methods to enhance their properties and composition, which positively affecting crop yields. Various studies have showed the benefits of using nanofertilizers instead of the conventional ones due to their highly specific surface area and smaller particles size which led to improving absorbent ability, controlled release kinetics and finally reaching to highest nutrient use efficiency, in addition to reducing the environmental pollution resources. Also, these nanometric fertilizers are superior to traditional fertilizers in the efficiency of their absorption (Nutrient Use Efficiency) and activation of the metabolic processes inside the plant due to the higher surface area of their molecules, use of less quantities with greater effectiveness and their supply to plants with their nutrients’ needs for longer periods comparing to the traditional forms and positively improve the biochemical content of crop and its quality. In this concern, NFs can release their nutrients during longer period (40-50 days), while in 4-10 days only, synthetic fertilizers do so. Otherwise, after field application, conventional fertilizers, especially urea, lose around fifty percent of its nitrogen content. In other words, research have shown that, NFs release nutrients 12 times more slowly comparing to synthetic fertilizers which reflecting on increasing the yields and quality characteristics of crops. In conclusion, nanofertilizers in the form of nano materials through slow or controlled release mechanisms could support their active nutrients depending on plant requirement’s and in the proper time, which finally reflects in improving the crops production.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 295-308 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.2.27


Influence of Cobalt and Different Organic Fertilizers on Chickpea Production

Nadia Gad and I.M. EL-Metwally and S.A. Abo Sedera

ABSTRACT: Two field experiments were carried out to study the efficiency of cobalt and different organic fertilizers. Experiments were conducted at Agricultural Experimental Station of the National Research Centre at Nubaria, Beheira Governorate Egypt, in two successive seasons 2017/2018 and 2018/2019 under drip irrigation system. The obtained results are summarized in the following: The greatest chickpea growth and yield parameters were attained in plants with treated with chicken manure followed by farmyard manure while agriculture compost was the lowest ones. Application cobalt at 12 ppm to all studied organic fertilizers enhancing chickpea nodulation rate, growth and seeds yield quantity and its quality. The superior chickpea growth and yield parameter were attained in plants which supplied with cobalt at 12 ppm with chicken manure followed by farmyard manure while cotton compost resulted the lowest ones.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 309-317 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.2.28


Radio Utilization for Teaching at Secondary School Level in Owerri Education Zone 1 of Imo State, Nigeria

Mgbam, A.F., Ezekoka, G.K. and Okoroma, E.O.

ABSTRACT: The advent of Covid-19 pandemic has increased the use of virtual learning channels like the radio at different levels of education in Nigeria. At Secondary School level the development is increasingly becoming thereby eliciting answers as to whether the use of radio for teaching has delivered on the intended purpose. Hence, the purpose of this study was to assess the utilization of radio for teaching at secondary school level in owerri education zone 1 of Imo State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study ascertained ways radio is been utilized in teaching and learning at Secondary school level; assessed the benefits in the use of radio for teaching and learning at Secondary school level; determined factors hindering effective use of radio for education development in Secondary Schools. Data were obtained from 130 teacher respondents sampled through multistage sampling techniques using structured questionnaire. The result indicated that, the sampled teachers acknowledged that radio as mostly used for teaching and learning in distance learning programme (�� �� = 2.6) as well as creating awareness of topical issues among their students (�� �� = 2.7). in terms of benefits of using radio, the teachers perceived radio beneficial in stimulating and holding students’ interest in learning (�� �� = 3.1), reaching out to a large number of students at once while teaching (�� �� = 2.9), eliciting students’ active participation when radio is used (�� �� = 2.9). On constraining factors to the use of radio for teaching, the result revealed that inadequate funding of radio resources (�� �� = 3.2), limited time allocated for radio programme (�� �� = 3.0), education planners give little attention in the use of radio (�� �� = 3.2), lack of educational resource centre in schools (�� �� = 3.2), were identified by the teachers as factors that constrain their use of radio for teaching at Secondary School level. The study concludes that though the use of radio has huge potentials in enhancing teaching and learning, it is yet to be effectively deployed for teaching at Secondary School level in the study area. It is recommended therefore that government should provide additional funding to equip ICT laboratories in schools for effective takeoff of deployment radio teaching aid and electronic learning.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 318-323 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.2.29


Evaluation of a high nutrition value gluten free pan bread prepared

Fatma M. I. Shahin and Manal S. Helal

ABSTRACT: Consumer demands for healthy and convenient diet has led to development of a huge room for functional food ingredients. The objective of the present study undertaking to investigate the nutritional value, sensory characteristics of gluten free pan bread prepared red kidney beans, rice, sorghum, cassava, psyllium and doum fruit powder which is suitable to be incorporated into celiac disease diets. This investigation was carried out to study the possibility of utilization doum powders to improve the nutrition value in gluten free pan bread. Four formula levels of substitution 5% doum formula (1), 10%doum formula (2), 15% doum formula (3) and 20%doum formula (4) were used. Physico-chemical and sensorial analysis of different raw materials and formulas were done. The obtained results revealed that red kidney bean had the highest contents of protein (26.39) and cassava had the highest contents of carbohydrates 92.16%. The highest values of fat and fiber were noticed in the psyllium flour while ash content was in the doum powder. The protein, ash and crude fiber contents in 20% doum substituted (formula (4) were increased by 12.08 , 36.46 and 167.11% respectively in relative to the control (2) On the other hand, total carbohydrates content decreased in the same formula by 6.50%. It was noticed that increase the doum levels in the formulation, significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe and Zn content in pan bread formulas compared to that of control. Specific volume was decreased in 20% doum (3.68 cm3/g) in relative to the control sample (4.05 cm3/g). It was also observed that with increasing the doum powder levels in the pan bread formula, hardness and chewiness were increased. Meanwhile, resilience, cohesiveness and springiness were decreased with increasing the doum levels in the pan bread formulae. Substitution of doum powder up to 10 % was acceptable by panelists. It could be concluded that consuming doum powder gluten free pan bread could provide children with part of their daily requirements of protein, fiber, calcium, iron and zinc in celiac diets.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 324-334 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2021.10.2.30