April-June 2020


Effect of Arginine on Growth Characters of Two Maize Hybrids under Water Deficit conditions

Amal G. Ahmed, Nabila M. Zaki and Hassanein M.S.

ABSTRACT: Two field experiments were carried out at private farm Wadi El-Rayyan, El-Fayoum governorate, Egypt, during the two successive summer seasons of 2017 and 2018 to study the effect of skipping one irrigation with or without arginine on growth characters of two maize hybrids (Fine Seeds- 101 and T.W. 329). Normal irrigation gave the highest value in all growth characters under study followed by omitting the 5th irrigation + 200cm3/ fed., arginine. Fine Seeds- 101 cultivar significantly surpassed T.W. 329 cultivar in plant height (cm), total dry weight / plant (g), number of ear /plant, leaf area (dm2), leaf area index, leaf area ratio, specific leaf area and specific leaf weight in both seasons. The interaction between maize cultivars and water shortage with or without arginine were significant in all growth characters in both seasons except leaf area (dm2) and leaf area index. The best treatment for plant height (cm), total dry weight / plant (g), number of ear /plant, leaf area ratio, specific leaf area and specific leaf weight was normal irrigation + Fine seeds- 101. Also, the best treatment was omitting 5th irrigation + 200 cm3 / fed., arginine with Fine Seeds- 101 cultivar for plant height (cm), total dry weight / plant (g) and leaf area ratio.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 168-172 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2020.9.2.16


Selenium Behavior in the Soil, Water, Plants and its Implication for Human health. A review

El-Sayed A.A., M.A Abou Seeda, A.A Yassen, A. Khater and Sahar M. Zaghloul

ABSTRACT Selenium (Se) is proved an essential trace element in the nutrition of humans, animals, and some bacteria, however, it is considered as a beneficial element that have the potential to influence the antioxidant activity systems of the higher plants, showing beneficial to toxic characteristics in a narrow concentration range. Nonetheless, its essentiality for plants is still controversial. Some regions of the world present high Se levels in soils causing several functional disorders and diseases in plants and people who live in seleniferous regions. Selenium is playing among other functions a relevant role in the antioxidant system of mammals, but lead to toxicity when taken in excessive amounts. Adsorption capacity of Se on soils is affected by soil characteristics such as pH, mineralogy and texture, organic matter content and Se chemical form, redox condition, and interactions with other ions. Behavior of Se in plants was chemically similar to sulfur, hence taken up inside the plants via sulfur transporters present inside root plasma membrane, metabolized via sulfur assimilatory pathway, and volatilized into atmosphere. Inadequate Se levels in the soil and human body is a well-known concern in many parts of the world. This malnutrition problem is often due to Se-poor diet; probably because of the low Se availability in soils where plants are growing, which are consider the main source of dietary Se. However, paradoxically some regions of the world present high Se levels in soils causing several functional disorders and diseases in people who live in seleniferous areas. Therefore, selenium should be supplied in controlled amounts to avoid harmful effects, taking into account the importance of the soils as a way to ensure the adequate Se supply for the population. This review has dealt with Se behavior in soil environment and plants, its presence in water and its relevance for plant growth and the human health.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 173-197 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2020.9.2.17


Importance of sulfur and its roles in Plants physiology: A Review

Abou Seeda M.A., Abou El-Nour E.A.A., Yassen A.A., Gad Mervat M. and Sahar M. Zaghloul

ABSTRACT Sulfur is one of the most versatile elements in life. It functions in fundamental processes such as electron transport, structure, and regulation. In plants, additional roles have developed with respect to photosynthetic oxygen production. Sulfate uptake, reductive assimilation, and integration into cysteine and methionine are the central processes that direct oxidized and reduced forms of organically bound sulfur into its various functions. Sulfite reductase (SIR) is a key enzyme in higher plants in the assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway. The reduction of SIR activity caused chlorotic and necrotic phenotypes in tobacco leaves, but with varying phenotype strength even among clones and increasing from young to old leaves. The levels of downstream metabolites were reduced, such as cysteine, glutathione (GSH) and methionine. This metabolic signature resembles a sulfate deprivation phenotype as corroborated by the fact that O-acetylserine (OAS) accumulated. In addition, chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic electron transport, and the contents of carbohydrates such as starch, sucrose, fructose, and glucose were reduced. Amino acid compositions were altered in a complex manner due to the reduction of contents of cysteine, and to some extent methionine. Interestingly, sulfide levels remained constant indicating that sulfide homeostasis is crucial for plant performance and survival

[ FULL TEXT PDF 198-231 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2020.9.2.18


Cryopreservation of Mulberry (Morus spp.) Germplasm

Ahmed Abd El-Wahab El-Homosany and Mina Samaan Farag

ABSTRACT:The aim of this study is to preserve the dormant buds and shoot tips of mulberry as germplasm due to its economic, nutritional and medicinal importance. Dormant buds of white and black mulberry were collected in winter (mid-January and mid-February) from mature trees and desiccated for 24 hrs, then placed in the aluminum foils and directly plunged in liquid nitrogen (LN) for an hour. Bud burst, shoot formation and rooting percentages were measured 8 weeks after planting on a mixture of peatmoss: sand (1: 1 by volume). Shoot tips of the two cultivars were cryopreserved using plant vitrification solution 2 (PVS2) at 0°C for 0, 30, 45 and 60 min and directly plunged into LN or without LN treatment. Shoot regrowth percentage was determined after eight weeks on full strength MS medium with 0.5 mgl-1 BA. Results indicated that the highest shoot formation percentage (33.33%) was observed with dormant buds taken in mid-February. Whereas, the dormant buds taken in mid-January failed to form shoots (00.00%). Black mulberry recorded the highest shoot formation and rooting percentages (46.66 and 83.33% respectively) when cryopreserved in mid-February. On the other hand, the highest regrowth percentages of vitrificated shoot tips were achieved after 30 or 45 min duration (50.00% for both durations) with PVS2 of black mulberry and after 30 min duration (41.66%) with PVS2 of white mulberry without using liquid nitrogen in all cases.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 232-239 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2020.9.2.19


Efficacy of Coconut Oil (Cocos nucifera L.) Fortification on Liver Functions Rats with Induced Hypothyroidism

Heba H. Mohammed, Naeem M. Rabeh and Mohammed H. Haggag

ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of coconut oil fortification on rats with induced hypothyroidism. Thirty adult male albino rats (Sprague-Dawley strain), weighing about (200±10g) were divided randomly into two main groups as follow: the first group (-ve control= 6 rats) was fed on basal diet. The second group (24rats) were fed on basal diet and injected with 6-npropyl- 2-thiouracil (PTU) (10 mg/kg Body weight i.p.) for 15 days to induce hypothyroidism , then divided into 4 subgroups from group 2 to group 5. Supgroup 2 (+ve control) fed on basal diet. Supgroups 3, 4 and 5 fed on basal diet fortified with 5, 7.5 and 10% coconut oil, respectively. At the end of the experimental period (six weeks), animals were scarified for blood collection. Thyroid hormones (FT3 and FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin, malondialdehyde (MDA) and catalase (CAT) were determined. Hypothroidismic rat which fed on diet fortified with coconut oil at the different levels had significant (P<0.05) decrease in serum TSH, liver function enzymes and MDA levels and had significant (P<0.05) increase in serum thyroid hormones (FT3 and FT4) and CAT compared with +ve control group. It can be suggested that fortification with coconut oil could be used as a suitable therapy for hypothyroidism patients.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 240-250 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2020.9.2.20


The protective Effect of Aqueous Extract of Bael (Aegle marmelos) Leaves against
Cisplatin Induced Hepatotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity in Rats

Walaa N. Hassan, Ahmed A. Ameen and Maha M. Mohamed

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of aqueous extract of Bael (Aegle marmelos) leaves against cisplatin (Cis) induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in Rats. Forty- two adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (average body weight was 200±10 g) were divided randomly into six groups as follow: group 1: negative control, was fed on basal diet and received appropriate volumes of saline intragastrically. Groups 2 and 3 were received Aegle marmelos aqueous extract (AMAE) by dose 400 or 700 mg /kg body weight, p.o, respectively. Group 4: positive control, was injected with Cis (7mg/kg boy weight i.p) to cause acute hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in rats. Groups 5 and 6 were treated with AMAE by dose 400 or 700 mg /kg, respectively and injected with Cis. At the end of the experimental period (4 weeks), rats were scarified and serum was collected for biochemical analyses. The administration of Cis resulted in significant elevation in serum activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Also serum urea and creatinine levels were significantly elevated whereas serum total proteins and albumin were significantly reduced. This effect was accompanied with increased levels of serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α) and Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), along with significant elevation of hepatic and renal malondialdehyde level (MDA) and significant reduction in the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the same organs as compared with negative control. Treatment with AMAE prior to Cis produced protective effects and attenuated these biochemical changes. The protective effects of AMAE were more pronounced for the high dose. In conclusion, Pretreatment with Aegle marmelos extract led to a significant attenuation of the liver and kidney injuries induced by Cis. The protective effects of AMAE might be ascribable to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 251-263 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2020.9.2.21


Utilization of Landsat-8 OLI/TIRS Imagery for Geologic Mapping of El Sid and Fawakhir Ancient Gold Mines Area, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

Gehad M.R. Mansour

ABSTRACT: The base and precious metals and industrial minerals which are a focus of interest for mining companies, do not attract attention unless clear exploration targets are apparent from geological mapping or reconnaissance surveys. Therefore, the development of reconnaissance methods to assist in locating these lower value deposits is needed. This paper examines the use of modern Landsat 8 remote sensing imagery as rapid, low-cost aims to explore and revising the previous works in the ancient gold mines El Sid and Fawakhir in the Fawakhir area as a model to use in the Golden Triangular Project (Qena-Safaga-Quseir) and similar arid areas. Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data on visible (VIS), near-infrared (NIR) and Thermal Infrared (TIR) bands have been enhanced using image fusion with a high spatial resolution panchromatic band of the same data set. A data fusion technique is presented for geological mapping in arid environments, Hue, Saturation, and Value (HSV), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is applied to the fused (HSV) image for mapping rocks of the Fawakhir area in the Central Eastern Desert (CED) of Egypt. A revised geological map of the study area is proposed based on the interpretation of Landsat 8 image results, previousworks, spectroetry measurements and field confirmation. Also, establish a distribution map for the N-S and NNW image-lineament that previously mentioned by many authors as expected gold-bearing trends. It is concluded that the proposed methods have great potential for geological mapping in the arid regions and can be generalized in the Golden Triangular Project.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 264-278 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2020.9.2.22


A Knowledge, attitude and practice of diabetic patients regarding obesity hazards:

Salih M. Abdulrrsziq, Miftah S. M. Najem

Background: There’s few studies from Libya assessing the level of Knowledge, attitude and Practice of diabetic patients toward the hazards of Obesity. Evidence from several studies indicates that obesity and weight gain are associated with an increased risk of diabetes (Jafar et al., 2006). Weight reduction has been shown to markedly improve blood glucose control and vascular risk factors associated with insulin resistance in obese individuals with DM (Andre, 2003). Methods: It was a cross sectional study involving 308 diabetic patients from the outpatient department of Sidi-Hussein Diabetic clinic in Benghazi-Libya. A questionnaire was constructed in English language by the researcher. Each patient was interviewed by an intern doctor in a private setting. Abdominal circumference, body weight and height of the individuals were measured. Body mass index “BMI” was calculated. Data analyzed by SPSS 21.0 for Windows and chai-square was done when appropriate. Result: Among them 35.7% were male, 64.7% were female, 26.5% were illiterate, 83.1% were married and 89.5% were non-smokers. Obesity was found in 36.3% of male and 68.1% of female. Overall 57.2% of male patients have high abdominal circumference (>=102), while 65.1% offemale patients have high abdominal circumference measurements (>=88). BMI was significantly associated with patient’s gender (P=0.000) and occupation (P=0.010). Conclusion: There’s an increase need for making more educational programs focusing on hazards of obesity among the diabetic patients to empower them to transfer their knowledge, attitude and practice. The health care community, researchers and policy makers need more attention toward obesity among diabetic patients in Libya. Recommendations: There is a need for developing and making education programs focusing on the knowledge, attitude and practice of the diabetic patients about hazard of obesity. Improving knowledge of the patient will delay the onset of complications of their diabetes.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 279-287 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2020.9.2.23


Suspected Cases of Corona Virus at Tobruck Medical Center in Eastern Part of Libya

Nasren G. S. Al-Fraik, Miftah S.M. Najem, Khadeejah M. A. Al-Khurum and Sarah S. Khalleefah

Since December 2019, Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19), a new emerging infectious disease occurred in Wuhan, has spread all over the world and WHO has declared that the infection is “Pandemic” and No country and region can be considered safe. Little is known about the epidemiological and clinical features of pediatric patients with COVID-19. We retrospectively focus on clinical characteristics of suspected cases of covid-19 in pediatric Intensive Care Unit and Pediatric Department at Tobruck medical center in January 2020. 98 children involved in our study, 51% were females, with age mean 3.286 + 3.726, all patients were Libyan and 82.6 % from Tobruck city. 15.3% presented with positive family history of same illness, 23.4% with chronic diseases and 54 % admitted in 1st two weeks of January. 95.9 % presented with dry cough, 75.5% with shortness of breath, 60.2 % with high grade fever, 24.4% with headache, 94.8 % with loss of appetite and increasing sleep time in 53 %. Lymphopenia was reported in 43.8%, C - reactive protein positive in 44.8 %. 73.4 %treated with cefotaxime followed by 30.6 % azithromycin, ampicillin 25.5% and cefitriaxone in 15.3%.Steroids was used in 18.3%of patients. Oxygen therapy was used in 71.4 % of patients. C-x ray with bilateral infiltrations reported in 71.4%, unilateral infiltration in 17.3%. Length of hospital stay was range (1-13 days). 96.9% of studied children discharged in good general condition. These results may be similar to what is happening in the world and these children may have been infected with covid-19 in the previous January without being diagnosed or suspected. This is may explain why no any case reported in Tobruck city and neighboring cities in Eastern part of Libya.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 288-294 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2020.9.2.24


Fungi Influence in the Bio-removal of Chromium Ions from Chemical Laboratories Wastewater

Wessam M. Morsi, Eglai A. Ghoniemy, Tarek F. Mohammaden, El-Shahat M. Ramadan, Mai M. lkhawaga and Mohamed M. Rezk

ABSTRACT: Four fungal and one bacterial isolate were isolated from a liquid waste sample of Nuclear Material Authority laboratories. Those dried biomasses were screened for chromium (Cr) adsorption, where the most potent isolate was identified as Aspergillus niger. Using Cr synthetic solutions many factors (time, concentration, pH and temperature) were investigated for controlling the biosorption process. Aspergillus niger was examined by ESEM-EDX and the FTIR techniques before and after the sorption process, also the adsorption data were handled by different kinetics and isotherm models. The application on the real liquid waste revealed that the bio-uptake capacity was 52mg/g for Cr.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 295-311 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2020.9.2.25


Radiographic evaluation of two different implant-supported prosthesis for the edentulous mandible

Mahmoud A.G. Eldin, Enas T.I. Darwish

ABSTRACT: Objectives: the aim of this study is to compare hybrid implant and the conventional implant as reguard marginal bone change surrounding three implants in each group of patient. Materials and Methods: Fourteen completely edentulous patients were selected having completely edentulous upper and lower arches, divided into two groups. Group A: having hybrid dental implants-supported overdenture edentulous mandible. Group B: having conventional diameter dental implants supported overdenture edentulous mandible. In the selected groups, the implants were placed in the midline and canine regions. Radiographic evaluation was performed during the follow-up period by using panoramic radiographic records. The results were collected, tabulated, and statistically analyzed to evaluate the effect of the types of implants on marginal bone height changes. Results: data obtained from the present study showed that there was no significant difference in bone height change in both groups. Within the limitation of this study: It was concluded that: I. In elederly patients, treatment plan with three implants was suggested over two implants for suffient support and force equalization and distribution on mandibular overdenture. II. There were no significant difference between both groups treated with different dental implants diameter, and the mean marginal bone height loss was within limit.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 312-320 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2020.9.2.26


Approach for Highly Active Baker`s Yeast Product from Distilled Yeast Biomass

Fadel M., Yousif, E.S., Abdelfattah, Abdel kareem, Ola S.S. Mohamed and Sarra Eid

ABSTRACT: Background: Baker’s yeast is an essential ingredient of many cereal-based products, and a fundamental element to ensure a reproducible production process and a high quality product to meet the demands of producers and consumers. Its primary role is the production and release of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas, through the alcoholic fermentation of sugars, which develops the crumb structure and provides bread loaf volume. Yeast also contributes to the typical bread flavor and is a nutritional complement and a functional ingredient of bread and baking products Result: A study were performed to improve distilled yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ( by product of ethanol production from sugar cane molasses) in Egyptian distillery factories to apply as a baker,s yeast. After the yeast biomass was removed at the end of fermentation period for ethanol production .Promising results have been attained for improving the raising power by subjective yeast biomass to successive washing. Furthermore, significant increases in yeast yield, total viable cells, total solid matter (TSM), protein content, trehalose gassing power, accompanied by marked reduction in ash content of cells were gained when the culture conditions of yeast cells were optimized i.e. nitrogen source , phosphorus, magnesium, zinc and biotin as well as pH, temperature and aeration . Comparative studies and chemical analysis on the revived resulting cells have shown that the new product exhibited typical baker`s yeast properties with regard to livening power, protein and ash content of cells as well as the number of the active viable cells per gram of the product. The obtained yeast biomass was comparable to standard baker,s yeast .The results were discussed in the light of application feasibilities in production of baker`s yeast in alcohol distillation factories. Conclusion: Yeast biomass of S. cerevisiae the byproduct of distilled industry which subjected stress during alcoholic fermentation affected fermentative activity can be activated to use as a baker’s yeast in bakery industries. Promising results have been attained for improving the raising power by subjective yeast biomass to successive washing. Furthermore, significant increases in yeast yield, total viable cells, total solid matter (TSM), protein content, trehalose gassing power, accompanied by marked reduction in ash content of cells were gained when the culture conditions of yeast cells were optimized i.e. nitrogen source , phosphorus, magnesium, zinc and biotin as well as pH, temperature and aeration

[ FULL TEXT PDF 321-334 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2020.9.2.27


An Economic Study of Marjoram Exports in Egypt

Hiba Y. Abdelfattah, Fatima A. Shafiq, Monia B. Hassan and Haitham B.A. Hassan

ABSTRACT: The state policy conspicuously aims to expand the export of agricultural commodities in general and non-traditional in particular. This is in addition to open new markets for Egyptian exports of these commodities. Therefore, it has become necessary to conduct an economic study concerned with the exporting side of these crops in order to benefit in drawing the optimal policies for exports that should be followed when exporting. Moreover, the study aims to study the external markets imported marjoram and identify the most important factors affecting its Egyptian exports in its most important external markets. This is in addition to evaluating the price flexibility of the crop to determine the most important policies to be followed in order to increase the export share. Through studying the development of Egyptian exports of the marjoram crop, it becomes obviously clear that there is an annual increase in both the quantity and the value of exports by about 42.9 tons, 7.38 thousand dollars annually, while the export price is decreasing by about 25.9 dollars. Besides, it is obvious from the study of the geographical distribution of Egyptian exports of marjoram that Poland represents the first imported market of this crop by about 783.5 tons, representing about 24.4% of the total amount of exports. It represents about 21.7% of the value of exports at a mean price per ton by about 1723 dollars during the period (2008 - 2018). It is followed by the German market, by 19.5% in relation to the quantity, and representing about 20.9 % in relation to value and mean export price by about 2088% dollars / ton. Here, this ratio of the quantity of exports to Arab markets was only about 4.9%, with an average export price of about 1609 dollars / ton

[ FULL TEXT PDF 335-339 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2020.9.2.28


Production and Evaluation of Gluten Free Balady Bread

Mostafa S.M.T.M., Rizk I.R.S., Kishk Y.F.M. and Siham M.M. Faheid

ABSTRACT: From the point of an increasing demand for improvement the quality of gluten-free Balady bread (GFBB), the objective of this study was to investigate this demand by using gluten free mixture, i.e. white corn flour (WCF), rice flour (RF) and potato starch (PS) at different ratios Also, soy protein isolate (SPI) was used as a rich source of protein. Psyllium husk (PsH) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were used as binding agents as a trials to reach the specifications of the quality of wheat Balady bread. The proportional of WCF, RF, PS and SPI were optimized for production of GFBB with 2.5% PsH or 2.5% CMC. Physic-chemical, staling, and sensory properties of GFBB bread formulation were estimated. Results show that the protein content of GFBB was gradually decreased with the increasing level of PS, where the GFBB which produced from 45% WCF + 45% RF + 10% SPI and 37.5% WCF+37.5% RF+15% PS=10%SPI significantly (P ≥ 0.05) recorded the higher value of protein and the lower value of nitrogen free extract (NFE) compared to WF (control). The highest value of lightness (L* value) for crust color was observed by the sample produced from 100% WCF. The psyllium husk showed high quality properties compared to CMC concerning physical and sensory characteristics, where no significant difference could be observed between the GFBB containing 2.5% PsH and the Balady bread prepared from 100% WF (82% ext.) in terms of specific volume of bread, whereas the GFBB samples containing 2.5% CMC showed lower quality attributes which gradually improved with increasing level of PS. Also, the samples containing PsH were more resistance to staling compared the others which containing CMC. On the other side, the more of GFBB containing PsH showed higher values of sensory parameters with no significant differences compared to the Balady bread produced from 100% WF especially for crust color, separation of layers, texture, taste and overall acceptability.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 340-349 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2020.9.2.29


Extraction and Recovery of Uranium (VI) from Sulfate Leach Liquor of Gebel Gattar Granites Eastern Desert, Egypt using

Hassan S. El-Gendy

ABSTRACT: A uranyl sulfate leach liquor of Gebel Gattar sample deposits ore was subjected to uranium extraction using the liquid- liquid technique. Uranium was effectively extracted from sulfate leach liquor by 0.2M di-octylamine (DOA) dissolved in kerosene as a diluent. The extraction efficiency was markedly enhanced as the concentration of DOA increases from 0.05 to 0.5M. The relevant factors controlling the extraction process of uranium using di-2-octyle amine were studied. These factors include the effect of DOA concentration, contact time, pH value and phase ratio (A/O) v/v. Under the optimum conditions, more than 91 % of uranium was extracted by 0.2M DOA, at contact time 30 min, phase ratio (VA/VO) 1/1 at pH 2 and at room temperature. The feasibility of using the DOA for preconcentration- separation of uranium was assessed by stripping studies. The loaded uranium onto DOA has been stripped by 89% using 1.5 M HNO3 as an efficient stripping agent at 15 min contact time, and phase ratio (O/A) 1/1.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 350-359 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2020.9.2.30


A Revolution in Tooth Regeneration and Evaluation in Dental, Practice. A Review

Gamal Eldeen Zulhemma Elsharkawy

ABSTRACT: Recently, therapeutic strategies for tooth regeneration have shifted to cell-based approaches. Embryologically, teeth are ectodermal organs derived from sequential reciprocal interactions between oral epithelial cells and cranial neural crest–derived mesenchymal cells. Teeth are a unique and complex organ and composed of both hard (dentin and enamel) and soft (pulp and periodontium) tissues. Throughout life, healthy teeth have a number of different types of stem cells that play a key role in the regenerative capacity of this tissue. Tooth loss is the most common organ failure. Can a tooth be regenerated? Can adult stem cells be orchestrated to regenerate tooth structures such as the enamel, dentin, cementum and dental pulp, or even an entire tooth? If not, what are the therapeutically viable sources of stem cells for tooth regeneration? Do stem cells necessarily need to be taken out of the body, and manipulated ex vivo before they are transplanted for tooth regeneration? How can regenerated teeth be economically competitive with dental implants? Would it be possible to make regenerated teeth affordable by a large segment of the population worldwide? The typical treatment for irreversibly inflamed/necrotic pulp tissue is root canal treatment. As an alternative approach, regenerative endodontics aims to regenerate dental pulp-like tissues using two possible strategies: cell transplantation and cell homing. The former requires exogenously transplanted stem cells, complex procedures and high costs; the latter employs the host’s endogenous cells to achieve tissue repair/regeneration, this review article explores existing and visionary approaches that address some of the above-mentioned questions. Tooth regeneration represents a revolution in dentistry and stomatology as a shift in the paradigm from repair to regeneration: repair is by metal or artificial materials whereas regeneration is by biological restoration. Tooth regeneration is an extension of the concepts in the broad field of regenerative medicine to restore a tissue defect to its original form and function by biological substitutes

[ FULL TEXT PDF 360-368 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2020.9.2.31


Preparation and Evaluation of Pan Bread Made with Wheat flour and Psyllium Seeds for Obese Patients

El-Hadidy G. S.

ABSTRACT: In this covenant of functional foods, the world seeks for new healthier food products with appropriate proportions of bioactive constituents such as fiber, mineral elements, amino acids and phenols. The psyllium seed has good nutritional and pharmaceutical properties; therefore, its incorporation in pan bread could be beneficial in improving human health. In the current study, partial substitution of wheat flour (WF) with psyllium seed flour (PSF) at levels of 5%, 10% and 15% were carried out to investigate the rheology properties of dough, baking performance, proximate compositions and physical properties of the pan bread. Partial substitution of WF with PSF increased the water absorption, arrival time and developing time of dough (P ≤ 0.05), while, the dough extensibility was reduced. Also, elasticity and energy were increased by addition of PSF. Pan bread supplemented with PSF resulted in a reduction in quality in terms of specific loaf volume, while, weight was increased. PSF up to 15 % could partially replace WF in pan bread; increase its nutritional value in terms of fiber, amino acids content and minerals, with only a small depreciation in the bread quality. Sensory evaluation showed that pan bread supplemented up to 15 % PSF were acceptable to the panelists and there was significant difference in terms of appearance, crumb texture, crumb grain, crust color, taste, odor and overall acceptability compared to the control. The incorporation of PSF increased the minerals contents, amino acids contents and nutritional properties compared to the control (for pan bread).

[ FULL TEXT PDF 369-380 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2020.9.2.32


Comparative Evaluation of Smear Layer Formation of WaveOne Gold, Protaper Gold and Manual files: an In vitro SEM Study

Mostafa Ali, Salma El Ashry, Amira Galal Ismail

ABSTRACT: Aim: The purpose of this study is to compare smear layer formation between reciprocating single file system WaveOne Gold, rotational multiple file system Protaper Gold and manual file. Material and Methods: Forty eight lower central incisors with single straight canals were selected to assess smear layer formation after instrumentation using manual file, WaveOne Gold and Protaper Gold. Samples were divided into three groups (n=16) according to the instrument used for preparation. They were divided into two halves. All specimens were coded for identification under the environmental scanning electron microscope at 500x for each group, then the most representable area of each third of the root was selected and magnified at 2000x. Evaluations were recorded for the smear layer in the three levels of the canal (coronal, middle and apical) by means of numerical evaluation scale described by Hulssman. The data were subjected to the non-parametric Kruskal- Wallis test. P values were computed and compared with the P= 0.05. Results: All types of instrumentation produced a significant amount of smear layer in the three levels of the canal. Regarding the coronal and the apical third there were no statistically significant differences between the three tested groups. In the middle third there was no statistically significant difference between the WaveOne Gold group and the manual file group or the Protaper Gold group. However there was a statistically significant difference between the manual file group and the Protaper Gold group. Conclusion: Smear layer was formed in the three tested groups at different levels of the canals regardless of the kinematics of the instrument with the manual file group revealing the least amount.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 381-386 ] DOI: 10.36632/csi/2020.9.2.33